Document Type : Research Paper


Electromechanical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Failure of traditional brakes occurs due to raised temperatures and the formation of structural fractures caused by wear and strain. For resolving mechanical brake problems, consider employing contactless braking technology, also known as eddy current braking, which offers a smoother deceleration. This research aims to assess the suitability of multi-materials for designing brake discs (ECBs) for use in automobiles. The choice of material for the rotor disc is crucial in the design of eddy current brakes. Different material factors impact the performance of these brakes. Therefore, there is a need for a material that possesses superior mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, and efficient power dissipation capabilities. An extensive analysis was conducted to identify the optimal materials for implementing this technology in lightweight vehicles to achieve maximum braking efficiency and reduce general brake issues. This study assesses the impact of three different non-ferromagnetic materials (copper, aluminum, and steel) on the performance of the ECB system. The operation of the (ECB) is meaningly influenced by material properties such as permeability, electrical Conductivity, and thermal Conductivity. The investigation was carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Findings demonstrated that copper is the more conductive material for eddy current braking. Due to its good electrical conductivity, it creates eddy currents, leading to important braking force and efficiency. Moreover, copper exhibits a force of 116.130 N, aluminum shows a force of 104.6 N, and steel showcases a force of 94.25 N, as indicated by the statistics. The percentage increase in braking strength is higher for copper than aluminum and steel, with values of 10.3% and 18.9%, respectively.  

Graphical Abstract


  • Non-ferromagnetic rotor disc conductors were investigated for electromagnetic braking efficiency
  • Copper braking force was 12.6% higher than aluminum and 34.6% higher than steel
  • Highest braking torque was 1.30914 Nm for copper, versus 1.12914 Nm aluminum and 0.84914 Nm steel
  • Highly conductive copper significantly improved braking efficiency
  • Copper stopping time was 3.7% and 10% lower than aluminum and steel with higher braking torque


Main Subjects

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