Document Type : Research Paper


1 Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University ATU, Kufa, Iraq.


Surface waves are electromagnetic waves propagating along the interface between a metal and an insulator. Surface waves break the diffraction limits and enable light to propagate in sub-wavelength structures. That opens the field of electro-opto devices. The main drawbacks of surface waves that move in the Plasmonic Waveguides (PWs) are propagation loss and low light confinement. Using a combination of the plasmonic waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide (DW), the defect of the surface waves can be enhanced, and the Hybrid Plasmonic waveguide (HPW) is introduced. In this research, the design of an all-optical flip flop with 400 nm × 400 nm nano-scale dimensions, 1310 nm operating wavelength, and a transmission threshold (Tthreshold) of 30% is shown using hybrid plasmonic waveguides (HPWGs) for Electro-Opto applications. It offers the basic structure for creating optical computers. The results of this structure are evaluated in a term of Contrast Ratio (CR), Modulation Depth (MD), and Insertion Losses (IL). The D-flip flop had an Insertion Loss of -1.4 dB, a CR of 7.45 dB, and a MD of  97.67%. The T-flip flop had an IL of -2.07 dB, a CR of 11.2 dB, and a MD of 95.29%. The mechanism that governs the operation of the suggested circuits depends on the constructive and destructive interferences between input ports and control ports. The simulation is based on the finite element method utilizing COMSOL software package version 5.5.

Graphical Abstract


  • Optical D and T flip flops are designed using hybrid plasmonic waveguides
  • The suggested design has nano dimensions of 400 nm2
  • There is an amplification effect in the Transmission values


Main Subjects

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