Document Type : Research Paper


Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq, Institute Street, zaafaraniya.


In this study, the effect of an electronic control system (ECS) on the performance of a solar heater fabricated from recycled materials was investigated . The study found that the maximum thermal energy output before installing the ECS stood at 378 W, which was significantly improved to 450 W after integration, indicating a commendable enhancement in the efficiency of the solar heater. The thermal efficiency of the solar heater also saw a substantial jump from 71.7% to 82% after connecting the ECS. The study also uncovered the temperature disparity between the trapped and ambient air (max. ΔT = 20.4 °C) influenced heat loss from the space between the glass cover and the two heat exchangers. To address this issue, the sides and base of the heater assembly were insulated with foam material to minimize heat loss. Furthermore, the ECS was programmed to regulate the water flow rate in the solar collector to prevent the water temperature from surpassing 65 °C in winter and 40 °C in spring and autumn. The study harnessed solar panels to provide electricity to the ECS, which enabled the technology to adapt the solar heating process according to environmental conditions and user needs. The study's findings demonstrate the potential of utilizing an ECS for recycling waste solar heaters, leading to enhanced heat transfer efficiency and long-term financial and environmental benefits.

Graphical Abstract


  • Heater performance was compared without and with an electronic control system
  • Heat exchanger conditions were discussed to determine temperature, gain and efficiency
  • The coefficient of total heat loss and its relation to efficiency was discussed with and without the control system
  • Hot water temperature increase relative to heat exchanger water flow rate was discussed


Main Subjects

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