Document Type : Research Paper


1 Air Conditioning Engineering Dept., Warith Al-Anbiyaa University, Karbala 56001, Iraq.

2 Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.


In remote areas, a scarcity of accessible water poses a significant predicament, and sun-powered propelling contraptions offer promising solutions. It is possible to collect solar energy with the goal of raising a fluid. Bubble pumps are used in the process of creating two-phase flows via the boiling of fluids in diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycles. In this investigation, a solar-powered bubble pump lifted the water. EES, which stands for engineering equation solver, was used in order to carry out the theoretical study of the bubble pump technology. Based on the results, it was determined that the void fraction displays a pattern that is comparable in applications using diffusion absorption refrigeration. In addition, the maximum water lift occurs at a certain heat flux value and any rise that is greater than this threshold causes the bubble pump to collapse entirely. Empirical tests were conducted utilizing bubble pumps with diameters of 8 mm and 10.21 mm to raise water across a distance of 4.53 m. The experiments examined a certain range of heat flow values at specified submergence ratios. According to the testing results, increasing the heat flux within the prescribed range significantly increased the 10.21 mm bubble pump's ability to lift water, yielding a maximum increase of 21%. According to the findings of the study, a universal set of optimal conditions and values for the bubble pump is not feasible to ascertain. This is because every system possesses distinct characteristics and operational elements that necessitate the utilization of optimized parameters for optimal performance.

Graphical Abstract


  • A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on the bubble pump
  • A new model and design for the bubble pump were developed
  • Heat flux impacts the performance of the bubble pump
  • Future scopes of work on the bubble pump show promise


Main Subjects

  1. Prasartkaew, S. Kumar, Experimental study on the performance of a solar-biomass hybrid air-conditioning system, Renew. Energy, 57 2013 ()86–93.
  2. Mueller, Energy and electricity supply and demand: Implications for the global environment., Int. Atomic Energy Agency Bull., 33 (1991) 9–13.
  3. Kharseh, L. Altorkmany, B. Nordell, Global warming’s impact on the performance of GSHP, Renew. energy, 36 (2011) 1485–1491.
  4. F. Fong, T. T. Chow, C. K. Lee, Z. Lin, L. S. Chan, Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city, Sol. energy, 84 (2010) 227–244.
  5. Brennen, C. E. Fundamentals of multiphase flow; Cambridge University Press,
  6. Omar, A. A. M. Saleh, A Comprehensive Review of Design and Operational Parameters Influencing Airlift Pump Performance, Math. Model. Eng. Probl., 10 (2023) 1063-1073.
  7. Hanafizadeh, B. Ghorbani, Review study on airlift pumping systems, Multiph. Sci. Technol., 24 (2012) 323-362.
  8. Benhmidene, R. Jemaii, K. Hidouri, B. Chaouachi, Study of flow fluctuation in the thermal bubble pump tube, Int. J. Thermofluid Sci. Technol., 9 (2022).
  9. H. Stenning, C. B. Martin, An analytical and experimental study of air-lift pump performance, J. Eng. Gas Turbine. Power, 90 (1968) 106.
  10. Delano, A. D. Design analysis of the Einstein refrigeration cycle. PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 1998.
  11. Chen, K. J. Kim, K. E. Herold, Performance enhancement of a diffusion-absorption refrigerator, Int. J. Refrig., 19 (1996) 208–218.
  12. Pfaff, R. Saravanan, M. P. Maiya, S. S. Murthy, Studies on bubble pump for a water–lithium bromide vapour absorption refrigerator: Etudes sur une pompe à bulles pour réfrigérateur à absorption eau–bromure de lithium, Int. J. Refrig., 21 (1998) 452–462.
  13. A. Wurts, S. G. Mcneill, D. G. Overhults, Performance and design characteristics of airlift pumps for field applications, World Aquac., 25 (1994) 51-55.
  14. White, S. J. Bubble pump design and performance. M.Sc. Thesis, Institue of Technology of Geogia, 2001.
  15. Jakob, U. Eicker, D. Schneider, A. H. Taki, M. J. Cook, Simulation and experimental investigation into diffusion absorption cooling machines for air-conditioning applications, Appl. Therm. Eng., 28 (2008) 1138–1150.
  16. Zohar, M. Jelinek, A. Levy, I. Borde, The influence of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle configuration on the performance, Appl. Therm. Eng., 27 (2007) 2213–2219.
  17. Zohar, M. Jelinek, A. Levy, I. Borde, Numerical investigation of a diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle, Int. J. Refrig., 28 (2005) 515–525.
  18. Zohar, M. Jelinek, A. Levy, I. Borde, The influence of the generator and bubble pump configuration on the performance of diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) system, Int. J. Refrig., 31 (2008) 962–969.
  19. Zohar, M. Jelinek, A. Levy, I. Borde, Performance of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle with organic working fluids Performance d’un cycle frigorifique à absorption à diffusion utilisant des fluides actifs organiques, Int. J. Refrig., 32 (2009) 1241–1246.
  20. Benhmidene, B. Chaouachi, S. Gabsi, M. Bourouis, Modelling of heat flux received by a bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles, Heat mass Transf., 47 (2011) 1341–1347.
  21. Benhmidene, B. Chaouachi, S. Gabsi, M. Bourouis, Modeling of boiling two-phase flow in the bubble pump of diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycles, Chem. Eng. Commun., 202 (2015) 15–24.
  22. Benhmidene, K. Hidouri, B. Chaouachi, S. Gabsi, M. Bourouis, Experimental investigation on the flow behaviour in a bubble pump of diffusion absorption refrigeration systems, Case Stud. Therm. Eng., 8 (2016) 1–9.
  23. Benhmidene, R. Jemaii, K. Hidouri, B. Chaouachi, Study of flow fluctuation in the thermal bubble pump tube, Int. J. Thermofluid Sci. Technol., 9 (2022).
  24. V Shelton, S. W. Stewart, D. Erickson, Bubble pump design for single pressure absorption refrigeration cycles, Ashrae Trans., 108 (2002) 867–876.
  25. Van Der Walt, S. the Design and Optimisation of a Bubble Pump for an Aqua-Ammonia Diffusion Absorption Heat Pump. M.Sc. Thesis, North-West University Potchefstroom, 2012.
  26. A. Woldesemayat, A. J. Ghajar, Comparison of void fraction correlations for different flow patterns in horizontal and upward inclined pipes, Int. J. Multiph. flow, 33 (2007) 347–370.
  27. C. Samaras, D. P. Margaris, Two-phase flow regime maps for air-lift pump vertical upward gas–liquid flow, Int. J. Multiph. Flow, 31 (2005) 757–766.