Document Type : Review Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al- Dewaniyah, 58001, Iraq.

2 Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a Street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.


Wind energy has become an easy-to-harness source by converting captured wind currents into electrical energy. Powerful and customizable wind turbines are used to convert wind energy efficiently. However, wind turbine development in terms of structure is still an active area of research aiming at efficiently building capable and long-lasting turbines. Additive manufacturing technology, particularly 3D printing, has revolutionized multiple industries, including its potential to create wind turbine blades with high cost-effectiveness and optimizable shapes and rigid structures. In this review, various 3D printing-based techniques, including Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Continuous Fiber Reinforcement (CFR), Stereolithography (SLA), and 3D Printing-enhanced Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing (LSAM), are examined in detail for complex and large-scale wind turbine blade production. Materials used in 3D printing wind turbine blades, such as thermoplastic composites, epoxy resins, and fiber-reinforced polymers, are assessed with a focus on their mechanical strength, durability, and environmental considerations. Furthermore, the importance of design optimization and customization for wind turbine blades, including aerodynamic and structural design optimization, is emphasized. Customization for site-specific conditions, infill structural optimization, and infill printing speed and cost are also discussed. The review highlights the importance of structural optimization in developing efficient and cost-effective 3D-printed wind turbine blades, customization for site-specific conditions, and infill structure. The review also mentions these technologies' challenges, such as material limitations, surface finish quality, size limitations, and structural integrity. Therefore, addressing these challenges to utilize these technologies' potential fully is crucial.

Graphical Abstract


  • 3D printing optimizes wind turbine blades for greater cost-effectiveness and durability.
  • The review emphasizes design optimization to enhance aerodynamics and structural efficiency.
  • Challenges such as material limitations and the need for structural integrity are identified.
  • AI and hybrid manufacturing are proposed to address these limitations and reduce costs.


Main Subjects

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