Document Type : Research Paper


1 Materials Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Membrane Technology Research Unit, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Engineering Dept., University Technology-Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

4 Industrial and Process Chemistry Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology Dept., Tunisia University of Gabes, Omar Ibn. ElKhattab St. 6029 Gabes, Tunisia.


The problem of membrane fouling remains a significant concern in ultrafiltration, a commonly employed method in water treatment due to its high efficacy and minimal energy consumption. This study made a nanocomposite ultrafiltration membrane out of MXene Ti3C2 nanosheets, a new two-dimensional material, to improve the antifouling properties of PVDF membranes. It was possible to incorporate the nanosheets into the membrane structure through in situ embedment during the phase inversion process. To learn more about them, the study investigated the membranes using FESEM, FTIR, water contact angle (CA), and porosity measurements. The application of common flux and rejection tests assessed the manufactured membranes' performance. Adding MXene Ti3C2 to membranes made them less hydrophobic than the original membrane that wasn't mixed with anything else. The porosity and pore size of the membrane exhibit an increase in the MXene ratio. The mixed matrix membrane containing 0.5 wt% of Ti3C2 (M3) exhibited the lowest contact angle (CA). The modification of membrane characteristics has a positive impact on their overall performance. The membrane exhibiting the greatest porosity, specifically 0.5 wt% of Ti3C2, N5, demonstrated the highest flux rates for pure water and protein solution, measuring 538 L/m2.h and 467.8 L/m2.h, respectively. The membrane with the highest hydrophilicity, which was labeled as M3, had much better protein rejection and flux recovery rates than the pure membrane. Specifically, the recorded values for M3 were 96.6, whereas the corresponding values for the pristine membrane were 59.6. MXene Ti3C2 has some interesting properties, such as better water permeability, protein rejection, and excellent antifouling abilities, which makes it a possible material for changing antifouling membranes.

Graphical Abstract


  • MXene was initially synthesized from a MAX Phase Ti3AlC2 substrate through delamination
  • The physical properties of the fabricated UF mixed matrix membranes with MXene were highly developed
  • MXene's inclusion in PVDF solution creates a UF membrane with new self-cleaning capabilities
  • MXene Ti3C2 enhances membranes antifouling and water permeability 


Main Subjects

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