Document Type : Research Paper


1 Production Engineering and Metallurgy Engineering Dept., University of Technology-Iraq, Alsina’a street, 10066 Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Basrah University for Oil and Gas, Basrah, Iraq.

3 Department of Chemical and Process Engineering/ Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment/ Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia/ 43000 UKM Bangi/ Selangor/ Malaysia.


This study aims to explain the effect of adding the bioactive substance (alpha enzyme) to the electrolyte solution using electrochemical deposition. Through which copper nanoparticles are manufactured, the originality of the research lies in the presence of this addition as a new method in manufacturing nanoparticles in an electrochemical manner, as the alpha-amylase enzyme is extracted from camel saliva, and the product has been diagnosed using (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) techniques. , Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technology, and Zeta potential. The proposed method is an easy, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method where the alpha enzyme was used as a feedstock at concentrations of (0.25, 0.50, 0.57, and 1) g added to a solution containing the ideal sample obtained through the electrochemical precipitation process before adding the enzyme, as the solution before The addition process contains concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at concentrations of (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60) g/ml. The regular shape and stable distribution can be observed after the addition compared to the shape of the particles before the addition in terms of shape and size. The process was carried out under constant conditions, including the current. Direct, voltage and temperature, and after the addition process, sulfuric acid was dispensed with, while the process conditions with the addition were at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius and an incubation period that lasted a full hour before the electrodeposition process was carried out in accordance with the enzyme activity conditions, where a nanosized copper powder of a granular size was obtained. Approximately 44 nanometers. It is worth noting that the nanoparticle size was modulated using the experimental conditions, e.g., pH, reducing step, enzyme amount, or incubation time. This controlled synthesis allows the preparation of CuNP bionanoparticles at Cu 3.13 powder at a concentration of 80 g CuSO4 + 0.50 α-amylase.

Graphical Abstract


  • Copper nanoparticles were produced using an electrochemical method with alpha-amylase from camel saliva.
  • The size and shape of CuNPs were improved after adding alpha-amylase, resulting in stable 44nm particles.
  • The used process is eco-friendly, rapid, and non-toxic, utilizing CuSO4 and varying enzyme concentrations.
  • Enhanced CuNPs dispersion and stability were achieved through coordination bonds with the enzyme.


Main Subjects

  1. Yin L. and Zhong Z., Nanoparticles, Biomaterials Science 4th, Academic Press, 2020.
  2. Tajah B., Test Method for the Continuous Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Copper Alloy Surfaces, ph.D, United Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2015.
  3. Ying, Z. Guan, Polycarp C. Ofoegbu, Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Current developments and limitations, Environ. Technol. Innovation, 26 (2022) 102336.
  4. Bandeira, M. Giovanela ,  D. Devine , J. daSilvaCrespo, Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A review of the synthesis methodology and mechanism of formation, Sustainable Chem. Pharm., 15 ( 2020) 100223.
  5. M.. Naapuri, L. D. Noelia, Jan. Palomo, J. M. palomo, Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles-enzyme-polymer conjugate hybrids as dual-activity catalysts for chemoenzymatic cascade reaction, Nanoscale, 14 (2022) 5701-5715 .
  6. Theivasanthi and M. Alagar, Nano sized copper particles by electrolytic synthesis and characterizations, Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6 (2011) 3662-3671.
  7. A. Khan and  A. Ahmad, ֞Enzyme mediated synthesis of water-dispersible, naturally protein capped, monodispersed gold nanoparticles; their characterization and mechanistic aspects, RSC Adv., 4 (2014) 7729-7734.
  8. C. Crisan , M. Teodora ,  and M. Lucian, Copper Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization, Physiology, Toxicity and Antimicrobial Applications, Appl. Sci., 12 (2022) 141.
  9. B. Gawande, et al. ,Cu and Cu-Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications in Catalysis, Chem. Rev., 116 (2016) 3722-3811.
  10. M.Hadi, S.H.Sabeeh, M.M.R. Sabhan, Fabrication of high purity Copper Nanopowder via wires explosion Technique, Eng. Technol. J., 35 ( 2017) 816-820.
  11. Khan, K.  Saeed  and I. Khan, Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities, Arabian J. Chem., 12 (2019) 908-931.
  12. I. Jafar, Effects of new additives (Lanolin) on the electrodeposition of Copper powder, Eng. Tech. j., 27 ( 2009) 2308-2321.
  13. K. Robinson, Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications, Essays Biochem., 59 (2015) 1-41.
  14. ArsalanH. Younus, Enzymes and nanoparticles: Modulation of enzymatic activity via nanoparticles, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 118 (2018) 1833-1847.
  15. Arsalan, H. Younus, Enzymes and nanoparticles: Modulation of enzymatic activity via nanoparticles, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 118 (2018) 1833-1847.
  16. G. AL-Juhaishy, Cytotoxic Action of L-Glutaminase Enzyme Produced from Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolate, 2019.
  17. A. Hussein , W. A. Hanna, J. Abid, Q. A. Hanna, Fabrication of highly pure and fine copper powder by electrodeposition, Eng. Technol. J., 24 (2005) 384-402 .
  18. H. Abd ulster, R. S. Yaseen and F. F. Sayyid, Electrodeposition of Zinc from Galvanized Steel, J. Univ. Babylon Eng. Sci., 27 (2019) 396-408.
  19. M. Aleshaikh, Nano-silver technology, ruling on using nano-silver, 200 (2020) 108-129.