The environmental site assessment (ESA) of Al-Duara refinery in Baghdad, Iraq.
The hydrocarbon content of the soil around this site was measured to evaluate the
extent of the organic pollution depending on selected parameters of potential
pollution. Soil samples were collected at various depths from almost all locations
including: production units, storage tanks, the landfill lagoons at the outside boarder
of the refinery and the residence location. For the evaluation of the nature of soil
layers, a monitoring well was drilled in the vicinity of a wide dumping area for heavy
untreatable materials. Some field tests were carried out to evaluate the hydrocarbonin-
soil (Turbidimetric); Laboratory analysis for the soil extracts and types of
hydrocarbon pollutants. The soil texture was evaluated using the standard methods to
assess any future remediation efforts. It appeared that storage tanks location is among
the serious polluting sources via leakage or overflow of the drainage collection
channels. The pollution sometimes extended deep in the soil, 80-100 cm. The
maintenance and rehabilitation operations contribute much pollution by heavy sludge
containing hydrocarbons, mud and inorganic matter. Most of the pollution load is
directed towards the wastewater treatment plant. The dumping location and over more
than 30 years resulted in deep penetration of hydrocarbons so that the location is
considered the most effective source of pollution. Finally, the fall out is a major
means of pollution of remote area within the site by heavy hydrocarbons.
Recommendations for remediation of the most polluted locations in the site were
listed at the end of this study. However, the company is continuously doing actions to
remove polluted soil and replace it with clean soil.