Physical modeling is performed in order to study particular cases of the behavior of prototype and to validate theoretical and/or empirical hypotheses.
However, most physical models will be constructed at much smaller scales than the prototype precisely because it is desired to obtain information about expected patterns of response more rapidly and with closer control over model details than would be possible with full-scale testing.
The main problem associated with physical model tests is the stress levels and soil particle size effects. These points should be considered which require deep and thorough research when studying the behavior of small scale model piles in sand. The tests indicate that the number of blows recorded when driving the model pile is affected by pile diameter more than with pile length. As well as, the heavier hammer shows precedence in bearing capacity than the light hammer because it leads to upgrade the soil properties during pile driving.