Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 9,

Issue 9

Entry to General Planning Considerations for Governmental Hospitals within Health Care FramEwork in IRAQ

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 301-321

Governmental hospitals represent an essential part in health
care system in any society, and particularly in IRAQ. They
represent the most vital part for many reasons, such as the
growth of urban settlements (medium and big cities) at the
expense of rural settlements shrinkage, and also the nature of the
services given by these hospitals, which are characterized by very
high standard with high specialization. Providing of appropriate
planning considerations for these hospitals will positively act
upon the process of planning, Feasibility studies, design,
execution and utilization of these hospitals, in turn will influence
and help the raising of the efficiency of these services. The
justifications of this paper comes from the fact that are absent of
these considerations from an integrated and comprehensive
framework, so the aim of this paper is to set the main lines for
these considerations as an information base and data bank,which work as a guide for every researcher, planner or designer
in this field.
The terms and notions put forward and introduced in this
paper, are just main entries to be tackled separately in
subsequent studies.
The conclusions and recommendations reveal the main guide
lines to deal with the suggested considerations, which represent
the most significant and vital aspects of the hospitals within the
health-care framework in IRAQ.

أستخدام فحوصات الكلال لتقييم الاجهادات المتبقية الناتجة من المعاملة الليزرية لسبيكة الألمنيوم ١٠٦٠

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 322-332

The aim of the present study is to estimate the residual stresses through
fatigue testing of ١٠٦٠ Aluminium–Alloy. The experimental work has been
carried out under variable amplitude tests with and without laser treatment
(the surface of the alloy is subjected to pulses of laser then without laser). The
conclusions derived from this study are:- The residual stresses are of the
tensile type which lead to deterioration of mechanical properties and fatigue
behavior, and that the value of the residual stresses is less than one
Megapascal (< ١MPa).

A Secure Invisible Watermarking Using Rijndael Algorithm and Wavelet Transform

Saleh M. Al-Qaraawy; Imad H. Al-Hussaini; Khalid F. Shubair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1028-1040

Digital watermarking hides secret or personal information in host digital data to
demonstrate and protect the copyrights of digital products, to authenticate the
contents of digital data, or to convey side information such as access control or
annotations. There are several fundamental requirements for watermarking such
as: Perceptual invisibility. For robustness, a watermark should be resistant to a
variety of manipulations, either unintentional or malicious. The detection should
be accurate and especially the mean square error rate should be very small. To
help protect the copyright and data security, Rijndael algorithm will be used
using many mathematical operations like (Byte Substitution, ShiftRow,
MixColumn and AddRound Key). The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is
probably the most recent solution to watermarking Rijndael code. Meaning by
factoring technique for invisible watermarking Rijndael code is calculated and
inputted in random locations. At the end, a detection process based on back
propagation neural network will be used to detect watermarking string.

Preparation of Macroporous Styrene – Divinyl Benzene Copolymers

Matheel D. Al-Sabti; Jawad K. Jawad; Wisam F. Jacob

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1041-1048

Suspension polymerization technique is used for the preparation of
macroporous Styrene – Divinylbenzene (S-DVB) copolymer beads with
different mole percent of divinylbenzene content in the presence of different
contents and types of diluents which gives the porosity to the copolymer. It
was found that increasing the percent of DVB with fixing the amount of
toluene diluent (72%) results in a decrease in toluene regain (T. R.) values
with increasing the degree of porosity. Increasing the percent of diluent with
fixing the amount of DVB (16%) results in an increase in (T. R.) values with a
decrease in the degree of porosity. Changing the type of diluent also has an
effect on the physical properties of the prepared copolymer. Addition of
polystyrene with toluene results in an increase in the degree of porosity. The
other physical properties of the copolymer, apparent density and void fraction
are also measured.
These copolymers are used as the base for the preparation of porous
cation exchangers (by sulfonation) and anion exchangers (by
chloromethylation and amination) under controlled experimental conditions.
The physical properties of the prepared ion exchangers were also measured,
with total exchange capacity (T. E. C.) and the rate of ion exchange (t1/2).

Implementing Fuzzy Logic Controller Using VHDL

Yousra A. Mohammed; Leena K. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1049-1055

Design of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) requires more design decisions than
usual, for example rule base, inference engine, defuzzifiction, and data pre- and
post processing.
This paper describes a way to implement a simple (FLC) in VHDL, there are
three parts to fuzzy controller, the fuzzification of the inputs, the defuzzification
of the outputs, and the rule base. The controller that is implemented has
demonstrated a 2-input, 1-output fuzzy controller with 5-membership functions.
This paper identifies and describes the design choices related to simple fuzzy logic
controller, based on an international standard which is underway.
In this paper, we propose a VHDL-based logic synthesis approach for designing
to reduce design time. A complete description of the controller (A fuzzier,
defuzzifier parts and a rule based are written in VHDL by using Active_HDL and
are assembled and synthesized using logic synthesis tools of ISE4.1 software. The
efficiency of the generated hardware is explored for FPGAs technology.

Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of Electroless Nickel Coating in Al-Zubare Harbor-Water

Mohammed Hliyil Hafiz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1056-1063

Electrode potentials in AL-Zubare harbor water (South -Gas Company),
of 23.88 ohm-cm at 20oC were reported for 26 metals and alloys including
values for electroless nickels that signify a greater passivity than steel. The
large potential difference between steel and electroless nickel predicts severe
galvanic corrosion, which was confirmed by weight loss data for coupled steel
and electroless nickel electrodes immersed in AL-Zubare Harbor water
(South -Gas Company, 23.88 ohm-cm at 20oC) .Changes in the phosphorous
content in the range of 7.10 to 12.45 percent had only a slight effect on the
electrode potential of electroless nickel.
This study indicates the beneficial use of electroless nickel coating is more
passive than other (metals and alloys) and that galvanic corrosion of active
metals such as steel can be severe .

Reduced the Cooling Load and Improved Insulation Effect on Iraqi Buildings Using the Geothermal Energy Storage Phenomenon

Nazar Farag Antwan; Hassan K. Abdullah; Asslan M. M. Kamali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1064-1080

A numerical study has been done on Iraqi buildings (Baghdad) on 21st
July to reduce the cooling load using a new system of geothermal energy. For
this purpose, a flat vertical plate with high thermal conductivity extended into
ground in 3 m deep used with eastern and southern walls construction.
The study shows that when using a plate only (without insulation) the
cooling load is reduced by (13.2 %) and (12.7 %) for eastern and southern
walls respectively. In addition, it shows that when using insulation at different
arrangements the plate at the southern wall succeeds reduce in the cooling
load by (8 %, 14.5% and 40 %) and (8 %, 15.8% and 41.3 %) at the eastern
The study shows also that at some arrangements using flat plate with
insulation, one can reach a very smooth cooling load distribution for southern
and eastern walls, which gives a good and easy controlling of air temperature
of the space. Also it can be seen from this study that the plate reduces the
temperature of the walls outside surface especially when using insulation at
the outside surface which means that the plate reduces the temperature and
dissipats the thermal stresses which cause the cracks in the walls outside
surface. The temperature reduction occurs in both walls at peak load, which
means that the heat is dissipated to the ground.
As the inside, temperature of the wall surface has a great effect on the
thermal comfort of occupants in the conditioned space and on the natural
convection inside the space, when there is a good coincidence between the
southern and eastern walls there will be a better thermal comfort. The plate
also succeeded in making the inside surface temperature of the southern and
eastern walls very close. The available experimental data from the literature
for solar radiation, outdoor temperature and under-ground soil temperature
gave a good agreement when compared with the theoretical results obtained
from the used equations and programs in this research.

Channel Equalization Using Wavelet Denoising

M. H. Miry

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1081-1091

A problem in digital signal transmission occurs when a signal in one
signal interval overlaps the signal in an adjacent interval. This problem is called
intersymbol interference and limits the speed of digital transmission. Interference
and noise are common in communication channels, and the recovery of
transmitted signals may be a difficult task. The adaptive equalizer which is used
to recover the transmitted signals and LMS algorithm which is one of the most
efficient criteria for determining the values of the adaptive equalizer coefficients
are very important in communication systems, but the LMS adaptive equalizer
suffers response degrades and slow convergence rate under low Signal-to- Noise
ratio (SNR) condition. The present work is concerned with the development and
application of wavelet transform based denoising technique for improving the
response and convergence rate of LMS adaptive equalizer in digital
communication systems under low SNR.

Data Reduction In Real Time Database Using Critical And Pivot Points

Ahmed Hussein Alywy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 9, Pages 1092-1101

Data reduction is the important thing in the real time database but the
information in this data must not be changed. There are very huge data in the
real time system and all these data must not be stored because the restriction
in storage media. The general method which is widely used is comparing the
recent data with the previous data, if there is change in the value by a factor
or large from this factor, the recent value is stored otherwise the current value
is not stored. Periodically (daily, weekly or monthly), the data is deleted if
there is no need for to it. Here another suggestion is added to this method
according which pivot and critical points and specific factor specify the points
which can be deleted. This is done according to the increasing and decreasing
in the values of data, and then the middle points can be deleted. This deleted
data can be retrieved mathematically approximately (near original data). This
method has been tested on real data and it’s successful.