Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 25, Issue 0

Volume 25, Issue 0, January 2007, Page 132-511

Discharge Measurement in Rectangular Channels Using Portable Prisms

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 132-142

Discharge measurement in open channels has a great importance in water
resources management. Many types of discharge measurement devices
appeared, with differences in view of their technical performance and
precision. From these devices there are the critical depth flumes.
In the present research, a portable prism was tested for measuring discharges
in rectangular channels. The prism is positioned in the middle of the channels
so that a critical flow is created. Five models of prisms were used, each of
which has been examined for both free flow and submerged flow conditions.
Under free flow conditions, the prism showed a high accuracy in measuring
discharges and there is a good agreement between calculated and measured
discharges. Under submerged flow conditions, the prism showed a good
performance and acceptable accuracy.

Treatment of Oily Wastewater

Eman H.Z. AL-Abideen; Hashim M; Thamer J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 407-421

The industrial wastewater discharge from the North Oil Company causes a
high industrial water pollution to the agricultural lands. The present study
aims to find the possibility method for treating such industrial oily
wastewater, by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation.
The experimental test will deal with the characteristics and analysis of
wastewater such as turbidity, pH, TDS, T.H, and oil concentration. Also it
deals with the effect of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation on the
removal efficiency of oil in wastewater and other parameters. Four types of
coagulation were used. The experimental was carried out by using Jar-test
(flocculator laboratory scale).The behavior of flocculent settling was studied
in sedimentation column.
It is found from the experimental results of Jar test, the optimum alum
dosages are. (25,40,70 ppm), FeCl3 dosages are (4,8,20 ppm), CaO dosage are
(7,15,30 ppm) and clay dosage are (2.5,5,9 g/L) for initial oil concentration
(30,58,136 ppm) respectively.
The experimental results are represented by mathematical empirical
correlation for used coagulants alone and in combination as follows
R%= 66.23+ 0.326 DA + 1.17 DF + 0.85 Dc + 6.342 DL + 0.383 C0 - 0.0026 DA 2
+0.302 DF 2 – 0.013 DC
2- 0.496 DL
2 + 00.017 C0
From the polynomial equations and graphical figures it was found the oil
removal efficiency is a function of alum, FeCl3, CaO and clay dosage and
initial oil concentration. The result of sedimentation column was indicated
that the combination of doses improves the removal efficiency and settling
time. The above equation shows the removal efficiency of oil decreases with

Product Design and Conceptual Process Planning Integration By Using Machining Features

Khalid Karam Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 422-430

The integration of conceptual process planning and early design stages is a
vital activity in the modern industrial environment. Since major manufacturing time is
committed in product specification and design, it is critical to be able to assess
manufacturing as early as possible in the design process.
In this research, an algorithm is developed to build an (Integration of Product
Design and Process Planning) system called IPDPP to demonstrate the integration of
conceptual process planning and design using manufacturing features. The developed
system (IPDPP) validates the calculation of manufacturing time using feature
technology. The application of the prototype system improved communication between
design and process planning. The (IPDPP) system has been tested on product (Shaft
8E-200) in State Company for Electrical Industries. It resulted in reduction of
manufacturing time.

Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on Microstructure of Ti- 6Al-7Nb Alloy As Used Surgical Implant Materials

Abdulsalam K. Swadi; Thair L. Alzubaydi; Sami Abualnoun Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 431-442

The study involves mechanical deformation and heat treatment effect on
the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy which is used as surgical implanted
materials. The observed properties of (alpha-beta) Ti-based alloy are strongly
dependent on their microstructures. These alloys are heat treated by solution
treatment and aging (STA) as an effective strengthening method for (alphabeta)
titanium alloys.
Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy is hot rolled in the (alpha-beta) field and subjected
to solution treatment above and below its beta transformation temperature.
The solution treatments are applied at three different temperatures (850oC,
930oC and 950oC) for one hour to these treatments. The solution treatment
specimens are water quenched (WQ), normalizing [air cooled (AC) and
annealed,[ furnace cooled(FC)] and subsequently aged the quenched and
normalized specimens at 550oC for 4 hours.
Changes in the microstructure were observed from heat treatment
action using optical microscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and
phases analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure examination
results for as received alloy indicate alpha grains within a b- transformed
matrix. The results also indicate that the grain size and percent of a /b for the
heat treated specimens depend on heat treatment type and cooling media. The
microstructure of specimens heat treated at 950oC with air cooled shows fine
duplex (a /b) structures which have excellent properties for surgical
implanted field applications.

Design and Analysis of A 3-D Conical Diffuser

Arkan K. Husain Al Taie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 443-453

Analysis of flow through the conical diffuser of an annular combustion system
is presented. The flow is assumed to be unsteady, quasi three dimensional,
compressible and turbulent. A k-ε model was used to simulate turbulence.
Several area ratios and divergence angles were tested until circulation took
place. At this angle a snout was introduced to correct the flow. A control volume
method was used to solve the differential equations of the flow to obtain velocity
and pressure coefficient distributions. The numerical results show that the axial
velocity decreases with diffuser length for a certain divergence angle. But it
increases with angle of divergence for the same area ratio, while the radial
component of velocity was found to increase with both. It was proved that the
snout can correct the flow whenever circulation takes place.

Experimental Study of Flexural Strength of Laminate Composite Material

Jawad Kadhim Uleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 454-466

The effect of fiber volume fraction on the flexural properties of the
laminated composite test specimens constructed of two layers, one of them
reinforced with glass fiber and the other layer reinforced with Kevlar fiber
has been investigated experimentally.
The results illustrate that tension stress decreases with the increase in
fiber volume fraction of glass fiber of the lower layer while it increases with
the increase of Kevlar volume fraction of the upper layer. As for compression
stress, it increases with the increase in volume fraction of glass fiber of the
lower layer while it decreases with the increase of volume fraction of Kevlar
fiber of the upper layer.
The results also show the maximum value of tension stress (= 25.3
MPa.) at Vf of Glass fiber (= 15 %) and Vf of Kevlar fiber (= 60 %), while the
maximum value of compression stress (= -17.1 MPa.) at Vf of Glass fiber (= 60
%) and Vf of Kevlar fiber (= 15 %).

Light-Induced Etching of Silicon

Alwan. M. Alwan; A.M. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 467-474

In this work, an ordinary light is used for photo-chemical etching of n-type
silicon wafer in HF solution. Scanning electron microscopy is used to monitor
changes in surface morphology produced during the etching process. Uniform
porous layer has been observed for various irradiation time. Our technique
offers a great controlling parameter on the porous layer uniformity compared
with the porous layer achieved by using a laser beam. Electrical properties
and porous layer thickness of the photo produced layer have been studied.

Feedforward Controller for Nonlinear Systems Utilizing a Genetically Trained Fuzzy Neural Network

Omar F. Lutfy Al-Karkhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 475-494

This paper presents an intelligent controller that acts as a FeedForward
Controller (FFC). utilizing the benefits of Fuzzy Logic (FL), Neural Networks
(NNs) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs), this controller is built to control
nonlinear plants, where the GA is used to train this Fuzzy Neural Controller
(FNC) by adjusting of its parameters based on minimizing the Mean Square
of Error (MSE) criterion.
These parameters of the FNC include the input and output scaling factors,
the centers and widths of the membership functions (MFs) for the input
variable and the quantisation levels of the output variable, that are subjected
to constraints on their values by the expert. The GA used in this work is a
real-coding GA with hybrid selection method and elitism strategy. To show
the effectiveness of this FNC several invertable (open-loop stable) nonlinear
plants have been selected to be controlled by this FNC through simulation.

Behaviour of Composite Slim Floor Beam with Partial Interaction

Eyad K. S. Al-hachamee; Mustafa K. Al-heety

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2007, Volume 25, Issue 0, Pages 495-511

This research includes a theoretical investigation about the behaviour of
simply supported composite slim floor beams with partial interaction. For the
purpose of analysis, the slim floor slab system is simplified to a multi-layered
composite beam. The slim floor beam is embedded in concrete. Therefore, the
layers of the slim floor are connected together by natural shear bond
generated between the steel and concrete and distributed uniformly along the
interface without using shear connectors. Linear behaviour with one degree of
freedom of the slim floor (slip only) without separation is studied according to
Johnson and May approach using different material properties and different
types of loading.
Equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied for the forces and displacements
at an assumed element to arrive at two differential equations of second-order
in terms of slip and axial force. The equations are solved numerically using
the finite difference method. A computer program is written in Visual Basic
language to solve the problem.
The current model is applied to three typical simply supported slim floor
beams tested experimentally by “Corus Construction Center”. The model
showed close prediction with the observed results.