Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 26, Issue 7

Volume 26, Issue 7, July 2008, Page 303-893

Dynamic Analysis Of Soil-Structure Interaction Problems Considering Infinite Boundaries

Mohammed Yousif Fattah; Mohammed J. Hamood; Shatha Hazim Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 725-746

One of the limitations of the usage of the finite element method in dynamic soilstructure
interaction arises when it is used for the modelling of an infinite domain if
nothing is done to prevent from artificial reflections at the mesh boundary; errors are
introduced into the results. To handle reflections, different artificial boundaries have
been proposed. The aim of such boundaries is to make them behave as nearly as
possible as if the mesh extends to infinity. In this paper they are known as transmitting,
absorbing or silent boundaries. A brief description to two different approaches of
absorbing boundaries is made, first by using infinite elements and the second by using
viscous boundaries method. For this purpose the computer program named
“MIXDYN” is modified in this study to “Mod-MIXDYN” by adding mapped infinite
element model to the finite elements models of the program to be used for dynamic
analysis of soil-structure interaction problems. A new derivation of the mapped
functions is made in this study for the cases when the infinite direction is extended to
the left horizontally (at negative ξ direction) and down vertically (at negative η
Two verification problems are solved to compare the results of the modified
program with the results of other software, namely ANSYS and OpenSees representing
other types of elements (dashpot elements) modelling boundaries as viscous boundary.
It was found that the transmitting boundary absorbs most of the incident
energy. The distinct reflections observed in the "fixed boundaries" case disappear in
the "transmitted boundaries" case. This is true for both cases of using viscous
boundaries or mapped infinite elements. The viscous boundaries are more effective in
absorbing the waves resulting from dynamic loads than mapped infinite elements. This
is clear when comparing the results of both types with those of transient infinite

Redlich-Kwong Equation of State Used For Prediction phase Data

Dhia Aldeen M. Kassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 747-752

The solubility of CO2 in the non-volatile compounds of n-Hexadecane,
Diphenylmetnane, Diphenyl ethane, Ethyl benzene and of Nitrogen in n-
Hexadecane, at temperature range 298.15-358.15 K are measured at partial
pressure of one atmosphere, Falling-film flow technique was used in the present
experimental work.
It is seen that in most cases the solubility is decreased at the temperature
increased, though in the case of the Nitrogen/n-Hexadecane system the reverse is
true. The effect is probably related to the decrease in solvent density which occurs
as the temperature raises. For systems of low Solubility ,this effect tends to counter
balance the increase tendency for solute molecules to "escape" from the solvent,
arising from their increase kinetic energy . In addition ,the binary interaction
constant (LAB) was calculated by fitting the mole fraction solubility of solute gases
CO2 and N2 by using Redlich-Kwong equation of state for predicting phase data.
The interaction constant LAB was calculated from the following expression:
= 1− ( )−0.5 ...........(1) AB AB A B L a a a

Study the Adhesion Force of Tubular Shaped Fiber Reinforced Composites

Hussein Ali Hamid AL-Abdly; Najat j. Saleh; Adnan A. AbdulRazak; Hassen Sh. Majdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 753-761

In the present work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were
manufactured by using two types of resin epoxy (EP) and unsaturated polyester
(UP),each was separately reinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament
and woven roving), hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also
prepared. The adhesion force test of the prepared specimens was carried out. These
adhesion forces exhibited a peak value at a percent of hardener/resin (H/R)= 3% for
UP matrix with all type of fiber arrangements while 30% was obtained for EP matrix
.Such behavior was declined with increase in temperatures. Glass transition
temperatures were determined from these measurements, and found to be 90°C for EP–
glass and 83 °C for UP –glass composites.

Design and Implementation of Synthesizable VHDL Model for General PCMCIA I/O Cards Controller

Yousra Abd Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 762-776

The portable and nomadic computer market has driven the development of
PCMCIA Cards to address the expansion needs for the user. These cards provide a
vast variety of hardware devices which are rugged, credit-card sized, lightweight,
and power efficient. These cards are easy to use, especially for the non-technical
user. Since the sockets are accessible from the outside of the system, the system
does not have to be powered-off, opened, and rebooted to add or remove a device.
This dynamic insertion and removal feature inherently makes these devices power
manageable and also allows devices to easily be shared among different computers.
This paper is concerned with type II PC cards, which mean I/O cards,
therefore a design and implementation of synthesizable VHDL model for control
system (Controller) of the PCMCIA I/O cards is presented.
The implementation of the control system (controller) has been done by using very
high speed hardware descriptive language (VHDL) and its implementation on field
programming gate array (FPGA) type Xilinx Spartan 2 (XC2S30-6 Pq208) by
using synthesis and implement tools of ISE6.3 program.
The used of FPGA technology is optimal for this paper because it offers high
reliability and flexibility in modifying and even developing the required design
with a reduction in the required number of hardware components, also the non
recurring engineering cost.
The timing behavior of the controller is be tested and verified to ensure
that it meets the performance requirements by using simulation tools of Active-
HDL program AND Daley report of ISE program, therefore examples of
simulation results of read/write transfers for both an attribute memory and I/O
devices are presented in this paper.

Dynamic Simulation of Semi-Batch Catalytic Distillation Used for Esterfication Reaction

Ziadoon M. Shakor; Khalid A. Sukkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 777-796

In this paper the detailed mathematical dynamic model of semi-batch reactive
distillation is formulated for ethyl acetate synthesis (estrefication reaction).
The model is composed of material balance, heat balance, and equilibrium
equations. The set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations governing the
unsteady state composition profile in a semi-batch reactive distillation column
were solved by using fourth order Runge-Kutta integration method with the aid of
the powerful MATLAB 6.5 program which used to simulate and optimize the
semi-batch reactive distillation column.
The simulation provides compositions, temperatures and holdups profiles
along the column as a function of time. Also the reactant conversion and ethyl
acetate purity in distillate are calculated.
Finally, the simulation results are analyzed to find the optimum operating
policy of reflux ratio, Ethanol/Acetic acid and catalyst weight.

Performance Improvement of a Single Phase Induction Motor Fed by Nonsinusoidal Voltages

Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 797-811

The distorted voltage waveforms, which have, more or less, a high harmonic
content, have negative impact on the long-term performance of the motor, as they
cause nonsinusoidal currents in the stator and the rotor, and consequently additional
losses and distorted torque in the machine.
The steady state performance of Permanent Capacitor single phase induction
motor fed by optimal SHEPWM inverter is studied with respect to harmonics,
additional losses and torque pulsations. The effectiveness of the optimal SHPWM
technique in improving of motor performance is investigated analytically

Study of tensile strength and compression strength of binary polymeric blends (High Density poly ethylene /polycarbonate)

Sanaa A. Hafad; Balkees M. dyaa; Mohammed S. Waheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 812-823

In this work, HDPE/PC binary polymeric blends has been made by using the single
screw extruder machine .
The tensile strength measurements showed that this blend have higher
results reflects the homogeneity of the mixture and higher strength
compared with that of single material the strength like HDPE or PC alone
and these values increase when blending with ratio (80/20) of (HDPE/PC);
and increase more when reinforcing with E-glass fibers (1%). Also in the
compressive strength increases for blends of (80/20%) (HDPE/PC)
furthermore, a composite of these blends with E-glass fiber these values
are increased more .

Preparation and the study optical and electrical properties of thin films for optoelectronic applications

Khalid Z. Yahiya; Ammar H. Jraiz; Uday M. Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 824-828

Conductive transparent In2O3 thin films with (222) preferred orientation were
prepared by thermal oxidation (TO) in static air of indium thin films at condition
(250°C/25 min). Detailed structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of the
film are presented. The data are interpreted to give a direct band gap of
(3.6) eV and indirect band gap of (2.5) eV. The In2O3 film has sheet resistance as
low as (20)Ω/□ . in absence of any post-deposition annealing conditions. The
mobility of these films was estimated to be (31) cm2. V-1. s-1.

Finite Element Modeling and Simulation of Orthogonal Cutting With Multi Layer Coated Tools

Maan Aabid Tawfiq; Zeena jumaa Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 829-841

This paper focuses on the development of Finite Element Method (FEM) in
modeling and simulation of coated cutting tools with multi-layer coats. A special Finite
Element code called (MSC.MARC mentat) is used in the numerical tests, the results are
then compared with experimental work. The paper studied the effect of number of coats
of cutting tools on the following field parameters; tool-chip contact length, chip
contraction coefficient and shear angle at similar machining conditions.The metal being
machined is (AISI 1045 steel) with orthogonal machining conditions. The three cutting
tools and models are coated with (TiN, TiN/TiC, TiN/Al2O3/TiC), while the fourth one
is uncoated.The results show good agreement between the experimental and numerical
tests. Some of the results are compared with other published papers. The comparison of
the predicted results shows good agreement with experimental tests with maximum
relative difference of (18%) for the chip contraction coefficient and contact length, and
(10 %) for the shear angle. The insert with double coats shows excellent result,
compared to others from point of view of chip contraction coefficient, contact length and
shear angle.

Improving Anodizing Efficiency by Adding Different Amounts of Aluminum Powder to Anodizing Electrolyte for Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy (6063)

Uday Sami Mohammad; Sami A. Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 842-865

Different amounts of aluminum powder (5, 7, 9 and 11g/l) were added to sulfuric
acid solution of the specimens under ideal conditions previously obtained (1) and the
effect of these additions was studied to find out it's benefit on anodizing efficiency for
pure aluminum and aluminum alloy (6063).
The specimens were examined in different conditions using optical microscope,
roughness and hardness measurements.
The study shows the anodizing process was improved by adding aluminum
powder with ideal conditions and the best value of aluminum powder was 9g/l,
where the thickness improved from 72.25μm at ideal conditions to 81.25μm with
adding 9g/l aluminum powder and the coating ratio improved from 1.481 at ideal
conditions to 1.541 with adding 9g/l aluminum powder for pure aluminum, while the
thickness improved from 74.56μm at ideal conditions to 82.29μm with adding 9 g/l
aluminum powder and the coating ratio improved from 1.417 at ideal conditions to
1.471 with adding 9g/l aluminum powder for aluminum alloy (6063).
The study also shows that the effective anodic current efficiency was increased
about 12.50% when adding aluminum powder of 9g/l compared with ideal conditions
for pure aluminum, while this value was increased about 10.20% when adding
aluminum powder of 9g/l compared with ideal conditions for aluminum alloy (6063)
without adding aluminum powder.
It is found that the surface roughness and hardness value of specimens with adding
aluminum powder of 9g/l gives the best result compared with the specimens at ideal
conditions and bare specimens.

Optical Properties of ZnTe Thin Films Prepared By Chemical Spray Pyrolysis

Mohammed S.Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 866-871

Thin films of ZnTe have been prepared by the method of chemical spray pyrolysis
.The absorption and transmissions spectra are recorded in the range 400-900nm.The
spectral dependences of absorption coefficient were calculated from transmission
spectra. The allowed direct and optical band gap energy has been evaluated from
(αhν)2 vs. (hν) plots. The optical constants such as extinction coefficient(k)and
refractive index (n) have been evaluated.

Design and Implementation of Programmable FIR Filter Using FPGA

Hikmat N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 872-884

This paper presents the design and implementation of a
programmable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter using ALTERA Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. The filter performance is first
tested using Filter Design and Analysis (FDA) tool from Mathworks to
verify magnitude response and obtain coefficient tables. The test operation
includes LPF and BPF filter types with coefficient lengths of 7 and 31
respectively. The FPGA design is carried out by writing VHDL modules for
different filter components. The simulation waveforms, synthesis reports
and board programming files have obtained using the package QUARTUSII.
ALTERA-FLEX10K10 FPGA Family with EPF10K10LC84-3 board is
used as a target device for implementation purpose.

Studing The Mechanical Properties Of Ternary Blends Of Hdpe/Pp/Abs

Zanaib.Y.Shnea; Nabeela A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 885-893

In this work a type of polymer blend has been prepared from mixing different
percent (40,50,60, and 70) % of High-density polyethylene, polypropylene and adding 6%
weight percent of acrylonitril-butadiene-styrene by using single-screw extruder. The
extrusion process concentrated on the homogeneous mixing manner among materials
through a regular selection of machine screw revolution per minute and temperature used in
extrusion process. Some of mechanical properties such as impact strength, modulus of
elasticity and shore hardness of polymer blend, were determined at different weight fraction
of blend. It was found that the addition (6%wt) of ABS to the binary blends HDPE/PP leads
to increase the modulus of elasticity, the impact strength and shore hardness.
On the other hand increasing % HDPE content from 40 to 70wt% in HDPE/PP
ternary blends leads to increase the modulus of elasticity from 166.35 Mpa to 186.25 Mpa,
and impact strength increase from o.o52 to o.o6 J/mm2 while decreases the shore hardness
from 89 to 69.