Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 10,

Issue 10

Extraction, Identification and Antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil from Iraqi C. rotundus

Zeid abdul-Majid Nima; Majid Sakhi Jabier; Raghidah Ismaeel Wagi; Huda Abd Al-Kareem Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1156-1163

Cyperus rotundus has many different uses and these were based on the different
parts of plant. The medical uses of cyperus have been used in medicine for
thousands of years. The parts of the cyperus used are its leaves, seeds and oil. The
Extraction process was carried out by steam distillation. Optimum organic
extractant determined. The collected oil was identified via Thin Layer
Chromatography (TLC) using a mixture of Ethylacetate: toluene (1:9) as
chromatographic eluent . This study was designed to extract and identify of
essential cyperus oil from C. rotundus .The Antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil
was studied for various microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes , Eschirichia coli and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) using inhibition zone method (Aromatogram). The
MIC and MBC for each microbe were estimated. The oil of C. rotundus was shown
a remarkable activity against gram-positive bacteria, less antibacterial activity was
found against gram–negative bacteria and no activity was observed with the oil
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Novel method for
extraction and identification of chemical composition for Iraqi cyperus oil was
conducted. The study of the biological activities of this oil is very important
because of needing to be determined whether there is any correlation between the
biological activities and one or more of the chemical compounds purified from C.
rotundus oil.

High-Speed Response Si PIN Photodetector Fabricated and Studied for Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Detection

Khalid Z. Yahiya

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1164-1170

In the present work , PIN photodetector has been fabricated by vacuum evaporation
technique, Al was evaporated on top side of an intrinsic – type silicon and In was evaporated
on down side and doped for each sides of an intrinsic silicon with thermal diffusion technique
using a furnace system, in this method PIN photodetector is made.
The optoelectronic and electrical properties of photodetector were studied ,PIN has
spectral responsivity in visible and near infrared region and has peak responsivity at
wavelength 900nm ,I-V characteristic under dark condition the ideality factor is 3.2 and builtin-
potential was determined by extrapolation of the curve (1/C3) to a point 1/C3=0 equal 0.8v.
a high speed response for the photodetector was determined , it is equal less than 2.35nS.

Evaluation Of The Method Of Stress Characteristics For Estimation Of The Soil Bearing Capacity

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Mohammed F. Aswad; Mohammed M. Mahmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1171-1184

The classical bearing capacity theories rely on the superposition of three separate
bearing capacities – a technique that is inherently conservative – but they also rely on
tabulated or curve-fitted values of the bearing capacity factor, Nγ, which may be
unconservative. Further approximations are introduced if the footing is circular
(multiplicative shape factors are used to modify the plane strain values of , Nc, Nq and Nγ) or
if the soil is non-homogeneous (calculations must then be based on some representative
strength). By contrast, the method of stress characteristics constructs a numerical solution
from first principles, without resorting to superposition, shape factors or any other form of
In this paper, the validation of the method of stress characteristics is tested by solving
a wide range of bearing capacity problems. The results are compared with classical bearing
capacity theories; namely, Terzaghi, Myerhof, Hansen and Vesic methods.
It was concluded that the bearing capacity predicted by the method of stress
characteristics for the case of a circular footing in clay ranges between (3.7 – 4.0) greater than
Terzaghi, Meyerhof, and Vesic methods. This means that the method is not conservative for
this case and can be dependent for economic design of foundations. The bearing capacity
predicted by this method increases linearly with (D/B).
For all values of the angle of friction, φ, the method reveals bearing capacity values for
smooth footings greater than Terzaghi and Hansen and smaller than Meyerhof and Vesic
theories. Considering the foundation to be rough, the method gives bearing capacity values
greater than all other methods. The difference increases as the angle of internal friction
(φ) increases. This makes the method unreliable for rough foundations.

Effect Of Soil Consistency On Flow Characteristics Of Acids Through Cohesive Soils

Husam Hikmat Bakir; Falah Hassan Rahil; Mohammed Yousif Fattah; Mohammed Abullateef Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1185-1200

The consistency of cohesive soil depends to a large extent on the structure of soil particles
which may be arranged in two systems; dispersed or flocculated. The presence of salts or
acids between the soil particles will alter the arrangement of particles through affecting the
attractive and repulsive forces.
In this paper, a program of laboratory tests is carried out at the University of
Technology/ Baghdad on cohesive soils of different values of Atterberg limits. Samples of
these soils were tested for grain size distribution (sieve analysis and hydrometer). The
falling head permeability test was carried out to determine the coefficient of permeability of
the soils to HCl acid.
The soil parameters determined in the laboratory will be used in the numerical
analysis.The aim of this study is to apply the finite element method to study the steady flow
of pollutants (acids) in a confined aquifer. The program (MULAT) is used for this purpose.
The path of flow of the acid through the soil is traced.
The basic problem solved in this paper is a one of linear flow in a single confined
aquifer. It represents the case of leakage of acids from storage tank and flow of the acids
through the foundation soil. It was concluded from the finite element results that the
maximum head caused by the flow of the acid through the soil decreases with the increase of
the coefficient of permeability and the plasticity index of the polluted soil.

Study Optoelectronic Properties of Ag2O Heterojunction Prepered by Thermal Oxidation Technique

Khalid Z. Yahia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1201-1209

Highly (101)-oriented p-Ag2O thin film with high electrical resistivily was grown by
thermal oxidation (TO) on clean monocrystalline p-type Si without any post- deposition
annealing. From optical transmittance and absorptance data, the direct optical band gap
was found to be 1.4eV. The electrical and photovoltaic properties of Ag2O/Si isotope
heterojunction were examined in the absence of any buffer layer. Ideality factor of
heterojunction was found to be 3.9. Photoresponse result revealed that there are two peaks
located at. 750 nm and 900nm .

Fatigue Study Of E-Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite Under Fully Reversed Loading And Spectrum Loading

Muhannad Z. Khelifa; Hayder Moasa Al-Shukri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1210-1224

Study of the fatigue behaviors experimentally and theoretically of a composite
material manufactured for this paper by stacking four layers of E-glass fiber in
different angle orientations (0o, ± 45o, 0o/90o) immersed in polyester resin with total
thickness 4 mm. They were tested under two types of dynamic loads in fully reversible
tension-compression load at (R=-1) and spectrum load as fatigue testing, to estimate life
curves and microscopic an examination was carried out for stress affected and fracture
areas. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using ANSYS Workbench™ was used to
evaluate the composite behaviour under fatigue conditions. The results of the fatigue
test show that the uniaxial [04] composite has the highest strength and the fatigue
degradation is also the highest. The high magnification optical microscopy method
shows that the failure of laminas at ± 45oand 0o/ 90o is due to matrix failure in the
direction of the fiber, whereas for the unidirectional lamina at 0o, the failure is due to
fiber breakages.

Simulation of the Acousto-optic Interaction in an Optical Bistable Device

Adawiya J.Haider; Hind J.Jawad; Saleh N.Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1225-1234

In this paper, a computer-aided simulation of the relation between peak phase delay and laser
intensity ,at different values of the Klein-Cook parameter of the fourth order diffraction, was
presented. The numerical results describing the sound-light interaction in LiNbO3 crystal with
and without feedback were presented and discussed. Also, the relations between laser
intensities and the acousto-optic frequency and the values of Klein-Cook parameter were
studied. The results were applied to an optical bistable device using MATLAB software.


Sheelan R. Areef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1235-1240

Diffusivity behavior and diffusion coefficient was investigated in this paper for epoxy composite
reinforced with glass fibers (woven roven and random direction) together as a sandwich with volume
fraction (44). The samples were immersed in different solution for equal time at constant temperature
(room temperature ±18oC). The result show that the relative mass gain increased with increasing the
immersion time till they tend saturation moisture mass (M∞) after that the relative mass gain decreased.
The result show that the samples immersed in (kerosene) solution had higher mass gain while the
samples immersed in distill water had lower mass gain and the samples immersed in other solution
(Benzene, HNO3, KOH, H2O as received) had relatively mass gain between them.
Also the results show that the samples immersed in benzene has maximum diffusion coefficient
(30.219mm2/day) which means minimum absorption resistance while the samples immersed in (H2O as
received) has minimum diffusion coefficient (0.191mm2/day) (maximum absorption resistance).

A New Compact Size Microstrip Patch Antenna with Irregular Slots for Handheld GPS Application

Jawad K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1241-1246

A new reduced size single probe fed microstrip patch antenna with irregular slits
has been presented to be used as a receiving antenna for Global Positioning Systems
(GPS) integrated with cellular handheld mobile wireless systems. The proposed design is
based on the nearly square microstrip patch antenna with two pairs of orthogonal slits
cut from the edge. It has been found that this antenna offers further reduction in size
with good radiation properties required for GPS system. The resulting circular
polarization bandwidth (with axial ratio ≤ 3 dB) has been found to meet that required for
this application. The proposed antenna possesses an average gain of 4.5 dB overall the
GPS L1 operation.

Stabilization of Expansive Clayey Soil Modified by Lime with an Emulsified Asphalt Addition

Al-Khashab; Mohammad Natheer; Al-Hayalee; Mohammed Thafer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1247-1262

This study deals with the possibility of the stabilization of expansive clayey soil
pre-treated by lime, with an emulsified asphalt addition.
Soil from the "2nd Kafaat" District in Mosul was chosen it is classified as medium to
high expansiveness in naturally.
The pre-treated soil was performed with (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%) lime addition by
weight. After short period, emulsified asphalt was added with different percentages
namely (2, 4, 6 and 8) by weight, for optimum percentages of an emulsified asphalt to
give the most useful stabilization aspects.
The test result of lime addition alone showed that there was a considerable reduction in
soil plasticity, 1.5% of lime addition converted the clayey soil towards non-plastic types.
The emulsified asphalt addition to the mixture, caused slight increase in the plasticity
but, their values in the whole, remained below the value of the natural soil.
The specific gravity decreased with the emulsified asphalt addition as well as, a general
reduction, compatible with the increase in the optimum moisture contents.
The absorption values of the treated soil with the emulsified asphalt showed consequent
reduction as compared with the original one.
A significant reduction in swelling pressure and swelling percent were obtained as well
as an improvement in some values of the unconfined compressive strength were realized
at low percentages of emulsified asphalt addition, compatible with reduction in values of
the high percent additions

Effect of Alcohol as Additives on the Morphology and Separation Performance of Polyethersulfone (PES) Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes

Samira N. A; Amel Alhelaly; Najat J. Saleh; Qusay Alsalhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1263-1273

Hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were prepared using
Polyethersulfone (PES), alcohol (n-Propanol) as additive and N, N-dimethylacetamide
(DMAc) as a solvent. Asymmetric hollow fiber UF membranes were spun by wet phase
inversion method from 17 wt% solids of PES/additive/NMP solutions. The alcohol
additive was n-Propanol while the external coagulant was water. Effects of n-Propanol
concentrations in the dope solution on morphology and separation performance of PES
hollow fiber UF membranes were investigated. UF membranes were characterized in
terms of scanning electron microscope (SEM) while UF experiments were conducted
using polyethylene glycol (PEG20,000MW) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP
40,000MW), as a solute. It was found that the PES UF membrane morphology changed
from long two finger-like structure through a short two finger-like structure to the two
void-like structure as n-propanol concentration in the dope solution increased from 5 to
20 wt % using water as a bore fluid; pure water permeation fluxes (PWP) increased from
47 to 201 L/ while rejections of PEG MW20,000 and PVP MW40,000 for wetspun
PES hollow fiber membranes were decreased with the increasing of n-propanol
concentration up to 20%. Using above method, PES hollow fiber UF membrane with
high pure water permeation flux could be prepared while the molecular weight cut-off of
PES hollow fiber membranes is approximately 20,000.

Mathematical Correlations Between The Effective Diameter Of Soil And Other Properties

Muayed M. Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1274-1281

The equivalent or the “effective” diameter or size is a well-known parameter in soil
classification and permeability determination. Hazen (1892) on the basis of his study of
filter sands found that the diameter that which 10% by weight of soil grains are finer may
cause same effects as the given soil. Denoted as D10, Hazen called this diameter the
“effective diameter”.
The goal of this study is to determine the value of the percent finer that corresponds
to the equivalent diameter of soil grains that may be used directly to calculate as accurate as
possible the surface area of the soil solids. The equivalent or the effective diameter would
certainly vary according to the gradation of the soil grains, the wider the range of particle
diameters included in the soil matrix the smaller would be the effective diameter.
It was concluded that the effective particle diameter of a soil can be related to other
soil properties such as the liquid limit, plasticity index, the unconfined compressive strength
and the standard penetration test number of blows (N).

Theoretical and Numerical Analysis of Fuel Droplet Combustion Parameters via Different Combustion Models

Basma Abbas Abdulmajeed; Ali Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 1282-1300

The study introduces a theoretical analysis and numerical solution for the combustion
of two kinds of hydrocarbon fuel droplet inside the combustion chamber. The study employs
three mathematical models to analyze the combustion process, conventional (classical) model,
transient model, and moving droplet model. The combustion process of a stagnant droplet in
the steady state was analyzed in the classical model, while, in the transient model, it was
assumed that there is a period of time in the stages of the droplet combustion in which the
droplet is heated before combustion, For the moving droplet model, the film boundary
approximation was incorporated to express the effects of the relative motion on the combustion
process parameters. The effect of change in temperature on the thermo-physical properties of
the fuel was adopted through the three models. For the classical and moving droplet models, a
convenient approximation was adopted for the heat transferred inside the droplet.
Computer programs were created to evaluate the required properties, solving the
ordinary differential equations evaluated from heat and mass transfer balances, and then
construct systems of non-linear equations.
The three models show that thermo physical properties are strong functions to
reference temperature. The transient model shows that the period of droplet heat up is most
effective. For the moving droplet combustion model it was shown that the relative movement
between droplet and ambient surrounding gas enhanced the mass burning rate and reduced the
droplet lifetime. The film theory approach was adopted in moving droplet model.

Computer aided design of runner & gate in die casting

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2008, Volume 26, Issue 10, Pages 417-430

Die Casting is a high tolerance process due to the high Accuracy of Data to reduce the
error factor as much as possible the objective of this paper is to design an Aluminum
A380 thermo-fan, Aluminum is a low Density ,High Thermal Conductivity & the low
Heat in solidification makes the runner design more difficult, computer Solution in
Visual Basic is needed to make a Model of the necessary Equations to Calculate
Length ,Depth of Runner , Gate's width & Solidification time Porosity , Computer
Graphic is also Aided by drawing the die & making 3D Solid Model Done with
AutoCAD so that later will be linked to the program , Creation of DXF Files was