Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 27, Issue 1

Volume 27, Issue 1, January 2009, Page 1-215

Computer Aided Training Needs Analysis And Performance Improvement Measurement(Ca- Tnapim) System

Hussein Salem Ketan; Layla Lateef Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-17

The purpose of training is to facilitate learning skills and knowledge required.
Success or failure of any education and training will depend to a very large extent on the
accuracy and effectiveness of the needs analysis. The outcome of training is acceptable
performance on these tasks. In this research an algorithm is established in order to build a
computer aided training needs analysis system based on 360 º-feedbacks approach for
performance appraisals. This system is called CA- 360º TNAPIM. Mathematical model
is designed in this work in order to analyze training needs which is used to calculate the
performance gap of each trainee and of each management level in the organizational
hierarchy, The performance gap at each performance objective of each employee, all
performance objectives of each employee, each performance objective of all employees
and Performance gap of factory or an organization The system has been tested in (Sٍtate
Company for Electrical Industries), in (Motors of Air-Cooler Factory), and showed
Performance gap of factory before training was 26.77%, Performance level was
73.23%, after training was 19.87%, 80.13% and Performance improvement level was
25.70% .

Modeling Time to Corrosion Initiation in High-Performance Ferrocement Exposed to Chlorides Environments

J. Forth; Maan S. Hassan; S. A. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 18-31

The applications of a mineral admixture, or a zinc coating to steel surface, or a
combination of both are methods used for the corrosion prevention of ferrocement
element in this study. Results of a study to evaluate many corrosion protection systems
with metakaolin and/or galvanized steel mesh are presented in six U-shaped specimens.
Specimens were built to simulate exposure conditions typical for marine environment.
Laboratory data collected along duration of 40 weeks of exposure were used in
modeling the cover depth as a function of time to corrosion initiation of the investigated
corrosion prevention methods. Methods used to assess the condition of specimens
included chloride concentration measurements, and corrosion rates. Model predictions
show that the ferrocement specimen of high-performance mortar with metakaolin
provides much better level of protection against moisture and chlorides than the
conventional specimen, by delay rate of chloride ingress. Application of a galvanized
steel mesh causes an elevation of the chloride threshold resulting in an additional
increase in the predicted time to corrosion initiation.

Using Citric Acid As An Admixture and It's Influence on Some Properties of Concrete

Wasan I. Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 32-41

The objective of this investigation is to find the effectiveness of the citric acid as
retarding admixture. The experimental results indicate that the optimum dosage of citric
acid is 0.02% by weight of cement. This dosage causes a delay in initial and final setting
time of 1:42 and 3:18 hour: minute, respectively; and a reduction in water-cement ratio
of 13% relative to reference concrete mix. So, citric acid can be classified according to
ASTM-C494 as water-reducing and retarding chemical admixture type D.
The investigation also extends to evaluate the effect of using citric acid on
properties of concrete such as, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus
of rupture and dynamic modulus of elasticity at normal conditions and after exposure to
salt solutions. Generally the results indicate that using citric acid in concrete enhance it's
properties at normal conditions, the percentage increase in compressive strength,
splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture and dynamic modulus of elasticity at age
180 days was about 56%, 13%, 24% and 8% respectively relative to reference concrete.
Also it was observed that concrete containing citric acid has good performance after 180
days exposure to salt solution in comparison with reference concrete.

Near IR Laser Beam Analyzing System

Mohamed S.Ahmed; Muna S. Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 42-52

A simple and reliable laser beam analyzing system has been constructed and utilized for
analyzing NIR laser beams. The system uses a CCD camera of 488×380 pixels (12 m
pixel size) CCD chip, which is interfaced with a PC computer. Computer programs,
utilizing facilities provided by MATLAB software, have been developed for analyzing
laser beams and display them in 2D and 3D configurations. The obtained good quality
laser beam images together with the efficient developed software have made the system
a reliable profiler.

Behavior of Composite Steel-Concrete Beam Subjected To Negative Bending

Husain M. Husain; Qais Abdul-Majeed; Anas H. Yousifany; Ikbal N. Korkess

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 53-71

This work deals with the behavior of structural continuous composite steelconcrete
beams, which are widely used in building and bridge constructions. Therefore
the structural behavior of composite beams under negative moment is a significant
subject. However experimental tests in this field are very rare and information about the
efficiency of shear connection when the slab is under tension are really few.
In the present research, available experimental tests on composite steel-concrete
beams under negative bending are theoretically analyzed using the finite element
software ANSYS. ANSYS computer program is a large-scale multipurpose finite
element program which may be used for solving several cases of engineering analyses.
The proposed three dimensional model is able to simulate the overall flexural
behavior of composite beams. This covers; load-deflection behavior, longitudinal slip at
the steel-concrete interface, and distribution of shear studs. The reliability of the model
is demonstrated by comparison with available experiment and alternative numerical
analysis which shows 9-10% difference.

Utilization of Variable Message Signs to Reduce the Queue Delay Values at Off-Street Parking Facilities

Ali M. K. Al-Ubaidy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 72-80

Generally, Advanced Parking Management Systems (APMS) use Variable
Message Signs (VMS) to provide drivers with updated information on the number of
open spaces at selected off-street parking facility to minimize or avoid parking search
traffic within a full car park facility, and reduce the delay times at the entrance and exit
gates of a parking facility. The simulation model STARSIM-VMS is developed, in the
present study, to simulate the operation of a designed parking garage with the
implementation of the VMS technology. The simulation results show that the delay
values is smallest than that predicted without using the VMS technique, especially at
the high proportions of vehicles waiting to park. These results reflect the importance of
using the VMS in the transportation systems.

Estimation of Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Generation Rate

Adnan A. Alsamawi; Abdul Razzak T. Zboon; Aumar Alnakeeb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 81-95

Generally In this paper, Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generate for
five years period (from year 2006 to year 2010). This Period are estimated as a minimum
duration of landfill site operation time. Geographic Information System (GIS) technique
are used to prepare digital map of Baghdad city to determine all of Baghdad ten districts
areas and its geographic distribution. Population size forecasting are interpolated to find
urban population size of each district and its population density. Depending on economic
studies of population wealth variation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the
adopted percentage of the chronically poor population in Baghdad which could
reach 40% in some districts, the individual waste generation rates of each districts
are assumed to ranged between 0.3 and 0.8 kg/capita/day. A value of 0.63
kg/capita/day is concluded for the year 2006 and increase it at a net rate (growth
rate less waste reduction rate) of the expected GDP increase of 4% per year to
reach 0.74 kg/capita/day in year 2010. Comparison between the obtained estimation
with other studies for other countries, puts Iraq in class of middle income countries.

Flexural Rigidity of Slender RC Columns

Sabeh Z. Al-Sarraf; Ihsan A. S. Al-Shaarbaf; Bassman R. Al-Bakri; Kaiss F. Sarsam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 96-115

166320 hypothetical reinforced concrete (RC) columns, each with a different
combination of variables, were used to investigate the major variables that affect the
flexural rigidity (EI) of slender RC columns. Using linear regression analysis, new EI
expression was statistically developed for 131 slender RC columns. These columns were
experimentally tested and available in the literature. This proposed EI expression were
introduced into the ACI 318M-05 Code column design procedure to make comparisons
between 150 column experimental data with theoretical estimates of the nominal
strength using theoretical other methods. These estimates include, in addition to the proposed
EI expression, other calculations from the literature.

Study The Effect Of The (Al) And (Al2O3) Particles Reinforcing On The Wear Volume Loss Characteristics Of Epoxy

Jamal Jalal Dawood; Bassam Ali Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 116-126

This study investigated experimentally the wear volume loss of the epoxy reinforced
by (Al) and (Al2O3) particles of grain size ( £ 30 mm) with different four volume
fractions of the reinforcements which are (3 %, 6 %, 9 %, and 12 % Vol.). Pin-on-Disc
wear test were conducted to exam the wear volume loss behavior of the composite
specimens. The wear test results indicated that the wear volume loss of the specimen
increases with the increase of the applied load and sliding time, while it decreases with
the increase of the volume fraction of the reinforcing material. Also the results show that
the average volume loss of the epoxy reinforced by (Al) was higher than reinforced by
(Al2O3) by the value was (45 % ) at volume fraction (= 6 %), sliding speed (Vs =2
m/sec.) and sliding time ( T =300 sec.)

Time Dependent Analysis of Tunnels Using The Finite Element Method

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Kais T. Shlash; Nahla M. Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 127-151

The analyses of tunnels in clay were carried out taking into consideration two
great important and effective categories, the time independent and time dependent. Time
independent behaviours are used to represent the excavation stage while time dependent
analyses are used to represent the behaviour of the unlined tunnel after a long time.
The finite element analyses were carried out using the linear elastic model for the
concrete liner while elasto-plastic and modified Cam clay model for the soil. The
excavation has been used together with transient effects through a fully coupled Biot
formulation. All these models and the excavation technique together with Biot
consolidation are implemented into finite element computer program named "Modf-
CRISP" developed for the purpose of these analyses.
In this paper, the basic problem represents the proposed "Baghdad metro line"
which consists of two routes of (32 km) long and 36 stations is analyzed. The tunnel is
circular in cross section with a (5.9) m outer diameter and (0.45) m of concrete lining
thickness. Eight-node isoparametric elements are used to model the soil and concrete
lining. Four-node element is used for pore water pressure.
Two kinds of analyses are carried out:
a- Using elastic-plastic constitutive model for all soil layers.
b- Using modified Cam clay model (MCC) for the first soil layer (upper layer) and
elastic-plastic Mohr Coulomb for the other two layers.
The movements of the soil around the tunnel at the end of excavation at typical
points (crown, spring line and the invert) are calculated. The results indicate that there is
an inward movement at the crown and this movement is restricted to four and a half
tunnel diameters. A limited movement can be noticed at spring line which reaches
0.05% of tunnel diameter, while there is a heave at the region below the invert, which
reaches its maximum value of about 0.14% of the diameter and is also restricted to a
region extending to (1.5) diameters.
It was found that the maximum consolidation settlement above the tunnel is about
three times that at the end of excavation. The settlement trough extends only to (5)
tunnel diameters using consolidation analysis while it is extended to (12) tunnel
diameters using undrained analysis.

Ultrathin Te Films on Si(111): Schottky Barrier Formation and Photovoltaic Applications

Khaleel I. Hassoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 152-158

In this work, ultrathin trillium films were evaporated on chemically etched
silicon substrate. Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) of Te contacting to n-Si were
determined by analyzing dark current-Voltage (I-V) curves and illuminated short
circuit current-open circuit voltage (Isc-Voc) curves. To eliminate the effect of
series resistance we used Norde method to extract effective SBHs. Experimental
results showed good reasonable agreement of the barrier height values. There is
more than one mechanism to transport the current through the barrier. The
possibility of using Te-nSi as a photovoltaic device is presented in this work.

Modeling of A Miso Control System For A Turboshaft Engine

Arkan k.AL-Taie; Usama.S.Salah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 159-171

The general configuration of a turboshaft gas turbine control systems model is
presented. The control systems included the relationships between the engine and its
limitations such as a compressor surge line limit, exhaust gases temperature, the speed
of the engines spools. The control system is of Multi Input Single Output (MISO) type,
where the inputs to the controller are the limitation signals and the demand whither the
only single output is the fuel valve new setting. The main parameter that the system
controls by is that the fuel mass flow rate and the device which is doing this job is the
fuel controller. The control system changes the fuel flow according to the engine
demands by changing the fuel valve angle (θ) .
The time responses of each effective parameter was predicted for a different fuel
valve angle and introduce the most effective specifications of the time response of the
system (delay time, rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot). The behavior of
the maximum overshoot value (if founded) is increasing with the fuel valve increasing.
The value of delay, rising, and settling times decreases with the fuel valve angle
increases. The present results show a good agreement with the previous works.

Study Diffusion of Water to Carbon Fiber /Epoxy Composite

Adnan A. Abdul Razak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 172-181

In present work moisture diffusion properties of the woven fabric carbon/epoxy
laminates were determined using weight gain, experiments over a temperature range of
30 0C to 60 0C. The laminate–shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured by
using epoxy resin (Epon 828) cured with TETA (tri ethylene tetra amine) reinforced with
carbon fiber. The prepared Composite samples were immersed in water for several
weeks and moisture content was measured. The diffusivity of the composite was found
to obey the Arrhenius relation over the entire range of temperature. Analytical solution to
Fick’s law is done by build up computer program in Matlab. Good agreement between
experiment data and analytical solution of Fick’s Law.

Estimation Of Average Suspended Sediment Concentration In A Flow Depth By One Sample

Hind Y. A. Jalil; Numa H. Imara

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 182-202

In this research, an attempt has been made to have full understanding about the
nature of the sediment in the flow. Due to the difficulties during flood periods, the
attention was focused on the shortcut methods to measure the average sediment
concentration in the water column. These methods use limited number of water
samples. Two groups of data have been utilized. The first group covers the field work
in Tigris River at Sarai site and middle Euphrates canals. The second group is outside
Iraq which covers Missouri River in Montana. The data of the first group has been
used for analysis of Imara’s semi-empirical equation for the measurement of the
average concentration in the water column. In this equation, an empirical constant,
(a) , was given a value of (10) in estimating the sediment load in the tributaries of
Adhaim River. A uniformity index was suggested, to analysis the vertical distribution
of different kinds of sediment, and then uniformity index for different kinds of
sediment was calculated for Missouri river in the second group of data. The value of
the empirical constant, (a) varied between (7.2) and (11.65) with an average value of
(9.4) for group one data compared with the value of (10) used for the tributaries of
Adhaim River. This value was accepted with a significance level (α = 0.05). The
uniformity index gave a value close to (1.0) for clay and silt, and a value between (1.5)
and (2.5) for sand depending on the sand’s grain size.

Studying of The Impact Strength of Rubber- Toughened Thermosets

Awham Mohammed Hamid; Sabah S. Abd Al Noor; Balkees M. Dhyaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 203-215

In this investigation, the development of composite materials was achieved
in two steps. The first, by the hybridization of the resin matrix with different
elastomers to prepare binary polymer blends, these blends have been synthesized
by mixing either of (Nitrile Rubber(NBR), Styrene Butadiene Rubber(SBR) and
Butadiene Rubber(BR)) with the Epoxy resin(EP) and Unsaturated polyester
resin(UP). The second step is reinforcement of the polymer blends with 30% of
two types of fibers. The first, is by using E-glass fibers alone while the second by
utilizing a hybrid of E-glass fibers with Kevlar fibers (type-49). Different weight
percentages (5, 10, 15,…., 50)% of those elastomers were mixed with each of EP
and UP. The optimum mixing ratios (OMR) of those blends have been selected
depending on achieving acceptable macro miscibility, best adhesion between two
phases and highest impact strength (I.S) of the resulting blends. The values of
(I.S) increased gradually with increasing of rubber content until its maximum
value (OMR), and then it goes down as the percentage of the elastomer
increases. Five blends with (OMR) were prepared : EP/NBR(80/20)% ,
EP/BR(70/30)% , UP/NBR (90/10)%, UP/SBR (90/10)% , UP/BR (90/10)%,
while a phase separation of SBR rubber from EP resin has taken place at all
ratios; then, these blends were reinforced with single and hybrid fibers. Impact
test was carried out at different environmental conditions to have full description
about the mechanical behavior of those blends and their composites under effect
of the impact stress.

Towerd Method to Find The Elevations of Points to Creat Digital Elevations Model (DEM) Using Global Positioning System(GPS)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 21-25

In this present research mathematical model is built , this model has the
ability of using global positioning system (G.P.S) to compute the elevations with
high accuracy to use in mapping contour lines with contour interval 1m applied in
fabricating digital elevation model (DEM). Certain spot height are chosen by
means of universal standard, the measurements are mathematically analyzed using
general equations in geodesy to obtain acceptable accuracy to all engineering
works .

Studying The Effect of Some Used Collectors in Iron Ore Concentration by Froth Flotation

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 44-56

This study explained that the used collector type and the Flotation
Procedure have apparent effect on concentration procedure, the results explained
that the used of these collectors lead to occuring of reversed anionic silica flotation
and on using the formic acid it has been noted that the Iron grade increases when
the collector weight reaches to 64% It adding 0.5 gm of the acid. and when acetic
acid was used there is an increasing in Iron grade with increasing of acetic percent
which reaches to 76% inadding 0.3 gm of the acid but on the pH=11 with(0.3) gm
of the same acid (acetic acid) the Iron grade increases to 89% and in using streaic
acid it has been noted that the Iron grade that goted becomes constant which is
about 65% so from these results it had been noted that the acetic acid gives the best
results where it had reached to 89% of Iron grade on adding 0.3 gm of this acid on