Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 27, Issue 2

Volume 27, Issue 2, January 2009, Page 58-404


Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 23015 under different angles of attack and Comparison with Available Package

Mohammed Ahmed Rasheed; Ahmed Adnan AL-Qaisy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 215-234

A Model of wing section of type (NACA 23015) had been built to be investigated and
study the aerodynamic characteristics in a subsonic wind tunnel at different angles of
attack in order to calculate the aerodynamic coefficients such as lift, drag, moment and
pressure coefficients. The effect of changing the angle of attack on the aerodynamic
coefficients was investigated. Then a virtual model of the wing section and wind tunnel
had been programmed and tested by available standard packages such as the (Design
Foil) Program which uses Panel Method to calculate the aerodynamic coefficients, and
the finite element package (Ansys Ver.9). A comparison was made to the arrived results
with the experimental data to check the accuracy of the results, and both experimental
and theoretical results were convergent. The percentage of similarity between the
experimental and theoretical was 83% for the Aerodynamic characteristics.

Type-3 Feistel Network of The 128-bits Block Size Improved Blowfish Cryptographic Encryption

Ashwaq T. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 235-246

In this paper, a new secret-key block cipher called 128-bits Blowfish is
proposed which is an evolutionary improvement of 64-bits Blowfish designed to
meet the requirements of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to increase
security and to improve performance. The proposed algorithm will be used a
variable key size up to 192 bytes. It is a Type-3 Feistel network iterated simple
function 16 times. Specifically, in this proposed algorithm, a combination of four
S-boxes lookups, multiplications as well as fixed and data-dependent rotations will
be used. Mixing round provide different levels of security, efficiency, flexibility
and good avalanche effect. The proposal is word-oriented, in that all the internal
operations are performed on 32-bit words. So it is possible to implement the
algorithm on smart cards efficiently.

Multi-Delay Biorthogonal Coded/Balanced TR-UWB Receiver for WPAN Based on Hadamard Matrix

Saleh M. Al-Qaraawy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 247-255

Impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) communication is becoming an important
technology for future Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). One of the critical
challenges in IR-UWB system design is the inter-pulse interference (IPI). A Transmit-reference
(TR) receiver is proposed to completely remove the IPI especially at low input frame energy-tonoise-
ratio (Ef/No) values. This receiver is based on the using of a modified version of
Hadamard matrix to yield a biorthogonal coded words instead of orthogonal ones. On the other
hand, from the complexity view, the proposed TR receiver in this paper has high complexity as
compared with the balanced coded orthogonal TR receiver proposed recently but it outperforms
it.

Studying The Effect of Tool Nose Radius on Workpiece Run Out and Surface Finish

Saad Kariem Shather

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 256-261

Tool geometry play an important role in mechanical machining and surface finish of
workpiece. So there are many parameters such as cutting speed ,feed rate ,and tool nose
radius that are known to have a large impact on surface quality,however there are many
more parameters that have an effect on the surface roughness . this paper fouced on effect of
tool nose radius on surface roughness and run out which causes tool chatter, the experments
prove that high values of nose radius causes rough surface with high value of run out also in
this paper use seven different values of nose radius of cutting tool were(0.3,0.4, 0.5. 1 , 1.5,
2, 2.5mm) under different of cutting conditions ( such as feed rate ,cutting speed , depth of
cut ) Results show that good surface finish at nose radius (0.4, 0.5 )mm which lead to reduce
tool chatters, work run out during machining another calculations were done theoritically
for arithmetic roughness which have a small difference with experimentally tests and
increasing of roughness and run out at values less than (0.3mm).

Eُnvironmental Performance Assessment (EPA) by using computerized system

Layla Lateef Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 262-274

The performance evaluation is an important element of the ISO 14000 process ISO
14001:2004reffered to the environmental performance(EP) , as the measurable results of an
organization's management of its environmental aspect .An efficient environmental system
enables management to set and meet environmental standards and to assess whether the
organization's environmental objectives are being achieved, it allow to concentrate their focus
on significant gaps in environmental performance.. The (CA- EPA) computer aided
Environmental Performance Assessment system, is modified from the CA-360˚ TPM system
to appropriate the Environmental Performance Assessment (EPA). In this work
environmental performance objectives are included in the database of the system. By using
(CA- EPA) the (state company of leather Industries) was selected as application domain for
assessment its Environmental performance.
The results showed that The Performance level of maintenance &-employees choice are 40%
of the target level, where, the objectives (goals identifying), environmental instruction
applications& laws &orders show the strong points , their Performance level is 80%. The.
E.Performance level of the other factors are 60%. The total Environmental Performance
level is 62% and the summation of total points is 3.14 from the target value 5 and the total
gaps from the target value are 38.8 %.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Tee Beams

May J. Hamoodi; Ihsan A. S. Al-Shaarbaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 275-287

A three-dimensional finite element computer program ( 3DMPCP ) has
been developed to investigate the behaviour of prestressed reinforced concrete
beams and to predict their ultimate loads. To verify the ability of this computer
program in predicting the correct behaviour of prestressed concrete beams, analysis
of a simply supported prestressed reinforced concrete tee beam was carried out.
The beam section is 1.12 m deep, 2.44 m flange width and it is designed for a span
of 32.3 m from support to support. The test load, 0.85(1.4 DL. + 1.7 LL.), was
applied to the beam and flexural cracks were observed at midspan. The finite
element analysis has indicated that numerical load-central deflection curve
obtained is in good agreement with the experimental one. The analysis also gives
the expectation for the ultimate load value. Distribution of concrete normal stress
throughout a cross section and along the beam, at different stages of loading , are
presented

Isothermal Oxidation of Simple and Pt-Modified Diffusion Coating on Inconel Alloy 600 In Water Vapor

Khalil; Al- Hatab; Al- Alqawie; Hussein; Ahmed Ali; Moosa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 288-299

In this work the oxidation behavior of both inconel alloy 600 and coated system
(Pt-modified aluminide coating) was investigated in pure water vapor H2O in the
temperature range 700 - 900 ºC. The platinum was deposited by electrochemical
method. Pt-modified aluminide coating was applied to inconel alloy 600 by using singlestep
high activity pack cementation method. The weight gain measurements indicate
that the oxidation kinetic is parabolic for uncoated and coated alloy. At temperatures
below 900 ºC the inconel alloy 600 is less aggravated in water vapor environments
because it is a chromia former alloy. At 700 ºC, water vapor does not have a significant
effect on the spalling of oxide scales. At 900 ºC, water vapor causes spalling of the
oxide scales during isothermal oxidation of inconel alloy 600. Therefore, it is concluded
that this alloy should not be used above 900 ºC in water vapor environments. Large
voids were found at the oxide scales-substrate interface and at grains or at grain
boundaries due to the chromium outward diffusion toward the oxide scales.
At 900 ºC, the parabolic rate constant (kp) of the coated system was one order of
magnitude lower than that for the uncoated alloy. It was concluded that, water vapor
exhibit little effect on the Pt-modified aluminide coating. Oxide phases that formed on
coated system are: Al2O3, NiAl2O4, Cr2O3, and NiFe2O4.

Computerized Speed Measurement Technique using Magnetic Pickup Sensor

Waleed k.Ibraheem; Roshen T. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 300-309

Speed measurements are very important task according to the large use of
motors, generators and other rotating devices. Also for the high speed of
rotation other than speed is a function of many other variables such as
acceleration and speed etc….
This project helps to measure the speed of electrical machines which is
very difficult to be measured directly.
The computer is used to measure the speed in revolution per minute
(RPM) or revolution per second (RPS), very accurately by using a suitable
circuit which is formed from, sensor, special designed electronic circuit and
interface card (Hardware) with a built program (Software) to treat the data and
to give the measured speed in a digital system.

The Production of Self-Compacting Concrete with Normal Cement Content

Luma A. G. Al- Rawi; Tariq S. Al-Attar; Shakir A. Al-Mishhadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 310-320

The main object of this work is to evaluate the possibility for using reasonable cement
content and fine materials to reduce costs of expensive chemical admixtures needed for the
manufacturing of self-compacting concrete (SCC). In this work, three values of cement content
are used (rich, medium and lean mixes) with cement content of 400, 300 and 250 kg/m3
respectively . Two maximum aggregate sizes of (10 and 20mm) for each cement content are
used. The powder content material is (cementations + filler ) is maintained constant (500kg/m3)
while the W/cm ratio ranges from 0.43 to 0.68. 10% Reactive Metakaolin Class N is used as a
partial replacement by weight of cement. On the other hand, limestone dust was used as a
partial replacement by weight of the powder content Tests were carried out on all mixes to
obtain the properties of fresh concrete in terms of viscosity and stability. The results showed that
increasing the percentage of filler (limestone dust) from 20% in rich mixes to50% in lean mixes
of the total weight of the powder content reduces the amount of cement in SCC without
significant effect on the fresh properties of the SCC mixes. This conclusion is significant from
the economical point of view. The mechanical properties of hardened SCC mixes are also
assessed. (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity ). The results obtained from this work
show that it is possible to produce SCC with different levels of cement content (250 to400kg/m3)
using local available materials which satisfy the requirements of this type of concrete .The test
data collected indicate that these materials can be used in the manufacturing of economical SCC.

Study of Principle Component Analysis and Learning Vector Quantization Genetic Neural Networks

Arif A. Al-Qassar; Mazin Z. Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 321-331

In this work, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to improve the performance of
Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network (LVQ-NN), simulation results show that
the GA algorithm works well in pattern recognition field and it converges much faster
than conventional competitive algorithm. Signature recognition system using LVQ-NN
trained with the competitive algorithm or genetic algorithm is proposed. This scheme
utilizes invariant moments adopted for extracting feature vectors as a preprocessing of
patterns and a single layer neural network (LVQ-NN) for pattern classification. A very
good result has been achieved using GA in this system. Moreover, the Principle
Component Analysis Neural Network (PCA-NN) which its learning technique is
classified as unsupervised learning is also enhanced by hybridization with the genetic
algorithm. Three algorithms were used to train the PCA-NN. These are Generalized
Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), proposed Genetic Algorithm and proposed Hybrid
Neural/Genetic Algorithm (HNGA).

Effect of Pack Cementation Coating on Hot Corrosion Resistance of Low Alloy Steel

Jawad Badr Gatea; Muna khedier Abbass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 332-346

Two technique of coatings were performed by applying pack cementation
technology, the first one was aluminizing diffusion coated low alloy steel substrate
whereas the second one was single step simultaneous Co-deposition silicon- aluminum
diffusion coated low alloy steel substrate. The pack mixture used for producing both
coating systems in pack cementation process was composed of (30% Al, 2% NH4Cl and
the filler 68% Al2O3) , (30% Al , 5% Si , 2% NH4Cl and 63% Al2O3 ) respectively. The
pack temperature was 1000◦C and the diffusion time was 3 hr. XRD exhibits the phases
formed on both coated systems are Fe2Al5 , FeAl3 and FeSi . Uncoated low alloy steel
substrate and the both two coating systems were subjected to exposure environment
deposit salts mixture of (50%Na2SO4 and 50%NaCl) with weight (2mg /cm2), using
cyclic oxidation method in the experiments at temperature of 750◦C for 100hr each
cycle of 5hr. It was found that the oxidation kinetic for uncoated low alloy steel will give
evidence that the oxides formed on this alloy are non – protective. The XRD analysis
exhibited the phases are Fe2O3 , Fe3O4. It was found they followed linear rate law, and
spalling was observed. After these hot corrosion tests were undertaken, It was found that
the oxidation kinetics for both coated systems in environment consist of salt mixture
(50% NaCl +50% Na2SO4) followed parabolic law (protective oxidation behavior). XRD
exhibits the oxides formed on both coated systems are Al2O3, SiO2.

Generate Cryptographic key using generated 3D- Digital Image

Ekhlas K. Gbashi; Suhad M. Kadhum; Hala B. Abdul Wahab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 347-354

Every few years, computer security has to re-invent itself. New technologies and
new application bring new threats, and force us to invent new protection mechanisms.
Cryptography became important when businesses started to build networked computer
systems .The main goal of this work is combining the curve security methods with
cryptography algorithms in order to increase the capability of cryptography. The
weakness of the cryptographic key generated from normal color image is clear due to the
nearest pixel values of image. This led to propose in this paper a new method in order to
generate a cryptographic key depending on generated (2D & 3D) mathematical models
(digital image) and clipping the key according to an algorithm and the data of curve
generation

Study of Microstrip Feed Line Patch Antenna

Ahmed H. Reja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 355-361

This paper contains design microstrip patch antenna with feed line connector. The
antenna is mainly intended to be used for reception of a signal transmitted from an
unmanned aircraft, and can be used in many applications in communication systems
such as satellite technology and military applications.
A microstrip feed line patch antenna is designed for 2.5GHz center frequency have
successfully been built. Measurement show that the half power beam width (HPBW) is
60o with VSWR lower than 1.5, and return losses equal to -33.6dB at center frequency.
Next, the results of microstrip feed line patch antenna is designed by using CAD
(Microwave office 2000 version 3.22). Finally, the results obtained from the simulations
are demonstrated.

Electrolytic Removal of Zinc Using A Flow-Through Cell With Amalgamated Copper Screen Cathode

Anaam A. Sabri; Mumtaz A. Zablouk; Abbas H. Sulaymon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 362-372

The aim of this work was to establish an electrolytic method for the removal of
zinc from waste water using a flow-through cell with amalgamated copper screen
cathode .The performance of the electrolytic reactor were investigated by using different
of electrolyte flow rates (60, 120, 180, 240, 320L/h) and different initial concentration of
zinc solutions(48, 96, 150mg/L).A synthetic solution was processed using boric acid
(0.1M) plus potassium chloride (0.1M) as the supporting electrolyte .The electrolytic cell
employed a constant potential of -1.4V vs. SCE in the controlled potential mode.
Dimensionless Sherwood and Reynolds numbers were correlated to characterize
the mass transport properties of the reactor, and they where fitted to the equation:
Sh = 0.6835Re0.3895 Sc1/ 3 For 1< Re < 6.5, 700 < Sc < 1390

Pack Cementation Coating For 304 & 316L Stainless Steel Alloys By Using Silicon Zing Process

Mohammed S.Waheed; Saba Hussein Khadum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 373-385

In this study, we investigated the synthesis of pack cemented coating on two metallic
materials (304 & 316L) in order to form silicon compounds on their surface at lower
temperatures (800,900 &950˚C) to avoid sintering of the pack and adhesion of material to
the samples surface.
In our investigation silicon was used as a master alloy and alumina (Al2O3) as a filler
material. Also ammonium chloride was used as an activator with different weight
percentage (5,7 &10%) ,in order to increase the efficiency of the coating layer formation
process. Silicon zing of two alloys which are 304 & 316L by pack cementation process
according to light optical microscope examination (LOM), the coating layer formation is a
temperature and activator weight percentage dependent process, which means that it is a
diffusion controlled reaction. Thus the thickness of sample silicon zed with pack
content 10% activator at 950˚C is higher than the sample silicon zed with pack content 7%
and 5% activator and these samples have higher thickness than samples coated at 900˚C
and 800˚C at same conditions. The average coating thickness obtained by silicon zing
process at 4hr by using different activator weight percentage for two selective alloys are:
1- 8.520 – 129.390 am for 304 st.st alloy.
2- 75.929 – 192.592 μm for 316L st.st alloy.

Exergy Losses Calculation for a 125 MW Combined Power Plant

Falah F. Hatem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 386-394

Theoretical exergy analysis is carried out for different components of a
combined power plant which consists of a gas turbine unit, waste heat recovery
boiler without extra fuel consumption and steam turbine unit. The results
pinpoint that more exergy losses occurred in the gas turbine combustion
chamber. Its reached 33% of the consumed fuel exergy while the exergy losses
in other plant components are between 1% - 5% of the consumed fuel exergy
.This paper also considered the effect of the pressure ratio, maximum
temperature, boiler pressure and ambient temperature on the exergy losses in the
plant, there are a clear effects in the exergy losses when changing pressure ratio,
maximum temperature and boiler pressure.

Developing the Discharge Capacity of Al Husa'chi River

Ala; a H. Numa; Ali S. Al Saady; Muhannad J. Al- Kazwini

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 395-404

Al Husa'chi River is one of the three main branches of Al Ka’hla River in Maissan
governorate. Its length is 25 km. the river directly feeds Al Huwayza Marsh by overpass
pipes at its end. It is also used for irrigating the nearby agricultural areas. A study for
evaluating the hydraulic performance of the river has been carried out in order to develop
its ability to accommodate the excess inflow required for feeding the marsh and the
surrounding agricultural projects. All the necessary hydraulic measurements, needed to
construct rating curves, at stations along the river course were carried out for a period of
six months. A steady one dimensional hydraulic model has been prepared to simulate
the flow in this river using the HEC-RAS software (Version 3.1.3). The calibration and
verification processes of the model have been carried out by making use of the field
measurements. The obtained maximum allowable discharge of this river for the present
conditions is ranged from 20m3/sec to 35m3/sec for the water surface elevation of the
marsh from 7.0m to 2.8m amsl, respectively, and the first flood section is located at
23.5km downstream of the river inlet. The required cross sections to develop the capacity
of the river have been obtained considering the marsh and agricultural requirements

Representation Iraqi Map Lambert Conical Conformal Projection with 2 Stranded Parallels

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 58-63

This research has computed the rectangular coordinates of points on map of Iraq
from geographical coordinates by conical conformal projection with two standard
parallels ( St1, St2 ) at (30º N , 36º N) in this work the computations included the effect
of scale factor at all parallels along the map of Iraq and represent it graficaly to show the
distribution of error in scale factor .The distribution of values of scale factor at universal
transver Mercator projection ( U. T.M ) was drawn to show the comparison .om the
comparison and the results obtained it can be seen that the Lambert conical conformal
projection is a suitable projection to present ; Iraqi topographic maps with accurate
values .

Monthly Changes of Some Physiochemical Parameters for Tigris River- Baghdad between 2002-2003

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 64-70

A monthly study has been performed during October 2002 to March 2003 for
Tigris river flowing at four stations, the first is Al-Rashdia which is the river enter
Baghdad city, the second near oil vegetables factory in AL-Masbah, the third near
tanning and leather factory in Saeda and the last station in AL-Twetha about 200
kilometers from the site of Tigris river contact with Dyalla river south of Baghdad.
Some environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical
conductivity, chloride, total hardness, biological oxygen demand, total suspended
solids and total dissolved solids have been investigated.
It has been found that temperature fill in the range (11.7-30)ºC for four stations
and the values of pH fill in the range (6.6-8.3). AL- Twetha contained the highest
concentration of BOD (7.5 mg/L), turbidity (100 NTU) at March. The highest
values of E.C. (2069 mmhose/cm) at October and chloride (800 mg/L) at November
recorded in Saeda . The highest values of total hardness recorded in AL-Masbah
(225 mg/L) at November. The values of TSS and TDS (480,2210 mg/L) have been
obtained at AL-Masbah and Saeda during March and January respectively.