Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 27, Issue 3

Volume 27, Issue 3, February 2009, Page 88-623

Palmprint Characterization Using Multi-wavelet Transform for Human Identification

Hana; a M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 405-417

The human hand presents the source for a numerous of physiological biometric
features, from these are palmprint, hand geometry, finger geometry and the vein pattern on
the dorsum of the hand, are mostly used in many fields for different applications. Lines and
points are extracted from palms for individual identification in original image or frequency
space. In this paper, a preprocessing to extract the central part from the input palmprint
image, next a 2-D multi-wavelet transform is used to convert the palmprint image into 16
sub-bands, and the texture feature vectors, energy and entropy for each of the 16 sub-bands
is computed and normalized with min-max method for individual identification. The
correlation distance is used as a similarity measure. The experimental results point up the
effectiveness of a method in either using low resolution or noisy images

The Effect Of Blending Of Linear Low –Density Polyethylene On Mechanical Properties Of High Density – Polyethylene

Nabeela A. Mohammed; Najat J.Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 418-424

High – density polyethylene is an important commercial polymer and it is widely
used for different engineering applications. In the present work, polymer blends were
fabricated by mixing two types of polyethylene, high – density polyethylene was mixed
with different weight percent of linear – low – density polyethylene using two – roll
mill, the mixing machine was operated at a temperature of 135oC.
A series of standard tests (destructive), tensile, impact, hardness, and compression
were carried out on the prepared samples it was found that the addition of linear – low –
density polyethylene to the high – density polyethylene leads to decrease in the modulus
of elasticity, tensile strength, tensile strength at break and increase in the % elongation at
For the impact test it was found that the addition of linear – low – density
polyethylene caused an increase in the impact strength of the material, the polymer blend
with 45 % wt of linear – low – density polyethylene gave the highest value of impact
On the other hand the hardness test was carried out and it was found that the addition
of linear – low – density polyethylene leads to decrease the hardness of the polymer
blends. Therefore, the neat high – density polyethylene gave the highest hardness value.

Predicting Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete by Using Non-destructive Tests

Sura F. Al-Khafaji; Waleed A. Al-Qaisi; Shakir A. Al-Mishhadani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 425-444

In this study, high performance concrete mixes were produced by using high
range water reducing agent and also by using 10% silica fume or 10% high
reactivity metakaolin as a partial replacement by weight of cement. Three cement
contents (350, 450, and 550) kg/m3 were used through this study. A total of 330
(100 mm) cubes, 132 (100×200 mm) cylinders, 132 (100×100×400 mm) prisms,
and 66 (150×300 mm) cylinders were casted and cured to the required age of test .
All specimens were cured in tap water except 165 cubes, which were submerged in
Cl ˉ + SO4ˉ ˉ solution at concentration identical to those present in severe
aggressive environment to study the effect of this solution on the compressive
strength of high performance concrete mixes. Compressive strength, splitting
tensile strength, modulus of rupture, static modulus, rebound number, ultrasonic
pulse velocity, dynamic modulus, initial surface absorption, density ,and total
absorption tests were investigated for all mixes at 7, 28, 90, and 120 days age.
Results of the destructive tests (compressive tensile strength, strength, splitting
modulus of rupture, and static modulus) and non–destructive tests (hammer,
ultrasonic pulse velocity, and dynamic modulus) are statistically analyzed by using
SPSS Ver.15 software to study the possibility of predicting the mechanical
properties of high performance concrete by using non–destructive tests. Simple and
multiple linear regression analysis of the obtained results leads to the proposed
statistical models for evaluating the compressive strength, splitting tensile
strength, modulus of rupture, and static modulus by using one or two or three of
the above mentioned non–destructive tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and t–test was also used to investigate the adequacy of the statistical models.

Evaluation of Bearing Capacity from Field and Laboratory Tests

Ali Abdulkadhim Jasim Al-Shamcy; Qasim Abdulkarem JassimAl-Obaidi; Azad Abbas Ahmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 445-453

In this work, the comparison between the values of bearing capacity of soil
determined by two different methods, the first method is field plate load test and the
second method is several laboratory tests. The study find out that the allowable bearing
capacity estimated from the first method widely near from its value computed by second
method. Also this study confirm the probability of using Plate load test for estimating
soil bearing capacity for small jobs and shallow layer depth to avoid using
comprehensive soil investigation and economizing both cost and time. Empirical
relation ship for bearing capacity estimation achieved from the results of the two
methods by using stiff brown silty clay soil at Erbil governorate - north of Iraq.

The Effects of Bearing Dimensions and Adjustable Mechanism Position for Six Pads Bearing under Dynamic Load

Muhannad Zedan Khalifa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 454-467

The hydrodynamic bearing consists of six pads these pads have the ability to tilt
about the clamping edge. Reynolds equation (2D) for dynamically loaded was used to find
the generated pressure value throughout the mobility method and the finite difference
method. The effects of many parameters of bearing were studied in this paper such as length
to diameter ratios, power loss, oil flow rate, Sommerfeld number, load number, friction
coefficient and by using the “Ansys program” for stress and strain analysis over the pad
surface (white metal), to select the best position location for adjustable pads mechanism
from leading edge angle to trailing edge angle of pad central angle (PCA=55°) by taking
nine different positions. The best angle for the adjusting member was found about (41.25o)
after leading angle of the pad, the adjusting member in the maximum pressure region gave
minimum radial displacement (elastic deformation) values.

Petroleum Single Cell Protein Production

Jasim Alhelu; Shahrazad R. Raouf; Ahmed H. Abduljabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 468-480

This study focuses on producing single cell protein from petroleum fraction (ethanol, kerosene,
gas oil) by growing two types of microorganisms (Candida sp. and Bacillus subtilis) on these
materials as energy and carbon source , These two types of microorganisms are isolated from
contaminated soils cv with petroleum derivatives brought from AL-Dorah and Beji refineries , fuel
stations ,and garages . At the first stage the microorganisms are cultivated on different media (blood
and nutrient agar ) and on mineral salt medium (MSM) to identify on genus of each type . After this
, the microorganisms are grown on different concentrations of ethanol , kerosene , gas oil (0.5, 1.0,
2.0, 3.0, 4.0 ( v/v)% ) at 7.4 pH and 32°C temperature . In the second stage the microorganisms are
growing in still liquid culture at the same conditions . In this stage the yield percent, number of cell
per milliliter , and biomass weight are calculated for either type of microorganisms. Composite
rotatable Box –Wilson experimental design is adopted to design the experimental work .
Statistically , the response functions (i.e. yield percent of ethanol , kerosene , gas oil ) are related to
the most effective variables on single cell protein (SCP) production . The temperature is fixed at
32°C at this stage also, because the range of temperature growth of these microorganisms is narrow
(30 to 34°C) , where there is no significant effect at this range of temperature. Concentration and
pH are ranged between 0.5to 4.0% and 7.0to9.0 respectively . Optimum conditions are determined
and found equal to 7.36 for pH and 1.31% for concentration for ethanol , 7.42 and 4.0% for
kerosene, and 7.51 and 4.0% for gas oil .The percentage of crude protein was evaluated according
to Kjedhal method . The maximum protein content was 61.25% which was closed to the results
obtained by previous studies. The bioassay was carried out using chicken embryos , where chicken
eggs were used for this purpose. The result of bioassay was 83.5% of successful eggs , which is
acceptable with the percent given by Kohen Lee.The last stage is designing a batch bioreactor and
calculating all process parameters depending on the results of experimental work in pervious stages
, In general , the characteristics of (SCP) production using two types of microorganisms are agreed
well with general characterization of (SCP) production that accommodates the general concepts of
(SCP) production .

Hydrodynamics Of Two Phase Flow For Coalescing And Non Coalescing Systems

Thamer J. Mohammed; Mohammed F. Abid; Hiba M. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 481-495

This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of superficial gas
velocity, liquid phase properties and gas distribution on gas holdup, bubble
characteristics and drag coefficient in two-phase bubble column. Various liquids
covering a sufficiently broad range of viscosity and surface tension values were
employed, while the gas phase was atmospheric air. Aqueous glycerine solutions were
used to simulate the behavior of coalescing viscous liquids whereas aqueous alcohol
solutions were used to simulate the behavior of non-coalescing organic liquids. The
experimental results obtained with two different types of gas distributor in the
coalescence solutions and in non coalescence solutions were compared with data on
standard air–water system. A computerized conductivity probe system and high speed
digital camera were used for the systematic measurements of bubble size, velocity and
gas hold-up. Correlations based on dimensionless groups were proposed for the
prediction of gas holdup and drag coefficient in the homogeneous flow regime.

Spectral Analysis of Some Selected Hydrochemical Parameter Of Diyala River

Qusay A. Al-Suhail; Aqeel S. Al-Adili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 496-512

Some selected hydrochemical parameters of Diyala river including electrical
conductivity (EC), 1
2 1
Ca+2 ,Mg+2 ,SO- ,Cl - ,HCO- , total soluble solids (T.S.S.),
discharge (Q) and total hardness(TH) were analyzed for their periodicities using monthly
measurements for the period 1993-1997, to quantify and qualify surface water and
investigate the periodicity behavior of these parameters. Results showed significant
autocorrelation for all the studied series and therefore they were subjected to the Spectral
(Fourier) analysis to investigate the main periodicities that contribute to the total
variance of the observed data. Most of the selected parameters have strong (less
frequent) semi-annual and biannual cycle, as well as seasonal cycle for, Cl, Mg, Ca, SO4,
HCO3 ,TSS , and EC. These results reveal the variation of the factors affecting the river
water quality including hydrological and meteorological conditions as well as the impact
of human activities through the river catchments river.

Properties of High Performance Lightweight Concrete Sandwich Panels Using Local Additives

Wasan I. Khalil; Zain A. Raouf; Husain M.Husain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 513-533

The main aim of this investigation is to produce high performance lightweight concrete
sandwich panels consisting of two layers of mortar having different mesh reinforcement
and feeded polystyrene concrete core in between. Locally pozzolanic material (ultra –
fine feldspar) is used to produce the high performance mortar as partial replacement of
cement. The effect of various factors such as core thickness, volume fraction and type of
reinforcement (polyimide grids, polypropylene meshes and chicken wire meshes) has
been investigated. The work covers the physical properties of the mortar and polystyrene
concrete core. Also the structural properties and behaviour of eight series of 1000mm
length and 200mm width concrete sandwich panels with two reinforced mortar faces of
20 mm in thickness and core of 30 and 50mm in thickness from polystyrene concrete
were investigated by nondestructive and destructive methods.
The nondestructive tests included the density and dynamic modulus for mortar and
polystyrene concrete. Also the density and dynamic properties of the concrete sandwich
panels as a whole (dynamic modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and stiffness constant)
were determined by ultrasonic pulse velocity. Flexural properties such as, first crack and
ultimate loads, moment capacity, modulus of rupture, resilience, ductility and toughness
of the concrete sandwich panels were investigated from the destructive tests .
The results show that the ultimate moment increases as the core thickness and the
volume fraction of different types of reinforcement increase and the modulus of rupture
increases as volume fraction of reinforcement increase. Also it was shown that concrete
sandwich panels with high toughness and ductility can be obtained by using polyimide
grids or polypropylene meshes to reinforce the compression and tension faces of the

Vibration Analysis of Sudden Enlargement Pipe Conveying Fluid with Presence of Heat Flux

Ruaa Y. Hammoudi; Zena K.Kadhim; Mauwafak A.Tawfik

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 534-558

The vibrated pipe conveying fluid with sudden enlargement and exposed to heat flux is
studying in this paper. The governing equations of motion for this system are derived by using
beam theory. The effect of external force that applied at the mid length (at the enlargement) of
the pipe is studied. The transfer matrix method is a technique that used in this study. From
this technique it can be compute the natural frequencies, mode shapes, deflection, slope,
bending moment, shear force, velocity, and pressure for different cases of pipe conveying
fluid (with and without heat flux), also the effect of forced vibration on these parameter are
presented. Different types of supports are used to show the effect of changing the support's
type on the behavior of this system at different fluid velocities and heat flux. Also the effect
of change the values of fluid velocities and heat flux on the Coriolis and compressive force
are studied. The results of this study are compared with the results that found from ANSYS
program, also another comparison is made with the last investigation. Those comparisons
show good agreement.

Harmonics Distribution in Electrical Power System Containing Static Var Compensator

Mohammed K. Edan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 559-572

This research presents a harmonic analysis of the power system with static VAR
compensator. The model is formed by parallel combination of Thyristor Control
Reactor (TCR) with a bank of capacitor .This model based on use of harmonic
switching functions and this harmonic model is completely general and can be
interpreted as a harmonic admittance equivalent. It is suitable for direct
incorporation into the harmonic domain frame of reference where it combines
easily with frequency dependent admittances of the transmission network, and
with other linearised component. This approach leads to efficient iterative solution
of power networks containing TCR. The general operating condition corresponds
to a case, when the switching instant of thyristor valve are function of network
nodal voltage conditions, this applies to both thyristor turn-on and turn-off
instants. In such situation the voltage zero crossing points calculated with good
accuracy at each iterative step, are used to update the TCR switching function.
Newton-Raphson technique is used to determine the zero-crossing points.

Designing of Computer Aided Visual System for Workstations Layout Planning Based on Efficiency Criteria

Zainab A.Ibrahim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 573-583

Layout planning in industrial plants means planning the location of all machines,
utilities, workers, workstations, and department...Etc.five basic types of layout, fixed-position,
cellar, process, product &hybrid. This research study Product layout problem through study
problem of arranging number of machines, workers, workstations on a production line in way
achieves uniform materials flow, this problem is known as single row facility layout, this
problem is very difficult to be solved in fact. The aim of the research is to designs and builds
computer aided visual planning system to study product layout problem, helps the management
in layout planning process and in decision making about the workstations arrangement based on
efficiency criteria. The suggested planning system was built by Auto lisp language and display
the system outputs on computer screen in two ways visual diagram (workstation timeworkstation
number), calculated outputs (actual cycle time, workstations number, efficiency
actual daily production rate) .the suggested system was applied on lawn mower production line
gets from reference to show the sequence of system working, inputs & visual outputs, so the
system will study all possible workstations layout. Current workstations arrangement consists of
series four workstations& line Efficiency=81.82%, the efficiency can improve &increases to
90% by re-arranges the workstations& distributes the total work in five serial workstations.

Analysis of Linearity Response and Spectral Responsivity in CdS Photoconductive Detector

Ali M. Mousa; Selma M. H. Al- Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 584-591

Thin films of cadmium sulfide have been deposited by chemical bath deposition.
The effect of temperature and time deposition on spectral responsivity for CdS
photoconductive investigation. The effect of temperature bath and time deposition
where study. Linearity response of photoconductive detector were carry on analyzing
the light current with incident power curves. The results show that high spectral non
saturated responsivity was achieved, further the detector were manufacture with low

Simuation Study of the Factors Effect on the Directional Controllability of Vehicles

Ahmed N. Al-khazraji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 592-599

This paper present the result of the work carried out the mathematical model of two
degree of freedom movement study the influence of cornering stiffness of tires, the
distance from the position of the center of gravity to front and rear axel and mass of
Theoretical calculations have been carried out the vehicle have known mass and the
position of the center of gravity.
Results show that for the state which is the front tires are bias ply tires and the rear tires
are radial ply tires is the best because the state gives under steer behavior. Also the state
will be the center of gravity nearest from the front axel gives the same behavior and also
owing to the existence of center of gravity being nearest to the front axle.

Simulation and Application to Measure Comparable Performance of Push,Pull and Hybrid Manufacturing Systems

Nahidh Jaffar K; Hussein S. Ketan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 600-623

In this paper we are going to integrate the most popular production systems nowadays
that is; push ,pull production system, ,then we compare the performance of the integrated
production model or the hybrid outcome system to push and pull, by introduce a technique that
optimizes production control of single product flow shop under the three production control
through using the production control framework. Evaluating a production control policy usually
requires simulation modelling due to the complex interaction that occur,a point was considered by
simulation package exploit. Then we demonstrate how this template can be used in conjuction
with this existing simulation software to find an optimal production control policy. Our decision
variables are location of the push-pull interface. An experemental research prototype of such
push, pull and hybrid control system has been constructed to emulate a motor production at real
world plant in which unit process and operational decisions are integrated. The simulation
software implemented to support the manufacturing system planning and its operational
control.the system configuration, modelling feature and its verification modelling, feature and its
verification through an application of the practical manufacturing line will be described.

Design and Evaluation of a CAD/CAM System for Progressive Dies

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 88-100

The objective aim of this paper is to generate design and manufacturing data of the
main components of progressive dies depending on a 2D drawing ( low level entities) of
the desired part , then the drawing data manipulated and improved to create 2 ½ D
design drawing of the designed progressive die in step by step manner as follows:
· Geometrical checking of 2D part drawing elements.
· Pressure calculation.
· Part layout design.
· Design of punches, punches holder, pilot, die, and stripper.
· Construct a standard database.
· CNC program generation for machining of the designed progressive die parts.
The output data of each stage of the proposed system have been used as an input date
for the next stage in semi automated manner using Visual Basic Language for
Applications [VBA].The system have been implemented for design several progressive
dies of different parts to illustrate the system flexibility, then the design results have been
implemented for manufacturing one of these dies CNC wire cut machine.

Improvement of solar cell efficiency by using Two mirrors V-trough concentrator

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 126-130

V-trough concentrator with four mirrors has been designed and constructed. Its
effects on the silicon solar cell performance were studied with and with out cooling
system. It was shown that the cell efficiency was increased from 11.94 % to 15.46 %
with out cooling and from 13.3 % to 16.4 % with cooling system. The effect of a
combination between Fresnel lens and V-trough concentrator was studied also. The solar
cell efficiency was improved to 24 % with out cooling and the best efficiency
improvement was 26.6% with cooling system.