Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 27, Issue 8

Volume 27, Issue 8, June 2009, Page 269-1672

Thermal Effects on Diesel Engine Piston and Piston Compression Rings

Isam Ezzulddinyousif; Basim M. Al-Quraishi; Ahmed A. Al-Beiruti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1444-1454

This paper introduces an analytical study on the thermal effects on the diesel
engine piston and its compresion rings during the contact between the piston and its
compression rings .A three dimensional finite element model is built for the piston
and its compression rings using the ANSYS v. 8 Finite Element Analysis Code
that serves all engineering problems . The thermal analysis is made using contact
case between the piston and its compression rings .The work in this paper did not
include a convergence study.
The study includes the effects on the piston and piston compression rings
of the thermal conductivity of piston material , and the contact area .The conclusions
of this study are that the material type of high thermal conductivity is considered better
than the material type of low thermal conductivity. This means that the aluminum
alloy is considered better than the cast-iron alloy, and tapering the compression rings
from the inner side by 1 mm , leads to a reduction in the temperature values by
1.6% , 0.84% and 0.37% compared to rectangle compression rings.

On Projective 3-Space

Mohammed S.Kirdar; Amal S.Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1455-1459

The purpose of this work is to give some definitions and prove some theorems on
projective 3-space S=PG(3,K) over a field K.
Also, the principle of duality in S is given which state that any theorem true in the
projective 3-space concerned with the points, planes and the incidence relation, the same
theorem is true by interchanging "point" and "plane" whenever they occur, where as the
dual of a line is a line.

Finite Element of Cutting Force in Turning Processes with Differently Coated Tools

Aseel hamad; Zena jumaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1460-1473

The aim of this study is to create a FEM simulation model in order to obtain Numerical
solutions of cutting forces, for a range of coated tool materials and defined cutting
conditions. Commercial implicit finite element code MSC.Marc has been used in
simulations of orthogonal cutting processes performed by means of multi-coated tools. The
latter were equipped with progressively increasing number of thin layers including TiC, TiN
and Al2O3 films deposited onto ISO P20 carbide substrates. Results showing the tool–chip
interfacial friction influencing the force distribution fields, as the consequence of using
coated tools. The various force simulation results obtained were compared with the
measurements of cutting force and discussed in terms of literature data.
This paper also reports the procedure and specific modeling techniques for simulating
the orthogonal metal cutting process using a general-purpose finite element computer code.
The finding of this paper provides useful insights for understanding and for improving the
orthogonal metal cutting process. The predicted value of Fc is in good agrement with the
experimentally measured with an error of 8%

Environmental Study for the Oil Pollutants Treatment of Wadi Al Naft Water/Kirkuk

Muhannad J. Al-Kazwini; Faris H. Al-Ani; Maysoun A. Al-Najar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1474-1484

Wadi Al Naft is a narrow valley originates from the confluence of two tributaries
within the industrial region of (BaBa GurGur). The valley is being used to discharge the
oily wastewater from the North Oil Company (NOC) premises in addition to the natural
oil seepages within the industrial region. The oily wastewater is a polluting source to the
agricultural lands at Hawija district and further lands. The study included (111) samples
of oily wastewater from (13) sampling stations (9 on the first tributary and 3 on the
second tributary) along the course of Wadi Al Naft and its tributaries. The sampling
procedure was performed for a continuous period of seven months (Jan.2007-May2007),
in addition at selective seasonal periods during April and July. It was found that the oil
concentration plays a major role in polluting the wastewater discharged to the channel;
which was (44%) above the permissible standard.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams with a Small Amount of Web Reinforcement under Shear

Thaer Jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1485-1496

This research work presents a nonlinear finite element investigation on the
behavior of reinforced concrete beams with a small amount of web reinforcement under
shear. This investigation is carried out in order to get a better understanding of their
behavior throughout the entire loading history.
The three- dimensional 20-node brick elements are used to model the concrete, while
the reinforcing bars are modeled as axial members embedded within the concrete brick
elements. The compressive behavior of concrete is simulated by an elastic-plastic
work-hardening model followed by a perfectly plastic response, which terminated at
the onset of crushing. In tension, a fixed smeared crack model has been used.

Routing Optimization of Mobile Network System

Thamir Rashed; Emad Shehab; Dalia Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1497-1507

To send the packets from source to destination node on optimum route in mobile network,
the router must find the path with minimum cost. If intermediate node has fialed, the routing
table will be updated and the path should be changed depending on this failure.
In traditional protocols, the packet is sent on the path with minimum number of hops and
this path is not always optimum, therefore the router selects the path depending on
computing cost for each link and send the packets on path with minimum consumption
energy, maximum capacity or minimum delay. If there is failure node in the path or no,
computing the optimum path in minimum cost is more suitable and efficient than the path
with minimum number of hops. Dijkastra's algorithm is used to find optimum path and
depending on this algorithm, routing table will be built.

Bandwidth Efficiency Enhancement for OFDM System Using Hybrid Equalization Techniques

Thamer M. Jamel; Ali N. Abdulla

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1508-1518

The Cyclic prefixed OFDM systems are very robust to multipath, provided that the delay spread of the transmission channel is less than the length of the CP inserted between transmitted symbols. Moreover, appending CP to each OFDM symbol decreases the bandwidth efficiency of the OFDM system, since the CP does not carry useful information.
To maintain bandwidth efficiency, a time-domain equalizer (TEQ) and frequency-domain equalizer (FEQ) is used in the OFDM system to mitigate ISI and ICI when the CIR interval is larger than the CP interval. However, the performances of these two equalizers are
degraded under severe channel condition. So a proposed hybrid equalizer structure is suggested in this paper. The hybrid equalizer gives about 10dB, 5dB and 3dB advantages at 10-4 BER compared with OT-FEQ, TEQ and PTEQ respectively. This comparison at fd=50Hz with sufficient length of CP. Also, for this case but with an insufficient length of
CP, the hybrid equalizer gives about 8dB and 7dB advantage compared with both TEQ and PTEQ respectively. Moreover, at fd=100Hz with sufficient CP length, the hybrid equalizer gives about 6dB, 3.5dB and 3dB advantage at 10-4 BER compared with OT-FEQ, TEQ and
PTEQ respectively. Also, for this case but with an insufficient length of CP, the hybrid equalizer gives about 6dB and 4dB advantage compared with both TEQ and PTEQ respectively.

Analysis and Simulation of All-Optical Router for TDM-Based Optical Networks Using: NOLM

ad S. Fyath; Hassanain M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1519-1531

The work in this paper addresses all-optical routers for TDM optical networks. The core of
the optical routers is the demultiplexer. In this paper all-optical router is analyzed and
simulated. It is based on a TDM demultiplexer employing Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror
(NOLM). Expressions are derived for the transmission and reflection coefficients for the loop
mirror employed in the demultiplexer. The effect of various system impairments, on the
performance of the demultiplexer, such normal mode loss, control power, and losses, are
addressed in details. Simulation results were carried out using MATLAB 6.5 software. The
results indicate clearly that the demultiplexer should be designed precisely to achieve the
required router performance.

Effect of Deaeration on the Corrosion of Pure Aluminum and Its Three alloys in NaOH solution at pH=11

Naema A. Hikmat; Ahlam M. Farhan; Rana A. Majed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1532-1543

In this work, the corrosion behaviour of pure Al and its three alloys (Al-Cu-Mg, Al-
Mg, and Al-Zn-Mg) was studied in aerated and deaerated 1x10-3 NaOH
solutions to show the role of dissolved oxygen gas and its reduction at cathode. Also the
aim of this study was to obtain the corrosion parameters such as the corrosion potential
(Ecorr), corrosion current density (icorr), cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes (b), and
polarization resistance (Rp) besides the thermodynamic and kinetic functions were also
calculated (ÄG, ÄS, and ÄH) and (Ea and log A) to comparison these values in the
presence and absence of the oxygen.
From the general results for this study can be seen that the polarization resistances for
pure Al and its alloys were higher in deaerated solutions and the values of (ÄG) were
less spontaneous in deaerated solution, also the activation energy (energy barrier) was
higher in deaerated solution.

Study on the Extraction of Some Metals from Ammonia Solution of Indian Sea Nodules by Using D2EHPA Reagent

Saad M. Elia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1544-1553

The leaching characteristics of sea nodules of Indian Ocean were investigated by leaching of Cu, Ni, Co, and Zn using 0.5 M of the solvent D2EHPA in ammonia solution, and 10% Isodecanol in Kerosene. It was found that Zn recovery almost remained steady after the first contact, i.e (0.017 g/L) while the recovery of Cu, Ni and Co increased even after third contact and reached its maximum value i.e (0.82 Cu , 0.90 Ni , 0.296 Co ). Also the result had revealed that the best time of mixing aqueous solution of metals ions to be recovered was found to be 2min, while the recovery of metals ions decreases as the organic to aqueous ratio was increased from 1:1 to 4:1.

Sensitivity and Lower Limit Detection Determined of XRF for Copper and Zinc Suspended in lubricated Grease

Abdulhadi K. Judran AL-Ogaili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1554-1558

In this work different weight percent of copper and zinc powders of 20 ìm particle
size were blended carefully with grease , and the final weight of samples are 2 g . The
samples were placed in containers were made from tephlon of 2.5 cm as a diameter . The
bottom window of container was fitted with 6 ìm mylar film . The samples were
subjected to X- ray fluorescence to measure the Cu Ká and Zn Ká lines intensities .
Sensitivity (m) and Lower Limit Detection (LLD) were calculated and plotted against
the weight fraction for all samples .

Design & Simulation of PLC Control and Electro-Hydraulic System for a Punching Machine

Ammar Abdulhussein; Abdul Muhsin M. Al-Timimi; Majid A. Oleiwi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1559-1571

Automatic control has become an important and integral part of modern
manufacturing and industrial processes .Automatic control provide means for attaining
optimal performance of dynamic systems, improve the quality and lower the cost of
production, expand the production rate, relive the drudgery of many routine, repetitive
manual operations, etc.. In this paper it has been designed a control system which
controlled the operation of punch machine .As shown in Fig. (1) this system consists of:
(1) the programmable logic controller (PLC) which is used to control time and regulate
the sequence. (2) The Hydraulic system receives and implements the logical commands
of PLC. (3) Electrical interfacing circuits which are very important to compromise in the
stages of system. In order to avoid mistakes of direct design and implementation in the
industrial and production processes and what follows from high material cost, therefore
Automation Studio Software has been used to design the hydraulic system according to
the required giving's by using Simulation software before the machine is fabricated, also
it is distinguished in the simplicity of using ,have a very good specification in design and
the ability of exposing the parts of the system in one screen and show the connection
between them ,this led to have expected programmable results.

Spam Filtering at the Client E-mail Level

Mohammed M. Mazin; Mumtaz AL-Mukhtar; Imad AL-Hussaini

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1572-1581

Spam has now become a significant security issue and a massive drain on financial
resources. In this paper, a method for filtering the spam at the client level is presented.
The proposed filter combines more than one filtering mechanism that would make the
filter more efficient, faster and low false positive. The main mechanism implemented is
the Bayesian filter combined with a blacklist and whitelist. The header of the incoming
e-mail will be tested against the whitelist to determine whether the e-mail is legitimate or
not. Also it will be tested against the blacklist to determine whether the e-mail is spam or
not. In case of no matched results the e-mail will be checked by the Bayesian filter. The
results of this check will be then used to update the whitelist and blacklist

Dynamic Analysis of Al-Adhaim Zoned Earthdam

Mohammed Y. Fattah; Maha H. Nsaif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1582-1610

Among external forces, the dam is subjected to earthquakes which are naturally or
artificially occurring and resulting in time-varying deflections, excess pore water pressure
and liquefaction at some zones in the dam.
In this paper, coupled dynamic analysis has been carried out on zoned earthdam
subjected to earthquake excitation in which displacements and pore water pressures are
calculated. The finite element method is used and the computer program QUAKE/W is
adopted for this task.
Al-Adhaim dam which is an earthdam located near the place of intersection of Tuz Jay
and the river Al-Adhaim is used as a case study. A parametric study was carried out to
investigate the effect of the maximum earthquake horizontal acceleration on the general
response of the dam.
It was found that as the maximum horizontal acceleration of the input motion increases,
both horizontal and vertical displacement increase. In all cases, the effect of the input ground
acceleration diminishes at time (60 sec.) from the time of earthquake shock. When the
maximum horizontal acceleration of the input motion increases from (0.05g) to (0.2g), the
horizontal acceleration predicted at a node located at the core base increases by about
(200 %) while the maximum effective stress increases by about (32 %).

Buckling Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate with Cutouts

Hani Aziz Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1611-1621

The determination of critical buckling load of composite plate is an
important factor in determining the structural stability, which was done by ANSYS
program and experimental investigation was carried out on many specimens of
composite material of E-glass fiber reinforced polyester plastic materials with
different no. of layers. Five cases are studied to show the effect of cutout’s
parameter on the structural stability in which the shape ( circle, square, rectangle),
size (20, 30, 50 ) mm, rounding corner (5, 7.5, 10)mm and orientation of cutouts
(0°,30°,45°,60°) are presented . Also the effect of plate thickness (no. of layer) is
studied .
In general , the results of the square clamped laminated plates with circle
cutout come out in a good agreement. Which is decrease of buckling load of the
plates with change the shape from circle, square and rectangle and in case of cutout
size. The critical load is still constant with the radii rounding corner and increased
with increasing the cutout orientation and the thickness of the plate. The effect of
cutout will determine the increase or decrease of the buckling

Design of a Neural Networks Linearization for Temperature Measurement System Based on Different Thermocouples Sensors Types

Ahmed Sabah Abdul Ameer Al-Araji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1622-1639

This paper describes an experimental method for the estimation of nonlinearity,
calibration and testing of the different types of thermocouples (J and K) using modified
Elman recurrent neural networks model based Back-Propagation Algorithms (BPA)
learning. Thermocouples sensors are nonlinear in behavior nature but require an output
that is linear. The linear behavior approximation is accepted, for a given accuracy level,
noise and measurement errors are always present. Therefore, neural networks techniques
are frequently required to minimize these effects. The problem of estimating the sensor’s
input–output characteristics is being increasingly tackled using software techniques such
as Turbo C++ language. A neural networks and a data acquisition parallel port interface
board with designed signal conditioning unit are used for data optimization and to collect
experimental data, respectively. After the successful training completion of the neural
networks, it is then used as a neural linearizer to calculate the temperature from the
thermocouple’s output voltage

Effect Of Mixing Speed And Solution Temperature On Cathodic Protection Current Density Of Carbon Steel Using Magnesium As Sacrificial Anode

K. T. Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1640-1653

In present work, The corrosion behavior of carbon steel in sodium chloride (NaCl)
solution with different concentrations was studied .Effects of mixing speed (0 to 2220) r.p.m
and the solution temperature (25, 35, 45, 55, 65)0c on cathodic protection current density were
studied, that would provide a full cathodic protection for tube metal specimen of carbon steel
immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution by sacrificial anode method using magnesium (Mg) as
sacrificial anode.
The results show that the concentration of sodium chloride in the electrolyte is an
important factor in determining corrosion rate, 3.5 % concentration of sodium chloride gives
maximum rate of corrosion. In addition, it has been found that the cathodic protection current
density showed sharp increasing with mixing speed. The results have showed also that the
cathodic protection current density increased with increasing the solution temperature and
shifts the protection potential to high negative value.

Interference Drag Between Cylindrical Particles in Stokes Flow

Sawsan A. M. Mohammed; Abbas H. Sulaymon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1654-1658

In this study, the interference effects when two cylinders are placed in series or parallel in
a low Reynolds number flow are predicted. For two cylinders with their line of centers
perpendicular to the flow, the drag force is lower than an isolated cylinder at small gaps but
is greater at large gaps; a maximum is found at a gap of approximately of 7 cylinder
diameters. For cylinders with their line of centers parallel to the flow, the drag on the trailing
body is less than the leading body, which in turn is less than the drag on an isolated cylinder

Effects of New Additives (Lanolin) on The Electro-Deposition of Copper Powder

Sami I. Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1659-1672

New organic compound (Lanolin) is added to the electrolyte of copper powder
deposition unit. The influences of the copper concentration, current density, and specific
surface on the apparent density of the produced powder had been studied. Also the mean
grain size of powder, mass of deposited powder are been calculated. The best
concentration of lanolin is 0.7% at which grain size deposits are smooth and fine (a
bout 93% less than 53 micron) and had high purity of 99.9%.

Manufacturing And Assessment Of A Tactile Displacement Sensor For Measuring Of Different Profiles

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 269-287

The aim of this research is to construct and evaluate the performance of the
Potentiometric tactile displacement sensor to measure different cross-sectional
shafts and to use this sensor in a developed computer system to assess its capability
to measure different cross-sections of engineering parts. The manufactured sensing
system is made of three major parts the sensor, analog to digital converter and the
computer which analysis the obtained data. In this research three Potentiometric
tactile displacement sensors were implemented used with working range of (0-
14)mm. The principle of operation depends on the variation of the value of the
electrical resistance by changing the location of the sensor depending on the shape of the cross-section required to measure its cross-section. A lot number of primary
experimental have been carried out to calibrate the manufactured system and many
electrical resistances were used to many different engineering parts also the cross
correlation function was applied on the cross-sections. obtained, to learn more on the
range of the fitting between all the produced cross-section obtained and standard
cross-section over calculation have been done for all the cross-section before and
after turning which gives the best fitting. Initial experimental work showed the
following .A deviation in the values obtained by the system of the best fitting line at
the linear displacement. Using the classical calibration method which means using
all the working range which equal to 14 mm (maximum) the researcher suggest to
use other calibration method by finding the best fitting line for a differential partial
range of the total measured displacement which equal to 3 mm for each sub range
with inter furring of 2 mm. Both calibration methods were used on all three
Potentiometric tactile displacement sensors to be sure of the results given by each
method. In this study high appearance of discrepancy of the results obtained on the
best fitting line at the end of the work in displacement sensor. A limitation a of
cutting for the working range and chose the best working range. Also it appears
that the developed system suffering from some limitation therefore the cross-section
obtained has a specific accuracy and this can not be over taking so to increase the
accuracy of the system it must be improved its design and more care should be
adopted on producing process.