Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 9,

Issue 9

Laboratory Investigation on Efficiency of Model Stone Column Groups

Kais T. Shlash; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Maki J. Mohammed Al-Waily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1673-1690
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.1

As in piles, the efficiency of a group (Eg) of stone columns is defined as the ratio
between the capacity of the group to the capacity of each stone column in the group
multiplied by single stone column capacity. In this paper, the group efficiency of 24 model
stone columns installed in soft clay is considered. These groups consist of 2, 3 and 4
columns. The tests were conducted on stone columns with length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 6
and 8. A laboratory setup was manufactured in which two proving rings were used to
measure the total load applied to the soil-stone column system and the individual load carried
directly by the stone column. The foundation steel plates have 220 mm diameter and 5 mm
thickness. These plates contain 1, 2, 3 and 4 holes, respectively. The spacing between all
holes equals twice the stone column diameter (D), center to center.
The stone column capacity is taken as the load corresponding to a settlement equals
to 50% of the diameter of stone column. The results illustrated that the group efficiency
decreases with increasing the number of stone columns, also the stone columns with L/D of
(8) provided higher efficiency than those with L/D of (6).

Load Line Direction and Bearing Length Effects on The Tilting 4-Pad Bearing Performance

Raad Hameed Majed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1691-1700
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.2

This paper presents the tilting 4-pad bearing performance under dynamic
load, the journal center velocity is calculated by mobility method. Finite element method
was used to solve the Reynolds equation in two dimensions from this solution the
pressure distribution can be obtained over pad surface. Study of the relationship of the
load line angle (b) with the pressure distribution changing due to the angular position
taking four angles 0o, 5 o,40 o and 80 o. Also the effects of many parameters were studied
such as length-diameter ratios, oil flow rates and finally dynamic coefficients (stiffness
and damping coefficients) of journal bearing. The results of this paper shows that the
load line angle (b) when equal 40o and length-diameter ratio (L/D=0.5), gives the beast
bearing performance.

Preparation and Study of Electrical Characteristics of (n-CdS/p-Ge) Thin-Film Heterojunction

Ahmed Shukur Hameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1701-1710
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.3

A thin film (400±5 nm) of Germanium was deposited on the slide glass, then
another thin film (200±3 nm) of Cadmium Sulphide directly deposited on the Ge thin
film, with high purity (99.999%) Aluminum metal was used as O’hmic contact on two
sides of heterojunction (n-CdS/p-Ge) by vacuum thermal evaporation technique.
From ideality factor (n) values, the current transporting mechanism in the
heterojunction was explained, where three regions in I-V curve were appeared, that is to
say, three mechanism of current transportation through the manufactured heterojunction
in this research were eventually existed, the saturation current (IS) was found for each
region at different temperature (100, 200, 300) K.
Through C-V measurements we found built – in potential (Vbi), the donor
density (ND), the difference between Fermi level and conduction band (Ön), the
difference between Fermi level and valance band (Öp), the conduction and valence bands
discontinuity (DEC, DEV), and the depletion regions width (Xn, Xp) of heterojunction (n-
CdS/p-Ge) of the frequencies (1, 0.5) MHz.

Using of Steel Slag in Modification of Concrete Properties

Mohammed O.Abbas; Falak O.Abbas; Khidhair J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1711-1720
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.4

Steel slag which can be considered as solid waste pollutant was used in concrete mixture for road bases and surfaces, bridges, asphaltic concrete, clinker raw material and other fields, instead of cement or filling material. In this work, steel slag was used as replacement of aggregate or stone, which has the highest content in concrete mixture. Four groups of concrete mixtures with (0, 25, 50 and 60%) by wt. of steel slag from Basrah steel plant were used instead of aggregate.
The first group, without slag, as a standard mixture was used to compare its properties with those of (25, 50 and 60%) by wt. steel slag. The obtained results showed that, density of concrete and compressive strength, also flexural force, after 7 days and
28 days were increased by increasing slag content, while water absorbed content was decreased by increasing slag content. Those results insure the importance of using steel slag not only in modification
of concrete properties, but also to save the environment from huge quantities of slag as solid waste.

A Hydrodynamic Model For Simulation Of Unsteady Flow In Storm Sewer Network Systems

Jasim M.Ridha; Jaafar S.Maatoq; Karim K. El-Jumaily

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1721-1735
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.5

In this work, a hydrodynamic numerical model for sewer networks has been
developed, Unsteady flow in either tree-type or looped sewer networks systems has been simulated, The Prissmann slot assumption is adopted to extend open channel flow equations to closed conduits under surcharged conditions. The link-node concept with a staggered grid, fully implicit scheme is developed to improve the stability and accuracy of the computation. The model capable to reduce the order of the sparse matrix equations this has been achieved by treating the sewers of same diameter that connecting at a node with no lateral branching as a superlink, and the ends of the superlinks are defined as
superjunctions so that considerable savings in computational effort is achieved. The numerical experiments show that the model is robust and reliable for different configurations of storm sewer networks and gives consistent results under different grid setups. Also, The experiments show an agreement with the results of few published studies.

Evaluation of Tigris River Quality in Baghdad for the period between (November 2005- October2006)

Ayat Hussein Al-Obaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1736-1745
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.6

After war and due to the bad conditions into most services in the country (including
water supply).It is decide to study some of important characteristics of Tigris River especially
when wastes began to through to the river directly without treatment.
The study concentrated on the characteristics of Tigris River and its suitability to be treated
by the plants facilities, especially water hardness and turbidity because they represents the
most important factors for water classification and its convenience for public use, then
comparing the treated water with the standards for the drinking water.
Relations were found between water parameters like (hardness with conductivity),(hardness
with TDS),(Turbidity with TSS) and (conductivity with TDS) and there variation with
seasons along year.
Increasing in water turbidity and most of water characteristics were found in February which
is the season of rains and high river flow. Water turbidity increased at Al-Wathba and Al-
Rasheed water treatment plants, turbidity values reached to 1200 NTU in raw water and 7
NTU for the treated water at AL-Rasheed water treatment plant, this means exceeding the
permissible limits.
Concerning water hardness no difference has been found into raw and treated water values,
water hardness stay in the same range between (215-465) mg/l .The maximum concentrations
found in February at Al-Dora and Al-Rasheed water treatment plants

High Resolution Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Using Genetic Algorithm

Ali Abdul-Elah Noori; Eyad I. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1746-1754
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.7

This paper presents an application of a performance analysis of a genetic algorithm GA developed for extraction of the directions of arrival DOA of several signals impinging on uniform linear arrays. The first part of this paper describes the maximum likelihood ML technique of direction of arrival estimation with genetic algorithm. The second part presents some illustrative simulation cases of ML-DOA estimation by using GA. Results are statistically analyzed in order to conclude from it the algorithm's accuracy and reliability.

Wavelet and Wavelet Packet Analysis For Image Denoising

Aymen Dawood Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1755-1765
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.8

The denoising method based on wavelet or wavelet packet is used widely for image denoising. It is one of the most popular methods that depends on thresholding the wavelet coefficients using the Soft threshold. There are many methods used to get the threshold that is used in denoising image. In this paper, the amplitude of threshold is calculated depending on RMS error in order to get the best threshold related with the image information. The denoising results show that the wavelet packet is better than the wavelet method in analyzing the image coefficients of information

Effect of Crude Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow on Pump Performance

Banipal N. Yaqob; Ihsan F. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1766-1774
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.9

An experimental study of pump performance (i.e. head, discharge, power, etc.) was achieved by using a centrifugal pump with crude oil-water two-phase flow. The crude oil used was from Sherao oil field in Kirkuk (Iraq) with a density of 838 kg/m3, dynamic viscosity of 6.0 cP and surface tension of 0.027 N/m at a temperature of 25oC. A centrifugal pump was used with straight impeller and one suction line and one
discharge line. The results show that the pump head and the discharge of two-phase flow decrease as oil volume fraction increased, and the power of the pump increase as oil volume fraction increased

3-D Virtual Maps Production for Mosul City by USING GIS Techniques

Abdul Razzak T.Ziboon; Amjed Naser Mohsin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1775-1789
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.10

With the developments in digital image processing techniques, 3D models of objects are transferred to the digital form from the hardcopy form. 3D visualization was performed by using Erdas Imagine Virtual GIS module. The model was enhanced with huge additional data. Since the model covers a very huge area of Mosul city, more information was added to the model to show the location names.Also local services and road network was superimposed to the visualization. As a result
of research, a user can fly over all Mosul city, may watch the topography, towns, local services places by using this model ,also the final 3d digital map contain all necessary information for users and designers to reach to the best decision.

Experimental Study on A Hybrid Adsorption Refrigeration System

Hassan Jawdat Fadiel; Abdul Hadi Nema K

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1790-1800
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.11

One of the most new methods of solar applications are the adsorption refrigeration methods, which can be powered by solar energy or waste heat. A hybrid adsorption refrigeration unit was designed, built and tested in this work, on January, 2008. A series of test on the solar collector was achieved to simulate the temperature of hot water that used to heat the unit generator of the field unit. Also from the field adsorption unit using an adsorption pair active carbon and methanol, it was found that there is an optimum generator temperature at which the cycle COP reach max. The cycle COP was varied from 0.07 to 0.3. It was found that it can chill one liter of water from an initial temperature of 35°C also a formation of 1cm thick ice around the evaporator was
obtained, when the mass of active carbon was 1.25kg and methanol concentration of 0.07 kg(meth.)/kg(A.C.).

Effect of Temperature Tuning on Diode Laser Performance

Zainab T. Hussain; Adawiya J. Haider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1801-1810
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.12

In this work, an expermental study on wavelength tunning for diode laser adopting temperature behavior varition process is carried out .Temperature effect on the characteristics of a stripe Double Heterostructure CW (GaAlAs) diode laser is shown . For the purpose of optimum operation a collection of important information has been
extracted regarding threshold current and senstivity of the laser diode as a function of temperature. It was found that the increasing in temperature (10-40)ºC resulting in an increasing in the values of forward current and the output power of the laser diode. the
threshould current shows a drop in the value(48-61)mA, and increase in the differential or slope efficienecy (0.1-0.25)mW/mA

Artificial Neural Networks Analysis of Treatment Process of Gypseous Soils

Mohammad M. Al-Ani; Mohammad Y. Fattah; Mahmoud T. A. Al-Lamy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1811-1832
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.13

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are used to relate the properties of gypseous soils
and evaluate the values of compression of soils under different conditions. Therefore, onelayer
perception training using back propagation algorithm is used to assess the validity of
application of ANNs for modelling the settlement ratio for wetting process, (S/B)w, and the
settlement ratio for soaking process, (S/B)s.
It was found that ANNs have the ability to predict the compression of gypseous soil
due to soaking, washing process with high degree of accuracy. Also, performance of ANNs
showed that one hidden layer with one hidden nodes is practically enough for the neural
network analysis.
The sensitivity analysis indicates that the viscosity and specific gravity have the
most significant effect on the predicated settlement ratio and the density of injection material
and void ratio have moderate impact on the settlement ratio. The results also show that the
initial gypsum content, stress and time have the smallest impact on settlement ratio.
It was concluded that the artificial neural networks (ANNs) have the ability to
predict the settlement ratio for wetting process (S/B)w, and settlement ratio for soaking
process (S/B)s of gypseous soil with high degree of accuracy. The equations obtained using
(ANNs) for (S/B)w, and (S/B)s showed excellent correlation with experimental results where
the coefficients of correlation are (0.9541) and (0.991), respectively.

Theoretical Analyses of the Dynamic Behaviour of Composite Cantilever Beam Manufactured From E-glass Polyester

Saad A. Khether; Muhannad Z. Khelifa; Hayder Moasa Al-Shukri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1833-1846
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.14

In order to have the right combination of manufactured E-glass polyester
composite properties and in service performance, the dynamic behaviour is one of the important properties to evaluate. The dynamic behaviour of E-glass Polyester composite was considered in this study where three laminate types was modelled [0o, ± 45o, 0o/90o ], also the influences of fibre orientations as well as the stacking sequences of the laminate layers on the natural frequencies and resonance under harmonic conditions were investigated. Commercial Finite Element ANSYS® Release 10.0 package analyses were used to simulate the Modaland Harmonic behaviours of composite cantilever beams in the frequency range of 0 to 1000 Hz. The first six modes in this frequency range were extracted and compared in the three laminates. A harmonic simulation was investigated to study its structure response to resonance. The results proved that
the [+45]s laminate had higher torsional modal frequencies due to its higher shear modulus and is more stable under loading than [0/90] laminate due to the arrangement of the layers.

Two Stage Kalman Estimators with Probabilistically Weighted Average

Hanady Abbas Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1847-1857
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.15

With spherical coordinate, the adaptive estimation using multiple model filtering is
enhanced in this paper. The enhancement is achieved by using just two depended parallel
Kalman filters, instead of multiple models, with the probabilistically weighted average,
which provides the adaptive mechanism. The first filter is constant velocity filter (CVF)
which is used to estimate the position and velocity of the moving target in non maneuvering
course. The second filter calculates the acceleration and the new adjustment for the CVF.
The second filter is referred as variable velocity filter (VVF). Monte Carlo computer
simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in
enhancement the multiple model adaptive filtering.

Contribution ofWing, Vertical Tail and Fuselage on Airplane Stability with Failed Outboard Engine

Raed Abbas Jessam; Naseer H. Farhood; Mohamed A. R.Yass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1858-1871
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.16

The Effect of wing, vertical tail, and fuselage design parameters on airplane stability
with failed outboard engine presents in this study. Boeing (747-400) have been selected
for available data. The semi empirical equations (Datacom) have been used with
modification of unbalance engines thrust. It had been seen that the wing sweep angle had
negative effect but the vertical tail sweep angle had a positive effect toward directional
and lateral stability and other results established by using modified datacom computer
program which could be used as a real design requirements for further configuration
improvements of the airplane.

Characteristics of Coupling Degradation Tolerances for Single-Mode Optical Fiber

Mohammad Abdul-Sattar Salih; Abdulla Khudiar Abass; Ali H. Al-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1872-1879
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.17

The coupling tolerances is considered as an important parameters for the optical
designer and it can not be ignored. Since the coupling efficiency is affected by the
displacement of the optical components during the thermal expansion and the
assembling processes, so, the coupling tolerances are just as important as coupling
efficiency in the assessment of the optical coupling system. In this research the coupling
tolerances for laser source to single mode optical fiber have been analyzed, these
tolerances include: lateral offset, angular misalignment (tilt) and longitudinal offset for
the optical fiber, also the tolerances values have been limited, our criteria is (-4dB) as
coupling loss to point the tolerance of the coupling efficiency versus the misalignment
in the optical coupling system.

Synthesis and study of the Novel tetradented ligand type N2O2 and its complexes with (Mn(II),Co (II),Ni (II) and Cu(II)) ions

Ahmad Thabet Numan; Maysoon T.Tawfiq; Basima Abdul Hussin Zaidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1880-1890
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.18

A new Schiff base ligand Bis-1,4-di[N-3-(2-hydroxy-1-amino)- acetophenonylidene] benzylidene [L] and its complexes with (Mn(II),Co(II),Ni(II and Cu(II)) were synthesized . The ligand was prepared in two steps. In the first step a solution of (terphthalaldehyde) in methanol reacts under reflux with (p-aminoacetophenone) to give an intermediate compound [1-[3-({4-[(3-Acetyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-benzylidene}-amino)-phenyl]- ethanone which reacts in the second step with (2-Amino-phenol) giving the mentioned
ligand. The complexes were synthesized by addition the corresponding metal salt solution to the solution of the ligand in methanol under reflux in (1:1) metal to ligand ratio. On the basis of, molar conductance, I.R., UV-Vis, HPLC, chloride content and
atomic absorption, the complexes may be formulated as K2[M(L)Cl2 ] were MII = Mn ,Co, Ni and Cu metal ions. The data of these measurements suggest an octahedral geometry for Mn(II),Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes and a square planar for Ni(II) complex

Effect of Direct Injection on the Aerodynamics Characteristics of Wing Airfoil with Backward Facing Step

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 288-301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.19

Experimental and theoretical investigations were performed to study the effect of direct injection of air on aerodynamic characteristics for airfoil with backward facing full step. The experiments were done in a low- speed wind tunnel in order to obtain the pressure distribution on the airfoil surface and finding the aerodynamic characteristics
(Lift, drag and lift to drag ratio). Theoretically the (Fluent6.3) software was utilized for simulating the turbulent flow around the airfoils and obtaining the distribution of direction of velocity around airfoil with step. All investigations were made for the (NACA0015) basic airfoil and the other one with a step at air velocity (35m/s) and for Reynolds number (Re=4.4×105). The experimental results show that there is a considerable effect in using injection of air inside the steps on the pressure. The pressure on the upper surface of the airfoil decrease with increasing the injection ratio. This effect
leads to an increase in the lift coefficient (Cl). Due to the horizontal injection inside the full step at (Uj/U∞=8), the ((Cl)max) was increased by (12.2%) with respect to the basic airfoil, and by (6.27%) with respect to the case of step without injection. The lift to drag ratio ((Cl/Cd)max) was increased by (37.9%) with respect to the basic airfoil and by (30.65%) with respect to the case of step without injection. The theoretical results show the distribution of velocity vectors around the airfoil with step. The effect of separation
of flow was reduced with the increasing of injection ratio. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical((Cl/Cd)max) shows acceptable agreement.

Study of temperature and ultraviolet radiation effect on the values of thermal conductivity of hybrid composite materials

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 302-309
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.9.20

In this research work a hybrid composite material was prepared contains a matrix which is Epoxy resin (EP) natural and fabricated fibers (Kevler fiber + Woven and short glass fiber + Palm fiber + Metal fiber), the volume fraction for all hybrid composite material was 25 %.
All samples were prepared by hand lay up process. Thermal tests were done by using Lee disk to determine the coefficient of thermal
conductivity at different temperatures, the results obtained showed good improvement of thermal conductivity values of the composite material consists of metal wires as result of improve the thermal conductivity. Also the results showed positive effect of the
directionality of fibers to the hybrid which contains fibers as compared with hybrid contents short fibers. To explain the effect of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the thermal properties,
the samples were exposed for a period of time to (UV); the results show that as the exposure time increased the thermal conductivity of samples decrease