Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 27, Issue 10

Volume 27, Issue 10, July 2009, Page 310-2164

Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Alloy's Content By means of Laser Induced Plasma Emission Spectroscopy

Mazin M. Elias; Ahmed A. Moosa; Ali Z. Al-Aloosy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1891-1900

A quantitative elemental analysis of ternary alloy's content was carried out
with laser induced plasma emission spectroscopy. An energetic Nd: glass laser
have been focused on a set of alloy targets at reduced pressure. The intensity of
UV and visible emission produced from laser-induced plasma was measured using
ultra-high sensitive photon detection and counting system of high signal-to-noise
ratio. Ternary alloys of Sn-Bi-Pb were used with different composition and the
observed photon emission intensity is found to be nonlinearly related to the
concentration of the alloy's content. The results were tested and demonstrated that
the present sensitive spectrometer can be employed for rapid online estimation of
the fractional content of ternary alloys with high accuracy

Heat Transfer from an Immersed Heater in Liquid – Liquid – Solid Fluidized Beds

Asrar A. Al-Obaidy; Majid I. Abdul-Wahab; Balasim A. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1901-1914

Heat transfer from an immersed heating surface to a liquid-solid and liquid-liquidsolid fluidized beds have been studied. The experiments were carried out in a (0.22) m column diameter fitted with an axially mounted cylindrical heater heated electrically. The fluidizing medium was water as the continuous phase and kerosene as the dispersed phase. Low density (Ploymethyl-methacrylate) particles were used. Previous
published heat transfer correlations, obtained for fluidized beds containing highdensity particles, gave significant deviations compared with the present data. New correlations were developed to predict the heat transfer coefficients in liquid-solid and liquid-liquid-solid fluidized beds. The new correlation is,

The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present work were compared with those estimated from other correlations reported in the literature. The comparison shows a good agreement with the data obtained for the gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds using low-density particles.

The Effect of Zr loading on the Performance of Honeycomb Monolithic catalyst for the Removal of NO , CO and Hydrocarbon from Exhaust Gas

Hussain Khalaf; Shahrazed R.Rauof; Abdul Halim Abdul K.Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1915-1936

Catalytic monolith reactors have numerous applications in industrial
processes and as technical devices, so the focus is set specially on automotive catalytic converters. In present work the experimental and theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the performance of monolith reactor on the oxidation and reduction of exhaust gas (NO, CO, HC, O2 and H2O) which emitted from gasoline generator. Commercial ceramic monolith catalyst and catalyst loaded on the commercial with
Zr were used in the present work. A laboratory unit was constructed for this purpose where a versatile stainless steel reactor of 0.02 m inside diameter and 0.2 m height was used. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was studied in the following operating conditions: gas hourly space velocity in the range 17.69 – 44.23s-1, reaction temperature in the range 373 – 673 K, bed length in the range 0.075 – 0.15 m and
at atmospheric pressure and constant air / fuel ratio (14.6). The results show that the conversion of NO, CO, HC, O2 and H2O are slightly changed with the bed length, . The conversion of exhaust gas reactant enhances in presence of water (wet condition) rather than in the absence of water (dry condition) and increases with the increasing reaction temperature and decreases with increasing gas space
velocity. Commercial catalyst loaded with 0.4% Zr gives the higher performance for all components reaction

A New Narrow Band Dual-Mode Miniaturized Bandpass Filter Design for Wireless Communication Systems

Nasr N Hussain; Jawad K. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1937-1951

A new narrowband, compact, and low profile microstrip filter design is
presented in this paper as a candidate for use in modern wireless systems. The proposed design is based on the use of fractal multiple ring resonator. Multiple ring resonators have advantages to possess much narrower and shaper performance responses than those of the single ring resonator. The proposed filter design is fractally generated using Minkowski-Like Pre-Fractal curve geometry applied to the conventional square microstrip square ring filter. Filter structures resulting from the successive iterations in the fractal generation process show a
considerable size reduction compared with the conventional microstrip square ring filter designed at the same frequency using the same substrate material. The performance of the generated bandpass filter structures have been analyzed using method of moments (MoM) based software package Microwave Office 2007. Performance Simulation results show that filter structures employing 2nd and 3rd iterations offer size reduction percentages of about 61.5% and 77.7% respectively
as compared with the conventional square ring filter

Lineaments Analysis and Mapping From Satellite Images For Southern Iraq

Ahmed H. Hamdullah; Hussain Z. Ali; Hussein H. Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1952-1965

Synergistic display of data recorded by different remote sensing has proved
extremely valuable for the extraction of geological features such as lineaments .
Accordingly , two satellite images were used for lineaments analyses which are
considered as indicators for rock fractures . Image resolution merge and
directional filtering methods were applied for lineaments extraction using GIS
techniques .Rose diagram and lineaments density analysis were used for the traced
lineaments . The output of these techniques are used to trace new lineaments as a
regional lineaments map . a synergistic display of these regional lineaments with
geophysical images allows the major lithological and structural boundaries to be
mapped . Evaluation of lineaments map and its rose diagram analyses shows that
the dominant lineament trend is mainly NW-SE and NE-SW. It is concluded that
these lineaments indicate the fault zones within the area. Besides, a considerable
conformity has been noticed between the location and dimension of such
lineaments with subsurface anomalies appeared in geophysical images

Expansion Method For Solving Linear Delay Integro- Differential Equation Using B- Spline Functions

Hayat Adel Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1966-1975

The main goal of this paper lies briefly in submitting and modifying some
methods for solving linear delay integro-differential equations (L-DIDEs)
containing three types (retarded, neutral and mixed) numerically by employing
expansion method (collocation and partition) with the aid of B-spline polynomials
as basis functions to compute the numerical solutions of (L-DIDEs). Three
numerical examples are given for determining the results of this method.

Improving Keystream Generation for Sosemanuk Stream Cipher Using Twofish Block Cipher

Rana S. Mohammed; Shant K. Avakian

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1976-1991

This paper will introduce two proposal algorithms (Snowfish 1) and the
(Snowfish 2) to improve the Sosemanuk stream cipher algorithm by benefiting from
the efficient properties of the Twofish block cipher and also use its key schedule, keydependent
Sbox to increase the security, randomness and try to avoid the guess and
determine attack of Sosemanuk. These two proposals use Twofish algorithm rather
than Serpent algorithm which was used in the Sosemanuk and also they use keydependent
Sbox rather than static Sbox. They are similar in the same key length (128
to 256 bit), IV length (128 bit), LFSR length, FSM functions and output
In this paper will make a comparison between Snowfish 1, Snowfish 2 and
Sosemanuk algorithms by using the tests of randomness, the structural tests and the
complexity of the algorithm. These tests give results that show the two proposed
algorithms have good results in increasing the security and randomness compared
with Sosemanuk algorithm.

Modeling ofMixing in The Liquid Phase For Bubble Column

Ali H. Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 1992-2007

Hydrodynamic characteristics (mixing in the liquid phase) in a bubble column with a non-Newtonian liquid phase (aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose, or CMC, at different concentrations) were measured and correlated. Experiments in a 0.2-m diameter, 2.4-m-high bubble column were carried out to determine degree of mixing
in the liquid phase at various gas and liquid flow rates. The axial dispersion model was used in the two operating modes, batch and continuous, and the tanks-in-series model was used just in the case of continuous mode. The axial dispersion model with closed-closed boundary conditions fit experimental data quite well and thus was used
to estimate the axial dispersion coefficient. This parameter was higher in batch mode than in continuous mode, and its trend was to increase as superficial gas velocity increased.

Design and Simulation of Digital PLL Synchronizer for BPSK and QPSK Based on Software Defined Radio

A. A. Thabit; H. T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2008-2026

This paper presents a design and simulation of digital PLL synchronizer, using
Costas loop based on SDR for high frequency communication systems. Design
parameters are selected for each unit of the proposed systems in order to
accommodate SDR requirements. Different techniques for carrier recovery based
on SDR are discussed. PLL techniques is chosen for synchronization, since it is
one of the most active synchronization techniques. BPSK and QPSK
synchronizers for coherent receivers have been designed and simulated based on
SDR using both Costas loop and modified Costas loop. The simulation result
shows that these two systems are reliable in recovering the carrier phase and
frequency when significant frequency and phase are present. Simulation result
shows that the BPSK system has Pe =10-3 at Eb / No equal to 8.5 dB in the
presence of AWGN and has the ability to track frequency offset up to 1200Hz
with 2*10 -4 probability of bit error at Eb / No equal to 20 dB. This system can
track phase offset 45 o with Pe =10-4 at Eb / No equal to 20 dB. For QPSK system,
the probability of bit error 10-3 at Eb / No =9dBand has the ability to track
frequency offset 300 Hz and phase offset=9 o with Pe =10-3 at Eb / No equal to

Consolidation Characteristics of Unsaturated Soil

Firas J. Kadhim; Mohammed Y. Fattah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2027-2046

The most common three-phase problem in porous media is the flow of air and water. This is for example found in the unsaturated zone, where water infiltrates through partly saturated pores to the groundwater. Liquid flow in the unsaturated zone is controlled by a combination of gravitational, capillary, and viscous forces. The mechanical behaviour of partially saturated soils can be very different from that of fully saturated soils. It has long been established that for such soils, changes in suction do not have the same effect as changes in the applied stresses, and consequently the effective stress principle is not applicable. Conventional constitutive models, which are based on this principle, are therefore of limited use when analyzing
geotechnical problems that involve the presence of partially saturated soil zones. In this paper, Al-Mdaina trial embankment was the problem analysed. The finite element programs SIGMA/W and SEEP/W were used, and eight noded isoparametric quadrilateral elements were used for modelling both the soil skeleton and pore water pressure. Parametric study was carried out and different parameters were changed to find their effects on the behaviour of partially saturated soil. The
parameters include the modulus of elasticity and permeability of the soil. It was concluded that the effect of modulus of elasticity on the behaviour of unsaturated soil is apparent at early stages of consolidation and diminishes when the time proceeds. When the clay layer consists of soft clay (Esoil <10000 kN/m2), the effect of unsaturated soil is apparent, while the effect of the modulus of elasticity diminishes when the soil is stiff.

A General Equation for the Flexural – Membrane Behaviour of Rigid – Plastic RC Square Slabs Having Variously Restrained Edges

Waleed H. Mohammed; Ali; Hisham M. Al-Hassani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2047-2060

Uniformly loaded rigid – plastic reinforced concrete (RC) square slabs having
six different cases of boundary restraints have been recently analyzed(1) under the
combined effect of bending and membrane action, and a separate load – deflection
relationship for each slab case has been obtained. In this paper, the load –
deflection behaviour of all these six slab cases is expressed in one single compact
equation as a function of the slab material properties and the configuration of the
slab boundary restraints. The application of the proposed equation in the analysis
of a typical RC Square slab indicates that when two or more edges of the slab are
restrained against rotation and horizontal translation the live load carrying
capacity of the slab can reach up to five times that suggested by the simple yield
line theory.

Aِ studing The Effect of Chemical Composition of Workpiece on Built Up Edge Formation And Surface Roughness

Saad kariem shather

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2061-2071

the phenomena built-up edge was the unwanted rough edge on cutting tool that is created by workpiece material welding onto the tool during cutting , occurs at the chip/tool interface when multiple materials are machined at low cutting speeds under high compressive stresses, this study involve relation between the chemical composition of workpiece and the built-up edge ( B.U.E ) formation which is generated on cutting tool during machining at dfferent types of low carbon steel
using turning machine , experments prove that increasing percentage of carbon on workpiece causes reduction in weight of cutting tool from ( 14.532g to 13.823g ) at cutting speed 40 m/min and 0.10% and 014% carbon also to 12.672g at 0.20% carbon because built – up edge was disappear and surface roughness was improving from the value ( 5.43μm ) at 0.10% carbon and to ( 3.362 μm ) at 0.14% carbon and to (3.543μm) at 0.20% carbon .

Simple Treatment Of Textile Industry Wastewater For Reuse And Recycling

M. Sh. J. Al-Muhamadawi; M. A. Zablouk; Mahmood M. Barbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2072-2084

The aim of the present work is at describing a simple physico-chemical
treatment for the textile wastewater of a local plant to bring its characteristics to
that used within the plant. Lime and polyelectrolyte were employed individually to
aid the removal of pollutants. The effectiveness of the treatment was indicated by
measuring parameters like biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, turbidity, electrical
conductivity, EC, total suspended solids, TSS, total dissolved solid, TDS, for the
produced water after filtration through simple sand filter. The treatment was
supported by an extensive study of the coagulation/flocculation and filtration
processes. Color dyes adsorb efficiently onto the coagulant particles and separates
from the original liquor. Pollutants removal efficiency (Turbidity, TSS, TDS, and
color), by (87-90%, 81-85%, 30-32% 40-45%) respectively could be obtained by
using lime solution of concentration 35-40 mg/L without addition of cationic
polyelectrolyte. Increasing lime concentration results in some difficulties like high
pH value of water discharged, dewatering problems and sand filter clogging.

Attribute Adjacency Matrix Approach for Extracting and Recognizing Manufacturing Prismatic Features from CAD Models

Omar H. Hussoon; Hussein S. Ketan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2085-2099

This paper introduces Developed Attributes Adjacency Matrix (DAAM)
approach for extracting and recognizing of part’s features, by deal with decoupling
or isolated manufacturing features. The proposed algorithm consists of two stages,
pre-processor stage which perform extraction of information from Design
Exchange Format (DXF) file format in Computer Aided Design (CAD), and postprocessor
stage which recognizes part’s features depending on attributes
adjacency matrix.
The main contributions of this research include building the adjacent relations
between faces of the part by geometrical characteristics in form of matrix, and use
clustering operation to extract the exact faces of feature and use different classes
of geometrical characteristics to assisting to recognize depression prismatic
features useful in machining and other application such as dimensional inspection
and assembly.

Aircraft Jet Engine Electrical Starting System

Ahmed Mahmood Mohammed; Nowfal Mohammed Tahir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2100-2112

This paper presents the study and analysis of the parameters of aircraft electrical
starting system by using multi-method multi-step starting process. The most important
parameters of any starting system are the efficiency of the starting system, the duration
time of the starting cycle, the starting torque and the current variation during starting
operation, in addition to the size, weight and cost. The importance of each parameter is
depending on the purpose of the aircraft as well as the jet engine included.

Modeling and Implementation of Space Vector PWM Driver of 3-Phase Induction Motor

Fadhil Abbas Hassan; Majid K. Al-Khatat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2113-2131

This research proposes the design, simulation, and implementation of a
three-phase induction motor driver, using voltage-fed Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation technique (SVPWM), which is an advance and modern technique. The SVPWM provides maximum usage of the DC link. A MATLAB/SIMULINK program is prepared for simulating the overall drive system which include; voltage-fed space vector PWM inverter model and three-phase induction motor model. A practical model is designed by imitate the conceptions of TMS320 (DSP) microcontroller. This practical model is completely implemented and exact results are obtained. The worst state of the harmonics content of the voltage and current (no-load condition) are analyzed. This analysis shows high reduction in the dominant harmonics and very low total harmonic distortion (THD) when SVPWM is used (less than 5%), compared to (more than 20%) in square wave. Experimental and simulation results have verified the superior performance and the effectiveness in reduction the harmonic losses and switching losses.

A Simplified Method For Estimating The Peak Load In The Large Cold Stores

Aziz. J. Aziz; Obaid T. Fadhil; Ahmed A. M. Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2132-2141

In this paper a simplified method for estimating the peak load in the large cold
stores is found and its occurrence day by utilizing two new variables A & B. The
first variable represents the number of days that is necessary for cooling the
product (storage) up to the needed temperature according to the daily temperature
differences only. The second variable represents the number of days required for
cooling the total product (storage) depending upon the daily storage mass only
without returning back to the details of distribution of the daily thermal load that is
followed in calculating thermal load for cold stores.
By the demonstrative and analysis of the thermal load in cold stores with detailing
study for each effective factors in estimating the thermal load characteristic is
observed that the factors daily temperature differences (D T) and storage mass
(m) per day affect significantly in estimating the peak load values and day of

Scale Effects on the Hydrodynamics of Bubble Column

Farah S. Jameel; Mohammad F. Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 2142-2164

The main object of this study is to investigate the influence of the column
geometric and operating variables ( i.e., column diameter, superficial gas velocity
and liquid viscosity) on the hydrodynamic parameter ( i.e. , gas holdup, bubble
dynamics and liquid phase axial dispersion coefficient ). The experimental data
obtained showed that the gas holdup increases linearly with superficial gas
velocity at both homogeneous and heterogeneous regimes but the rate of
increasing is slower at the heterogeneous one. The bubble rise velocity was found
to decrease with increasing superficial gas velocity until a transition point was
reached and after that the relationship was linearly increasing. It was observed
that with an increase in liquid phase viscosity and increase in column diameters, a
decrease in gas holdup and an increase in bubble size were obtained. It was
observed that increasing axial position led to an increase in bubble diameter and a
decrease in bubble rise velocity. Axial dispersion coefficient which is measured
by tracer response technique was found to increase with gas superficial velocity,
increases with column diameter, increases with axial position and decreases with
liquid viscosity. This work also presents a theoretical analysis that is used to
calculate the axial dispersion coefficient. The measured axial dispersion
coefficient was generally consistent with the predictions of the well established
correlations from the literature. The validity of the model was settled by
comparing its predication with the objective function of the well-Known empirical
correlation formulated by ( Hikita and Kikukawa , 1974) .The comparison shows
that the present model is statistically significant at a 95% confidence level by
using goodness – of – fit test .
Also a statstical analysis was performed to get a general correlation for the gas
holdup (εg) as a function of the parameters studied:
= 0.15325 Fr 0.29617 Ga 0.09223 Bo -0.0424 g e
Where the correlation coafficient ( R ) was equal to ( 0.957) and the absolute
error (3.5%).

Hydrochemical Evaluation of Erbil City Aquifer / North of Iraq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 310-332

Eribl city lies in the north part of Iraq within the middle basin of Eribl plain
(1400) km2, while the city of Eribl is only (70) km2. The research deals with the
study of hydrochemical features of ground water. (20) wells were sampled to
identify the quality and origin of the water for municipal use. The results showed
that the water is clear with no impurities, the temp. was (20.31)cº, the water was
slightly basic with PH.(8.07), E.C.(353.65) μ mhos/cm, TDS was (244.45) ppm,
and the total hardness (79.66) ppm. The type of the water was classified as fresh water, according to (Schoeller) classification with domination of the bicarbonate
groups. According to (sulin) classification, the type of water was of (Na2So4) and
of atmospheric origin, the study concluded that the water was suitable for all kind
of human uses

Study of Polymer Quenchants Effect on Some Properties of Stainless Steel alloy (316L).

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 10, Pages 333-348

This study is concerned with the effect of polymer quenching on some
properties of an austenitic stainless steel alloy (316L). Three different operations
of heat treatment have been done including quenching, quenching with tempering
and quenching with freezing. A comparison has been done between the effect of
polymeric quenchant i.e. water solution of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)and the
conventional quenchants represented by distilled water, engine oil and food oil in
having better properties. Tests have been done to the original and heat treated
specimens which were Brinell hardness test, wear rate test and thermal
conductivity test. Results had revealed that the heat treatments generally enhance
the properties especially the treatment of quenching with freezing and in most
cases the polymeric quenchants gave better results than the conventional
quenchants. Also a simulation to the results of the experimental work has been
done by using the (Visual Basic language), and the results gave us an indication to
the behaviour of specimens’ properties at different concentrations of polymeric
quenchants over the range used in the experimental work, beside the great
possibilities of the program in display the experiments which help in training
engineers in heat treatment and testing fields.