Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 11,

Issue 11

A Block Compression Method for Fingerprint Image Storing

Salwa A. Al-alagha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2165-2179
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.1

Storage of fingerprint image databases needs allocation of huge secondary
storage devices. To reduce the increasing demand on storage space, efficient data
compression techniques are badly needed. In addition to that, the exchange of
fingerprint images between governmental agencies could be done fast. The
compression algorithm must also preserve the original information in the original
image. Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital
images. In effect, the objective is to reduce redundancy of the image data in order
to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. It involves reducing the
size of image data files, while retaining necessary information. The reduced file is
called the compressed file and is used to reconstruct the image, resulting in the
decompressed image. The original image file, before any compression is
performed, is called the uncompressed image file. This paper is concerned with
compression method of fingerprint image without losing the important features of
these images (lossless method), by using (2 × 2), (3 × 3) Block Compression
Method. This proposed method done by compressing the fingerprint (FP) image,
and decompressing the image for the twice previous methods. And then compare
the result which come from experimental results for (size of image, quality of
image, thickness of curve), and find the relationship between them.

Partition Method for Solving Boundary Value Problem Using B-Spline Functions

Bushra E. Kashem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2180-2188
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.2

This paper is concerned with the approximated solution of linear two-points
boundary value problem (LTPBVP) using Partition method with the aid of B-Spline
functions as basis functions. The result of this method is compared with the exact
solution. Two numerical examples are given for conciliated the results of this method.

Secure and Energy Efficient Key Management Protocol for Ad hoc Sensor Network

Yaarob M. Nafel; Bassim Abdulbaki Juma; Dhafer R. Zaghar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2189-2204
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.3

Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have helped to
develop sensor nodes which are low-cost, low-power, multifunctional, small in size
and communicate in short distances. These tiny sensor nodes, which consist of
sensing, data processing, and communicating components, leverage the idea of
sensor networks. Ad hoc sensor network is a multihop network made of hundreds
of sensor nodes.
This Paper presents a proposed secure and energy efficient decentralized key
management protocol. The proposed protocol combines three schemes; key
establishment, key update and new node addition scheme. The energy consumption
of the proposed key management is analyzed and compared with those of the
formal protocols. The analysis shows an advantage in term of energy consumption
over the previous work.

Studying Curve Interpolator for CNC System

Maan Aabid Tawfiq; Laith A. Mohammed; Abbas M. Jabber Al-Fnzi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2205-2222
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.4

This thesis focuses on developing algorithm to calculate best length line
segments in (u) and (w) directions. By of tool paths for free form surfaces based
on the required accuracy of the manufactured part, which is represented by
mathematical curves and surfaces. Bezier method was used to apply the proposed
algorithms. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first part is to
calculate the better length line segment in (u) direction between cutter contact
points (CC), the second part is to calculate the better line segment in (w) direction
depending on the type of surface, cutter radius, tolerance and height scallop being
given. The algorithms are applied in production field such as design of extrusion
dies using three types of curve interpolation such as approximation cubic Bezier,
interpolator Bezier and compound-CRHS profile die. In this paper, the
manufactured parts are machined using a 3-axis CNC milling machine. The
machining operations are simulated using SURFCAM software depending on the
different interpolation techniques mentioned. An evaluation test is applied to the
three interpolation methods based on Finite Element Method (FEM) using
ANSYS 9.0 software to expect the strain and force required to extrude billet
through the dies which are designed using the three mentioned interpolation
methods. The G-code programs have been implemented on 5-axis CNC machine
(Okuma VH-40-HS dynamic machine), the sample material is (cibatool) and the
machining process is achieved without a lubricant at the Protoshop Oy in

Electrical And Thermal Properties Of Epoxy Resin Filled With Carbon Black

Waffa Abdul Kazem; Najat j. Salah; Adnan A. Abdul Razak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2223-2232
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.5

Thermal and electrical conductivity of an insulating polymer can be achieved by
dispersing conducting particles (e.g., metal, carbon black) in the polymer. The resulting materials
are referred to as conducting polymer composites. Electrical and thermal properties of epoxycarbon
black composites were studied in this work. The weight fraction of the carbon blacks
ranged from 0.0 up to 20 wt % with the epoxy resin. By discharging a high voltage through the
composite it was found that the resistivity of the composite decreased. Epoxy-carbon black
composites show significant differences from the neat epoxy resin measured in the frequency
range. Conductivity percolation threshold was found when carbon blacks is added in the range of
1 and 2 wt%. It was found that the epoxy/ carbon black composites have better thermal properties
than the neat epoxy.

Environmental Effect on Fatigue and Lifetime of Silica Optical Fibers

Khalid Sadiq Rida; Tairq AbdualWahab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2233-2248
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.6

Fiber optics as a transmission lines using for transmitting the signals and data
information at minimum losses. It is using with modem communication which has the
high immunity to' electromagnetic interference for transmitting the information, light
weight, low cost, no corrosion , safety because the electric nature which eliminates the
spark hazard , wide band width (more channel can be transmitted), low signal
attenuation than other propagation systems . It is using the light as a carrier for
modulation signals information (l013 – 1014 ) HZ comparing to radio frequencies of
(l06 – 109) Hz. Light sources as light emitting diodes (LED) & light Amplification by
stimulated emission of radiation (LASER),each one using with proper type of fiber
which are multi mode (step index), Graded index , single mode. Signal strength loss
can occur for several reasons, such as: Attenuation, Rayleigh scattering, fresnel
reflection , cracks , connector loss, splice loss…....
For the strength and fatigue of fused silica optical fiber on the environmental
parameters temperature, humidity and PH (chemical acid, neutral or alkaline). It is
shown that the stress corrosion parameter (n) is not a constant but depends on the
nature of the environment. Further, different kinetic forms for the stress corrosion
kinetic lead to different interpretations of experimental results? Since life time
predictions are very sensitive to the value of (n) and the kinetic form it is important to
know which form is correct. It is shown that the empirical power law form that is
almost exclusively used by the fiber optics industry provides a good fit to fatigue data
for high strength fiber, but an exponential form provides a more self- consistent
description of fatigue in different environments . From our research the following
results are:
1. Life time of the optical fiber (silica) obviously affected by the environmental
climate. The fatigue at the fibers affected by the presence of the chemical materials;
(according to that types and concentration) affected directly to the concentration of
the fiber starting from the external surfaces to the clad and then to the core which
happening the cracks and these cracks increases continuously by the affect of that
materials. That obviously by equation research (part 2).
2. the effects of stress or high weight on fiber may be happen the bending or a small
bend inside the fiber then dispersion of the light signal will be take place, then the
reflection way cannot becomes write, or cracks can be happens.
3. The effects of continuously humidity on strength of the fiber (according to the bellyband),
relative fatigue be occurs, and that affected to the construction of fiber.
(Table No.1).
4. Effected of PH (concentration of hydrogen) on the strength and fatigue of the fiber
follows to the faster fused silica. As we know the limit of PH generally start from
(1-14) as a number (acid, passivity or neutral) the No.7 at the middle neutral
concentration of Hydrogen ions will be basic, under to (7) will be acid. The
equations and Fig. 1 noted that.
5. The effected of temperature on the strength and construction of the fiber lead to
fatigue or fused silica (Eq.9) or increasing of the hardening, then lost the flexibility
and then may be broken or cracks appears on it which lost the specification.

Multidimensional Graphics Implementation Using DirectX API Class Library

Jumana Basheer Muhammed; Ana; am s. Nasser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2249-2258
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.7

Several techniques or capabilities are provided by DirectX, each of which
can add effects on the designed graphics by using special functions in the
application or program that written to design that graphics. Some of these
capabilities are that, Lighting, Rotation, Texturing, Fog, Environment Mapping
and Stencil Buffer capabilities.
In this research, implementation of two capabilities are produced, the first
implementation is of the Texturing capability and show several states of texturing
by using variables values of tu and tv texture coordinates.
The second implementation is of the Environment Mapping capability which
shows how a shiny teapot is rotated and only one face of the skybox is reflected by
DirectX can be written in many programming languages, such as C, C++,
Visual C++, and Visual Basic.
When using the DirectX capabilities in many applications, not all cards
support all that capabilities at the implementation time, some of these like
Lighting, Rotation and Texturing capabilities can be implemented with 64-Mega
Byte VGA cards, but others like Fog, Environment Mapping and Stencil Buffer
capabilities are implemented with 128-Mega Byte and over.

Taguchi Approach to Optimize Pack Aluminization Parameters in Carbon Steel Using MINITAB13

Abbas Khammas Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2272
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.8

Pack aluminization has been rapidly developed and widely used in many fields
due to its superior properties of coating. Surface is the only part of the component
which has to coexist with external environment. Majority of engineering failures
originate from the surfaces and components degrade in service leading to failures such
as fatigue, wear, corrosion and oxidation. The present study deals with the surface
modification of steel base through diffusion of aluminium by aluminium pack
cementation for improving wear and corrosion resistance. The material chosen for
study is medium carbon steel. Effect of varying weight percentage (wt.%) of halide
activator (NH4Cl) at different diffusion temperatures and times on the microstructure
and microhardness of aluminized specimens was studied. Taguchi robust design
technique using MINITAB13 was used to rank several factors that may affect the
microhardness and microstructure in order to formulate the optimum conditions. The
Taguchi orthogonal array L9 (33) was used for experimental design with three level of
consideration for each factor. The respone (Microhardness) was analyzed based on the
Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratio. The use of 4%wt. of (NH4Cl) at 5hr and diffusion
temperature of 700oC seems to be the optimum condition, where the surface hardness
could be increased to 1000Hv when aluminized. X-Ray diffraction studies have been
confirmed the presence of aluminides in the surface layer, which could be instrumental
in the significant increase in the surface hardness.

A Comparison Between The Wear Rate Behavior Of Polyester Reinforced By Glass And Kevlar Fibers

Jamal Jalal Dawood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2273-2285
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.9

In this research the wear rate of the polyester reinforced by chopped glass
fibers and chopped Kevlar fibers with length (1-2.5 mm) and weight fraction (4, 8, 12,
16 WT %) has been investigated. A Pin -on- Disc wear testing machine of variable
speed has been used. Flat against flat sliding surfaces under variable working
parameters conditions have been tested.
The results of flat sliding surfaces show that the wear rate of the specimens
depends heavily on the working condition. It increases with the increase of the load
and sliding speed, and the wear rate decreases with the increase of the weight fraction.
The results also show that the wear rate for polyester reinforced by Kevlar
fiber was less than the polyester reinforced by glass fiber. The optimum value of wear
rate was (2.75*10-6 mm3/mm) happened at weight fraction (16 WT %) when reinforced
by Kevlar fibers.

Physical Properties of MOS Porous Silicon Detector Fabricated under RTO Method

Narges Z. Abdulzahra; Wafaa K. Khalaf; Alwan M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2286-2291
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.10

In this research we studying the sensitivity of a porous silicon photo detector, we
found it improved through rapid thermal oxidation processes. Under our optimum
preparation conditions, photocurrent can reach about 3408 μA (under power density 100
mW/cm2 tungsten lamp illumination) and dark current is about 300μA
(at reverse bias of 5V).

Comparison Study between the Use of Plastic and Concrete Pipes for Redesign and Reconstruction of Sanitary Sewer Network in Baghdad City (Hay Al Karadda –Sections 903-905)

Shaimaa Taleb Kadhum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2292-2304
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.11

Over the recent years, the emphasis on sewerage has increasingly
switched from provision of new services to maintenance of existing service at
acceptable levels. As a consequence the need is now to rehabilitate existing
systems rather than construct new ones.
The common methods of rehabilitation consist lining of the sewer pipes
and that was out of the question since it decreases the diameters of the already
under size sewer lines.
So that, hence, it was concluded that the best method for rehabilitating the
existing system was by total replacement of the undersize sewer lines. This should
be done using sewer pipes with better quality material, such as PVC, GRP or first
class concrete pipes.
Modern water and wastewater pipe is either organic or inorganic in
composition. Today's organic pipe is made of petroleum-derived plastic, which
contains preservatives, antioxidants, and stabilizers to slow down the gradual loss
in strength that occurs with organic materials[1].
So that redesigned the existing sewer system in AL-Karadda district
within the city of Baghdad by computer with the use of QBasic language. The
design consist concrete pipes in once and plastic pipes in other to find the best.
Based on the results, it was concluded that the plastic pipes needed
gradient (Smin) less than concrete pipes (0.004 m/m for plastic, 0.005m/m for
concrete), the max. soil cover for plastic pipes was equal to (3.59 m) while for
concrete pipes it was equal to (4.25m).In addition the network redesigned on the
min. commercial concrete pipe diameter equal to (200mm) while for plastic pipes
equal to (250mm) and that will increasing the capacity of the network.

Analysis and design of PID Control System for Active Magnetic Bearings

Thamir M. Abdul Wahab; Adil H. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2305-2320
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.12

Active magnetic bearings (AMB) are unstable by their nature and are used in very
high-speed applications, therefore the design and implementation of a suitable control system
for such devices requires extensive investigation. In this paper the AMB control problem is
treated and design method of proportional plus derivative plus integral (PID) control system is
proposed using the two degrees of freedom method. The designed PID control system is
simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink, and some practical effects are investigated

Boundary Element Analysis of Capped Pile Groups

Madhat S. Al-Soud; Mohammed Y. Fattah; Kais T. Shlash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2321-2334
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.13

The boundary element method (BEM) has become one of the most powerful
numerical techniques which has already established itself within the scientific
community. The most striking feature of this technique is that, in principle, only the
boundaries of the region being investigated have to be discretized, which therefore
leads to many fewer discrete elements than any scheme requiring internal subdivision
of the whole body. This means that the number of unknowns is reduced dramatically,
especially for 3D problems, as the unknowns occurred only on the boundary of the
This paper is devoted to make use of the boundary element method (BEM) as a
practical problem solving tool to analyze a soil - structure interaction problem. The
program (MRBEM) is adopted in this study for the analysis process. It is a general
purpose boundary element method program for solving elasticity and potential
problems with multiple regions. This program is written by FORTRN-90 language and
developed during this study to solve a three dimensional problem represented by a
group of piles. The results were compared with those findings in some experimental
and theoretical researches and good agreements were obtained.
It was found that when using the BEM in the analysis, the stresses and
displacements need only to be calculated where the details of interest occur on the
boundary or are localized to a particular part of the domain, and hence an entire
domain solution is not required. Moreover, boundary conditions at infinity can be
modeled exactly without the need to extend the region a long distance away or to apply
artificial boundary conditions as a result to the arbitrary truncation of the outer region.

Growth Kinetics of Chemically Deposited CdO Thin Films

Hadia Kadhim J.Alogili; Selma Mohammed H. Al-Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 2335-2344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.14

In this work CdO films were prepared by using chemical bath deposition
technique where the cadmium nitrate salt was used as a source of cadmium ions.
The effect of different bath parameters has been considered in this work, namely,
cadmium ion concentration, deposition time, temperature of solution and pH value,
on the rate of deposition and terminal thickness. Annealing process in air at
temperature 573K° and time of 15min. are carried out for the conversion of
cadmium hydroxide film to oxide film. X-Ray diffraction technique has confirmed
the formation of cadmium oxide (CdO).

Effect of cooling rate of steel ( 25 Cr Mo4 ) on its hardness and microstructure

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 348-363
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.15

In this work , structural low – alloyed steel (25 Cr Mo4 ) was melted in medium
frequency coreless induction furnace of (60) kgs . capacity , lined with high
alumina lining powder .
Samples of disc shaped (Ø25- Ø30) mm and about (10) mm thick ,for spectro –
analyzing and cylindrical parts (Ø10×100) mm, were poured to manufacture
dilatometric specimens by machining to the required standard dimensions of (Ø5.5×50) mm. Testing of (12) specimens by electronic dilatometer type ( 402) ,
using different cooling rates , enable getting results of hardness and
microstructures Tests showed that ferritic structure with slow cooling i.e.( 0.1 ,
0.2 and 0.5) ˚C /min .was obtained –(hipoeutectoid). While pearlite started with
(1.0) ˚C /min .Cooling rate , and full pearlitic appeared by (10.0) ˚c /min .
Bainitic structure , started with ( 20.0) ˚C /min .cooling rate together with pearlite ,
reaching full bainitic by cooling with (100) ˚C /min.
By oil guenching (i.e about 120 ˚C / sec .) and by water guenching ( i.e about 400
˚C/ sec.) [ 8] martensitic structure was achieved. Those transformations in the
structure was accomplished with increasment of Vickers hardness values from (175
) HV with ( 0.1˚C /min ) cooling rate to ( 579 ) HV with water guenching . Those
results enable the choosing of suitable cooling rate ( cooling medium) to obtain the
required hardness and microstructure of this steel

Reliability Measurement for Rotary Kiln Cement Kubaysa Factory

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 364-380
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.16

"Reliability" is one of engineering indicators for describing the
performance of an item or system by probability functions. Reliability is defined as
the probability that an item or system is capable of performing, its intended
function in a specified time under given working conditions. Modern industry have
property of contrast and fastness of products development, so that the high costs
that occur because of failure machines due to failure, Therefore analysis reliability
is an important factor from point of view of the factory managers and the costumer
.This research focuses on studying and evaluating the reliability of one of
production system factory as a basis to study the reliability of systems and the
ways of calculate it, which consist of:
A) Failure Data collection .
B) Failure representation, simulation and drawing graphically the histogram and
probability plot in order to calculate Time To Repair TTR and Time
Between Failure TBF.
C) Calculate the β-value of weibull distribution for the plant.
D) Analyzing the charts to determine the age stage from parts and to calculate
the optimistic prediction maintenance time.
E) Analyzing the effect of failure mode in order to calculate the Risk no.
Data analysis has been done with support a computer aided program. Its
clear from the analysis of the data of the plant for Kiln and some components of
department, are in the third (last stage) of their cycle life, which is the wear-out
and aging stage . This is due to the β-value of weibull distribution. Which was β=
3.87 so that we focus more on the analysis's of their data as a case-study for the

Night Illumination Design on Building aid the Architectural Creativity

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 381-393
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.17

Recent trends in night illumination designs for building have experienced special
roles in the architectural compositions. These roles were the prime factors in enhancing
the characters of a building at night and concentrating on the building’s special details
and functions thru the definition of its internal and external spaces. The process is
mainly teased on two levels; The mental and the practical. Which will ensure the
continuity of spaces and the sustainability of its parts within the natural surrounding.
Sometime, equal in effect to day light, conditions, if not more effective in showing the
main creative features of the artifact.
The crux of the problem in the study is represented in the un-ability to define or
explain the full extent of the role of the night illumination design on buildings, within
the frame of the two levels of the process; i.e.: Mental and practical. Hence, the aim of
the research can be identified in the attempt to put down clear dimensions in the
process for achieving complete architectural creativity in night illumination designs of
The research indicated to the effectiveness of night illumination designs on
buildings in achieving the dominance of its features on the building, then it become
possible to draw some conclusions for the study.

Performance and design changes accompanying the replacing of an old cooling fluid(R12) with one which is safe on the Ozone layer ( R134a) in the cooling system of a small water cooler

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 394-407
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.18

Due to the spreading of cooling equipments that works with old cooling
fluids(Freon) in the community,and because of the bad effects of these (Freon)in
case of their spreading on the Ozone layer and the thermal enclosure
phenomenon.It was necessary to provide theoretical and practical studies and
researches on data bases dealing with the field of possibility to replace this kind of
cooling fluids with those that is safe on the Ozone layer and thermal enclosure
phenomenon with the least possible costs.this research included a practical study to
appreciate the performance of a small water cooler(0.5 liter/hour)which submitted
to a number of parameters of design changes that were possible with the least of
costs , this were included by replacing the old cooling fluid that has bad effect on
the Ozone layer(R12)with one that is safe on the Ozone layer(R134a).In addition to
assist the work by conducting several practical procedures on each change on the
water cooling circulation in order to reach the most precise results. The
temperature of the water that is supplied to the consumer was considered as well as
temperature of the compressor as a criterion to appreciate the water cooler
performance with recording all other changes that are possible to compare with in
the results schedule.

Effect of Zirconia Addition on Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porcelain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 408-416
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.19

This research includes the study of the effect of zirconia (ZrO2) addition
in a different weight percentages (5,10,15,20)% to porcelain samples formed
from (Duekhla Kaolin, Ardima Sand, Feldspar Potash and Calcium
Carbonate). We studied effect of zirconia addition on some physical properties
as (Linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and water absorption)
and mechanical properties as (Vickers hardness and indirect tensile strength).
The results shown that the zirconia addition in a percentage not increase
(10%) have been enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of
porcelain samples especially in indirect tensile strength.

Determination of Yield Loci for (Al-2%Cu) sheets

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 11, Pages 417-422
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.11.20

This study concerns on the plastic behaviour of (Al-2%Cu) sheets under
simple tension, plane strain tension and balanced biaxial tension. Experimental
yield loci were extracted based on the constant strain energy theory, comparisons
with the proposed two yield criterion after R. Hill , showed that the experimental
yield loci does not follow very well the old yield criterion, but it can be fitted better
with the new yield criterion. The determined value of ''M'' in the new yield
criterion were ( m = 1.85 ).