Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 16,

Issue 16

Preparation of HgI2 Films Using Solvent Evaporation

Gaafar M. Mousa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2885-2893
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.1

A deposited layer of HgI2 has been prepared by using the solution technique. This technique takes a long time about (10 days) to get a film. The deposition time in this work reduced to (24 hours). The film consist of 2.25 mm thick layer of HgI2.The band gap energy and type of optical transition were determined from transmission spectra, and an optical band gap of Eg =2.12 eV for direct transition was estimated. x-ray diffraction of HgI2 to film shows a preferential orientation of peaks (101) and (102).

Study of Changes in Structural and Electrical Properties of Thin Film After Irradiation It by Laser

Mohammed A. Mahdi; Shams B. Ali; Farah Samir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2894-2902
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.2

This research studied the effective of irradiation by laser on structure and electrical properties of thin film such as lead sulphid PbS, so in the beginning the film has amorphous structure and when irradiation by laser (annealed) the structure properties would change and the no. of peak appeared with different modes but the mode(200) still has large intensity compared with another modes, and the grain
size increased with increased the time of irradiation to become (7.5 to 16)nm, and for the electrical properties the film has linear ship between voltage and current, and the conductivity increased when the time of irradiation.

Effects of Discharging Sewage of Baghdad To Tigris River on TheWater Quality

Abbas H. Sulaymon; Ibtihaj A. Abdul Razzak

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2903-2917
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.3

Tigris River one of the rivers that suffer from the effect of conservative pollutants. This study include the distribution of pollutants ( which are BOD5, TDS, pH, T.H., SO4 -2, Na+, and turbidity ) in Tigris river between Al-A'imma bridge and Al-Jumhuria bridge ,a reach which is about (9 km) length within Baghdad city; which include four sewage pumping stations untreated discharged to the river.
It was conclude that the concentrations of pollutants were increase at the discharge points in the river and exceeding the acceptable limits according to the Iraqi standards specification of surface water , then BOD5 and T.H. became within the acceptable values after (7.8 km ) in the study region , and pH, TDS and Na+ were within the acceptable ranges in all stations in the region, while SO4 -2 was exceed the allowable value (250 ppm) in all of the study region, and for turbidity it was reach to (4.5 NTU) on (8 km) in the study region. At the time of low discharges of Tigris river, sewage pumping stations should set at low discharge rate to decrease the pollutant's concentrations in Tigris river .

Study Some of the Structure Properties of ZrO2 Ceramic Coats Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

Ali H. Ataiwi; Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2918-2930
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.4

In the present work pure and doped ZrO2 with (Al and Co 5wt%) thin film has been deposited on glass and stainless steel 304 substrates by spray pyrolysis technique The film were tested by XRD and the topography of the films has been examined by using SEM. Open porosity, rate of deposition, surface roughness and apparent density was calculated . The results of XRD show that the films was crystalline with tetragonal
phase of ZrO2 .The grain size of pure ZrO2 was (148.6 nm) and lattice strains was 0.27%.Apparent density for pure ZrO2 and with(Al,Co) dopents were (4.5,5 and 5.5 g/cm3) respectively ,and open porosity for the films are respectively(2.5,2 and 1.5 pore/cm2). Surface roughness (Ra) was(0.218μ m) for pure ZrO2 film and(0.904μm) for ZrO2 doped with Al.

Effect of Molybdate Anions On Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 In 0.1M Nacl Solution

Rana A. Majed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2931-2945
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.5

The research was aimed to study the effect of molybdate ions (MoO4
=) on corrosion behavior of SS 304 in 0.1M NaCl solution with six different concentration of molybdate ion in the range (0.01 – 0.3 M) at room temperature. Corrosion parameters such as open circuit potential (Eocp), corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current density (icorr) and Tafel slops (bc & ba)were measured and discussed. The polarization resistance (Rp) and rate of the corrosion in (mpy) values were calculated, the protection efficiency (P%) in solution NaCl containing molybdate anions was also estimated. All these parameters indicated role of molybdate as inhibitor material of corrosion SS 304 in NaCl solution and exhibit that the 0.03M MoO4 -2 has the best values of Rp, rate (mpy) and P%. The inhibition by molybdate was observed through adsorption process and formation of oxide layer on surface of Stainless Steel.

Calculation of MTF For Optical Disk Modulator By Using Fractal Function

Ahamed S. Abdula; Abdulrazak A. S. Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2946-2963
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.6

Optical modulator is an important component in optical systems. It is a device, which changes the angle between the vision line to the target and coordinate to electrical signal. The optical modulator modulates the optical signal by a frequency depending on the shape and number of sectors. The optical modulator takes various circular shapes due to the need for it. Through this study we have designed an optical modulator consisting of three concentric circles (C0, C1, C2). Each circle is divided to transmittance and oblique sectors, the numbers of sectors
chosen equal to (20,40,60) respectively, and increases progressively with increasing the number of circles. And thickness of each circle chosen equal to (Ro=1.5) cm, that means the radius of optical disk is (Rr=4.5)cm. The central circle was designed using fractal geometry with a modified program to draw and enhance fractal figures including the fractal optical disk. The final shape of the proposed disk was designed using (Auto-CAD) software. The efficiency of this optical modulator disk was tested by applying the modulation transfer function (MTF), where we found that the results converge, the maximum chopping frequencies in circles (C0, C1, C2) are (2.5,5,10)KHZ at (t=0.004)sec, and minimum chopping frequencies are (0.05,0.1,0.2)KHZ at (t=0.2)sec, and the best modulation at spot light size equal to (2 mm2 ), and that
the proposed optical modulator disk could be used in optical systems.

Study of Conveniency of Using Stepped Spillway in Roller Compacted Concrete Dams (RCCD)

Karim K. EL- Jumaily; Mariam Khudair Al- Lami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2964-2977
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.7

A suggested design of Bastora stepped spillway has been taken as a prototype to build a physical wooden model with scale of 1:20 (Lm/Lp). Experiments have been carried out on the model with slope of upward inclined steps of 420, 280, 140 and 00. For every slope of the steps, experiments were conducted in three flow regimes, nappe, transition, and skimming. As observed in experiments, the increase in the slope of steps has no significant effect on the flow behaviour over stepped spillway. The hydraulic depths of flow over the model were measured and the energy dissipation rate was calculated. Results show that the energy dissipation decreases with increasing the discharge, and the energy dissipation of flow on stepped spillways with upward inclined
steps is more than on the horizontal stepped spillways, it increases with increasing the adverse slope of steps.

Approximate Solution of The Linear Programming Problems By Ant System Optimization

Haithem Saleem Dawood; Saad Mohsen Salman; Faiz Faig Showkat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2978-2995
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.8

In this paper we use the ant system optimization metaheuristic to find
approximate solution to the linear programming problems, we also use the duality theory to estimate how good is this approximate solution and check if it is optimal, the advantageous and disadvantageous of the suggested method also discussed focusing on the parallel computation and real time optimization, it's worth to mention here that the suggested method doesn't require any artificial variables the slack and surplus variables are enough, a test example is given at the end to show
how the method works.

Studying of Some Mechanical Properties For Polymeric And Other Reinforced Blends Under The Influence of Chemical Solutions

Balqees M.D. Al-Dabbagh; Zaid Ghanem M. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 2996-3011
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.9

This work is carried out with using of unsaturated polyester resin mixed with natural rubber (90%-10%) to compose a polymeric blend. This polymeric blend is the matrix, which reinforced with several types of reinforcements (Al powder, Al wires, and glass fibers G.F) with a volume fraction of 20%.Hand Lay-up method is used in fabrication of samples of research.
Four samples are prepared: -
1. Blend (Unsaturated polyester + Natural Rubber).
2. Blend reinforced with hybrid (Al wires + glass fibers).
3. Blend reinforced with Al wires.
4. Blend reinforced with Al powder.
Several mechanical tests are carried out on these samples, and these are:- hardness test, compression test, and impact test.These tests are carried out on samples under the influence of normal conditions (room temperature) and after immersion of all samples in the chemical solutions (KOH, HNO3, and Na2CO3) for 1, 2, and 3 months. The normality for all these chemical solutions is 1N.Results show that highest values of impact strength obtained with samples of blend reinforced with
hybrid reinforcements (Al wires + glass fibers) at all conditions of test (room temperature and after immersion in chemical solutions).While, highest values of compression strength obtained with samples of blend which is composed from (Unsaturated polyester + Natural Rubber) at all conditions of test.Finally, highest
values of hardness obtained with samples of blend reinforced with Al powder at room temperature. The tests results are affected negatively by all of the chemical solutions, but the base solution KOH is the most effective solution.

CFD Modeling and Gas Holdup Measurement in Three-Phase Slurry Bubble Column

Ali H. Jawad; Raheek I. Ibrahim; Amer A. AbdulRahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3012-3022
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.10

Gas-Liquid-Solid system as slurry in a reactor have a wide range of applications in industry, a slurry reactor is a vessel containing the catalyst suspended in a liquid phase. In this study, we develop a CFD model to predict the gas holdup at different gas superficial velocities.
The experiments were done in a gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column to find the gas holdup (eG). The experimental data showed a good agreement with CFD results. An empirical correlation has been developed to predict the gas holdup for three-phase slurry with a correlation co-efficient of 0.994; this correlation shows that the gas holdup predicted was in good agreement with experimental values.

Floating Point Optimization Using VHDL

Manal Hammadi Jassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3023-3049
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.11

Due to inherent limitations of the fixed-point representation, it is sometimes desirable to perform arithmetic operations in the floating-point format. Although an established standard for floating-point arithmetic exists, optimal hardware implementations of algorithms require use of floating-point formats different from
the ones specified in the standard. Hardware modules for floating-point format control, arithmetic operators and conversion to and from any fixed-point format are presented. Synthesis results for arithmetic operator modules in several floating-point formats, including the IEEE single precision format, Synthesis and processing results for both implementations are shown and compared

University Admission System using Machine Learning

Lubna Z. Bashir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3050-3063
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.12

This work examines the entrance procedure for a student seeking admission to a college institute. The system ASD (Artificial Student Decision) is a simple classifier system, which learns from the performance of the previous batches. This experience coupled with information about his aptitude enables the expert to guide the student
towards the branch best suited for him. Genetics Based Machine Learning (GBML) forms our choice, as it is more human like, speculative, seeking better alternatives through the juxtaposition of hunches, inductive, using deductive procedures. Apportionment of credits involved in the evaluation of aptitude is carried out using the famous Bucket Brigade Algorithm. The tripartite process of Genetic Algorithm has been applied to make the system robust. This work addressed an important issue in
student education requirement, compares and contrasts what is involved in human learning with what is involved in machine learning. The results shows In the long run for big knowledge based systems, learning will turn out to be more efficient than programming. Development the LCS by using two wildcards this increase the performance of the system.

Influence of Shot Peening on 70/30 Brass Residual Stresses Using Plasticity Theory

Hussain J. M. Alalkawi; Qusay Khalid Mohammed; Abbas A. AL; Asadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3064-3075
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.13

Residual stresses play an important role in the behavior of structures
subjected to static and dynamic loads. The main aim of this study is to estimate experimentally the residual stresses in 70/30 brass material tested in bending and torsion using the plasticity theory. The influence of shot peening process on the tensile residual stresses is discussed. It is shown that the shot peening strongly influences the residual stresses, i.e. shot peening will reduce the tensile residual
stresses by 13.6% of the yield strength in bending tests. While will reduce the tensile residual stresses by 22% of shear yield stress in torsion tests.

Simulation of a Power Transformer Differential Protective Relay

Mohammed S. Abdulraheem; Adel Ridha Othman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3076-3092
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.14

The aim of this work is to simulate a differential relay, which ensures security for external fault, inrush, and overexcitation conditions and provides dependability for internal faults, to protect a single phase power transformer. This work combines harmonic restraint and blocking methods with a waveshape recognition technique. The harmonic based dual slope characteristic differential relay is modeled in MATLAB (version 7.3) functions. Two approaches are used to simulate the power
transformer transients modeling to evaluate the differential relay performance for different operation conditions: The first approach has modeled the power transformer transients in MATLAB functions to simulate the inrush, overexcitation and external fault conditions, the interfacing of this model with the differential relay MATLAB functions is accomplished via the sampler model which is simulated in the environment of SIMULINK. The second approach has modeled the power transformer transients using the power system blockset to simulate the
internal faults and the sinusoidal inrush current conditions, this model is set to interact with the differential relay MATLAB functions by the environment of SIMULINK.

Using Fractals in Information Hiding

Nadia M. Al-Saidie; Thanaa A. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3093-3111
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.15

Fractals are generated by simple, recursive calculations. Encryption and
decryption algorithms that take advantage of fractals are developed. This paper presents a new approach for information hiding using iterated function system (IFS) this approach exploits the main feature of fractals (generated by IFS). So that any individual that happens to find the transformed message, will not be able to understand it; without the correct method that will reverse the transformation,
usually through some knowledge of key agreement, with the original encrypted. Also to make the encoding more difficult to introducers we use steganographic methods to hide the attractor image in another colored image 256X256 pixels size.

Performance of a Plate Fin and Tube Dehumidifying Coil Using Entropy GenerationMethod

Alaa Ruhma Kazim; Eaman Hassan Muhammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3112-3128
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.16

The objective of the present work is to apply the concept of entropy generation method to evaluate the performance of a plate fin and tube dehumidifying coil. The present study provides an analytical method to model the working and performance of this coil as an independent part from the system without modeling the other parts that the system consisted of under wet and dry surface conditions for variable operating parameters. A comparison was made between the traditional effectiveness of the coil and the entropy generation model
to evaluate the performance of the coil for variable conditions. The study found that the entropy generation algorithm is more efficient and more sensitive to parameters change than traditional effectiveness to describe the performance of a dehumidifying coil depending on
the design and operating parameters. The combination of operating parameters of the coil such as air velocity, air wet bulb temperature, air dry bulb temperature, air relative humidity and heat load capacity affected the performance of the coil and the variable operating
parameters lead to variable performance, so the air velocity should be varied according to the state of entering air and the total space load during operation time to compensate the loss in performance and to save power consumed.

Comparison between Equilibrium Model and Rate-Based Model for Simulation of Batch Zeotropic Distillation

Zaidoon M. Shakoor; Salah S. Ibrahim; Neran K. Ibrahim; Nada B. Al-Nakash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 3129-3153
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.17

In this work two models (equilibrium and nonequilibrium) have been
developed to study the dynamic behavior of multicomponent zeotropic
(nonazeotropic) system in batch distillation column. The results of the two models were compared with the experimental results in order to construct and develop an improved dynamic model. The experimental work was performed through using a batch distillation column consisting of eight bubble-cap trays. zeotropic system of Benzene, Toluene, and Ethylbenzene (B-T-EB) has been used. The equilibrium model is based on MESH equations (Material, Equilibrium relation, Summation of composition, and Heat balances). While the Nonequilibrium model (or Rate-Based model), is based on MERSHQ equations (Material, Energy balances, Rate of mass and heat transfer, Summation of composition, Hydrodynamic equation of pressure drop, and eQuilibrium relation).
It was concluded that both models give an acceptable agreement with
experimental results. But nonequilibrium model required many correlations to describe the physical properties which do not exist for all systems. Also the time required to operate the program for nonequilibrium model is more than 100 times than that required to operate equilibrium model.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in PregnantWomen with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and its Resistance to Antibiotics

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 577-594
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.18

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 2 have special importance due to the complication that results from it which can be dangerous to both mother and baby. Different bacteria were Isolated and diagnosed from (40) UTI samples collected
from pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 2 and also bacteria in urine from (15) sample collected from women with diabetes mellitus type 2 (non pregnant non UTI). Five different genera of bacteria were isolated and identified from (40) samples these were (E.coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus); six genera (E.coli, Proteus mirabilis,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) were isolated and Identified from women with diabetes mellitus type 2 (non pregnant non UTI).
The data showed no astatistical significant differences (P> 0.05) between the type of bacteria isolated from the two groups. The microscopic examination of urine remains a useful test for diagnosis of UTI depending on the presence or non presence of pus cells, Epithelium cells, R.B.Cs, crystals and also bacteria seen in sediment of urine under the HPF of microscopic in high numbers it evident for present in urine with signification number inspite of that the urine culture and sensitivity is the standard basic in diagnosis of UTI.The data
showed no statistical significant differences between UTI and age but the results shows that sexual activity of women play essential role in UTI because the occurrence of infection UTI was more frequent at age group (26-35) with percentage (47.5%) also it was found that woman who have had many children were with high risk of UTI. The most bacterial isolates showed a wide range of variation to word the antibiotics tested the Proteus mirabilis show high percentage of resistance (57.4%)
while Streptococcus agalactiae shows the lower percentage of resistance (14%). Tetracyclin gave the high percentage (67%) of resistant from all pathogens isolated while Gentamycin gave the lower percentage (10%).

Study Effect Of The Change In Crystalline Growth To The Iraqi Petroleum Cake On The Electrical Properites

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 595-605
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.19

In this study it has been used the powder of petroleum coke from type needle coke as a filling material which content high percentage of carbon element and it was used a carbohedric material as a bonding material represented with a sugar solution (sugar & water) where sugar is classified in hydrogen cokes family, and this type of carbohedric residue carbon element during heat process. We were chosen four grain
sizes from the filling material and every size of them would be divided to four samples and put them under a different medium heat temperatures reached to (1000oc). During heat treatment we get lose in weight of the samples against increase of the true density for them. Then we added the bending material (which was (16%)
and equal to (0.2 gm) from the whole weight of the sample), and after homogenous mix and press processing we would dry the samples in (180oc) and then we make the electrical test. The best results were for the samples which have lower grain size and it represented with (D1 , D2 , D3 and D4); where the electrical conductivity was [ (0.329) , (0.482) , (0.739) , (1.522) ] (Ω.cm)-1 respectly , and for the other sizes
the best results were for it which had heat treatment at (1000oc) where it was [(0.780) , (1.005) , (1.302) , (1.522)] (Ω.cm)-1 respectly, X – ray diffraction to the samples which had heat treatment in (1000oc) and for the samples which have lower grain size and had heat treatment in different temperatures, we observed that the grain size and
temperature of heat treatment effect the crystalline degree where the crystalline degree increases when the grain size decreases and the temperature of heat treatment increases.

Production of Corrosive Resistance Al-Brass Alloys Instead of Imported Alloys for Manufacturing Condenser Tubes

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2009, Volume 27, Issue 16, Pages 606-620
DOI: 10.30684/etj.27.16.20

New alloys of Aluminum- Brass-Arsenic were produced in the laboratory,
which were not produced in the past. These alloys have properties according to international properties of ASTMB 111. The stress corrosion cracking and creep resistance of these new alloys are better than those of used (imported) alloys. The new alloys can be used in production of condensers and heat exchangers pipes successfully with less corrosion and high creep resistance.