Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 1

Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2010, Page 1-223

The Collision Model Between A Single Particle And A Spherical Cap Bubble In A Water Medium

Amer A. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

A mechanistic model is developed to account for the collision between a
single particle and a single bubble in a liquid medium. Based on the model, two
penetration criteria are established under which the particle is predicted to
penetrate through the bubble if any of the two criteria is satisfied. It is shown that
the particle penetration is only a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for bubble
disintegration in the case of single particle-single bubble collision. The penetrated
bubble is shown to deform into a doughnut shape and the subsequent bubble
breakage is made through the necking mechanism of the doughnut-shape bubble.
Bubble disintegration occurs only if the penetrating particle has a diameter greater
than the height of the doughnut-shape bubble. The column is constructed of
Plexiglas with an internal diameter 10 cm and a height of 180 cm. Experiments
are also performed for single particle-single bubble collision in water, using three
different particles (2 mm, 3 mm glass beads and 3*3 mm PVC cylinder) with
Reynolds no. and Weber no. are (953, 1512 and 840) and (5.68, 9.45 and 5)
respectively . Two markedly different collision phenomena are observed. A small
and/or light particle is unable to penetrate through the bubble and is ejected after
collision. A medium particle can penetrate through the bubble but may not break
the bubble. The two phenomena are all well predicted by the proposed model.

Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium, Nickel And Lead In Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils

Bashar H. Qasim; Mais A. Mohammed; Mahmood M. Barbooti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 17-28

The present work is a part of a project on the environmental site assessment of
a local petroleum refinery to evaluate the extent of pollution of the site with focus
on selected places of potential pollution. Soil samples were collected at various
depths from almost all locations including: production units, storage tanks, the
landfill lagoons at the outside boarder of the refinery and the residence location.
The analyses of vanadium, nickel and lead were carried out on extracts of the soil
samples made by five different dilute solutions of acetic acid, nitric acid, calcium
chloride, EDTA. The nature of the solvent is a determining factor in the efficiency
of transport of heavy metals from the soil into the solution. All of the
measurements were conducted by graphite furnace atomic absorption
It was concluded that heavy metals are available even for the weakest extracting
solvent. This was an indication on the nature of the V, Ni and Pb, where they are
in inorganic forms due to the degradation by the microorganisms of the soil and
aided by dozens of raining seasons and severe hot summers of Iraq. However the
soil keeps some of the heavy metals in the original organo-metallic nature which
resulted in only partial extraction of these metals with the solutions employed.
Thus, the danger from these metals is limited due to their insolubility in water.
The range of vanadium detected in the various extracts is ; for nickel, the range
was and for lead the concentration range was . The V contents were in the range of
0.01 – 0.37 mg/Kg. The Ni content ranged between 0.06 and 4.5 mg/Kg. The
range of Pb contents obtained was in the range of 0.025 – 22.5 mg/Kg. The V and
Ni concentrations at the deep soil samples were less than that of the surface
samples in most locations. Meanwhile, the penetration of lead contamination
seems easier than V and Ni.

Synthesis And Biological Activity Studies of Some Novel Metal Complexes Derivate From 2-(2-Imino-1- Methylimidazolidin-4-Ylidene) Hydrazinecarbothioamide

Ali A. Juwaied; Ahmed Abdulamier Hussain Alamiery

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 29-42

2-(2-imino-1-methylimidazolidin-4-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide react
with chlorides of Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) to yield metal ion complexes of
definite composition. These compounds were characterized by elemental analyses,
magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-visible, 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectral
investigations. The ligand was studied by using of theoretical method (Simi
empirical AMI module in the CS ChemOffice molecular modeling package) by
calculation of heat of formation, bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle. The
stability for the prepared complexes was studied theoretically by the Density
Function Theory (DFT). The free ligand and their metal complexes have been
tested in vitro against a number of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, E.
coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), in order to
assess their antimicrobial activities. The ligand and its complexes showed
considerable activity against all bacteria.

Synthesis And Characterization of Novel Functionalized Tetradentate Ligand Type H3NS3 And Its Metal Complexes With Re(V), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) & Hg(II)

Kanan M. Tawfiq; Mohamad J. Al-Jeboori; Matheel D. Al-Sabti

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 43-53

This work represents the preparation of the tetradentate ligand H3NS3 (H3L) and
its metal complexes with rhenium(V), nickle(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and
mercurry(II) metal ions. The ligand and its complexes were characterized when needed
by Infrared, Ultraviolet–visible, HPLC, Mass, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and
atomic absorption spectroscopic techniques, elemental analysis, and electrical
conductivity. The proposed structure for (H3NS3) with Re(V) is square pyramidal, with
Ni(II) is distorted square planar, and with the rest of metal ions is distorted tetrahedral

Demulsifiers for Simulated Basrah Crude Oil

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Adel Sharif Hamadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 54-64

Water in oil emulsion occurs at many stages in the production and treatment of
crude oil. In the present work three demulsifiers were used (RP6000, Chimec2439 and
PAA) for dehydration (desalting) of Al-Basrah water in oil emulsion. The
experimental work was performed under constant temperature 65oC and water content
30%vol. (3%wt.NaCl). The parameters studied: demulsifier dose (10, 20, 30,
40,50,60,70 and 80) ppm, separation time (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120) min and types
of demulsifiers (RP6000 Chimec2439 and PAA). The dehydration efficiency with
prepared demulsifier (PAA) was (75%). Two types of commercial demulifiers were
also used (RP6000 and Chimec2439), which gave water separation efficiency (87.5%
and 72.2%), respectively. pH, Salt content, remains of water content and density were
estimated. The least density of the desalted crude obtained was (0.874 gm/cm3) at (80)
ppm of RP6000.

Predictive Modeling of Surface Roughness Of Centered And Un-Centered Workpiece Lengths In Turning Operation

Abdullah H. Singal; Farhad M. Kushnaw; Ali Abbar Khleif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 65-71

The attempt of the present study has addressed an area that has been relatively
neglected in the past researches. This area focuses on studying and analysis the effect
of different centered and un-centered workpiece lengths, using turning machine
tailstock, on the products surface roughness, and then collecting data to generate an
experimental charts and equations for the prediction modeling of surface roughness
and increasing productivity for many turned products. These charts and equations
could be serving as a quick indication for manufacturers to avoid pre-chatter conditions
and the trial and error methods, and consequently reduce the required experience in
this field. So, the applicable range of workpiece lengths can be safely extended from
10 mm to 60 mm bars with 10 mm in diameter, and from 10 to 75 mm bars with 20
mm in diameter. This range could be increasing as bar diameter increasing and vise

A New Text Steganography Method By Using Non-Printing Unicode Characters

Akbas E. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 72-83

One of the methods used in security areas is steganography. Steganography is the art
and science of hiding information by embedding messages within cover media without
attracting attention. the cover media can be text, image, video or audio files. Text
steganography is more difficult than others due to the difficulty in finding redundant
information in text file. This paper presents a new idea for text steganography by using
Unicode standard characters, (which have the non-printing properties) to encode the
letters of English language and embedding the secret message letter by letter into the
This method has high hiding capacity, it can hide (K+1) letters in a text with K
characters and it does not make any apparent changes in the original text. So it satisfies
perceptual transparency.

Study of Factors Affecting on Formability of Stainless Steel Alloys

Math Ahmed Abdulallah; Hassan Baker Rahmetallah; Samier Ali Alrbii

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 84-102

Factors affecting on formability of austenitic stainless steel AISI321 and two
duplex stainless steels GOST A917, and SAF2205, have been studied in the asreceived
condition at different strain rates, testing temperatures, and directions.
The mechanical properties obtained from tensile testing (strength, ductility, strain
hardening index, and strain rate sensitivity), have been chosen as criteria to detect
the formability. The values of these criteria are compared with stretching behavior
obtained from Olsen test (peak height, maximum stretching force, and total work
done). Strain hardening index, elongation, and tensile: yield ratio, were found
good criteria which represent formability. Results from tensile and stretching tests
of these alloys in the as-received condition, showed that the austenitic stainless
steel had the best formability due to its higher ductility and work hardenability.
Formability was found to be dependent on strain rate, testing temperature, and
rolling direction due to the anisotropy. Stretching tests for the three alloys in the
as-received condition, showed that 321 austenitic stainless steel had higher (hvalue)
, followed by 2205 duplex. Lubrication was found to improve formability
by increasing the (h-value) for the three alloys.

Behavior of Short Span Composite Beams Strengthened with CFRP Strips

Ahmed F. Kadhum; Jian Yang; Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 103-118

The experimental program in this paper is divided into two groups: the first
one consists of seven composite beams; six of them were strengthened with one
and two CFRP strips and with three different percentages of full beam length
(40%, 60%, and 100%). The second group consists of five composite beams
strengthened at the face of the bottom flange with CFRP strips fastened to the steel
section by steel bolts with two different length proportion of CFRP strips to beam
soffit (60%, and 100%).
The analytical investigation included the use of three dimensional
nonlinear finite elements to model the performance of the composite beams using
(ANSYS 8.0) computer program.

Removal of Heavy Metals From Waste Water By Date Palm Tree Wastes

Layla A. A. Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 119-125

Wastes of the Iraqi date palm tree was used to study removal of heavy metal
cations ( Cu+2, Cd+2& Zn+2) from simulated artificial waste water using batch
adsorption process.
The dried parts of the date palm wastes, were grinded to ≤1mm in size and used
directly in different adsorbent / metal ion ratios, starting with metal ion
concentration of (1000ppm).
Influence of contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent loading
weight, on removal percentage were investigated; experiments were carried out at
room temperature. 25Co and pH value of (5-6).
Date palm wastes succeeded to achieve 90% removal for Cu+2 ions, 57.5% for Cd+2
ions & 37.5% for Zn+2 ions within (60 min) contact time at adsorbent loading ratio
of 30 g/l. Removal values for mixed ions were lower due to competition
&interaction between ions, (80% Cu+2, 51% Cd+2 & 33% Zn+2 )

Design and Implementation of A Software Protection System Against Software Piracy By Using Cryptographic Techniques

Zainab M. Fadhel; Alia Karim Abdul Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 126-148

Software Piracy becomes a major problem with the fast and vast growth in the use
of the internet, and the new computer technologies is aided in increasing software
piracy. In this work, a software protection system against piracy is proposed. This
proposed system uses standard techniques to ease these difficulties such as Zero
knowledge proof, Improved RSA, MD5, and Triple DES. The proposed system use a
proposed method to protect all the system files, and a proposed algorithm to generate
software Copy Identification Number called (ICN). The implemented system where a
software application hashes hardware serial numbers to generate a unique Installation
ID. This Installation ID is sent to the manufacturer to verify the authenticity of the
application and to ensure that the product is not being used for multiple installations

Effect of Construction Sequence and Soil Nonlinearity On The Behavior of Sheet Pile Walls

Mohammad Faiq Aswad; Yasir Khalil Alkubaisy; kais Taha Shlash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 149-163

This study deals with assessing the behavior of a sheet pile wall by estimating
the stresses and displacements of the sheet pile wall and surrounding soil throughout
the different construction stages. The finite element method is used to carry out a
comparison study to assess the effect of the soil nonlinearity on the behavior of sheet
pile wall. The nonlinear hyperbolic model is used to represent both the soil and
interface behavior of soil-sheet pile wall system.
The analysis of sheet pile wall was carried out using a nonlinear incremental
stress dependent finite element computer program capable of simulating the different
construction stages of the system. It was found that increasing excavation depth
reduces both active and passive pressures below that calculated by Rankine theory and
that shear stresses concentrate around sheet pile wall and increase with increasing
excavation depth. It also noticed that adopting nonlinear soil properties leads to a more
economical design of the sheet pile walls.

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Technique to Study Soil Physical Properties for Hour Al-Hammar (South of Iraq)

Abdul Razzak T. Ziboon; Aseel Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 164-180

This paper includes the digital image processing (image enhancement and the
digital classification techniques) using ERDAS, ver.,8.7, package for Landsat 7
(ETM+), 3-visible bands with resolution (14.25m), acquired in March 2004 .
The field investigation includes GPS surveying, which coincides with the
reports of the laboratory tests (physical tests), which include soil classification test
(according to the unified soil classification system (USCS), for certain locations),
and spectral measurements by using radiometer instrument.
The main results of this study show that the selected visible bands in the
digital visual interpretation process are considered an optimum means to sense the
soil types. It is found that the study region soil has high content of the fine soil
texture (clay and silt). Therefore, the digital map of unsupervised classification
gives good presentation of some of the main landcover classes and merges the
others, whereas the supervised classification gives good presentation of the main
landcover classes with overall accuracy equal to (99.7%).

Coding Implementation By Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Matheel Emad AL-Deen AL-Dargazli; Matheel Emad AL-Deen AL-Dargazli

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 181-198

Image processing can be considered as an essential part of wide range
computer applications. This application deals with image coding and it discusses
image coding schemes, by using transforms to code the image or not. Huffman
coding and Run Length coding are not using transforms to code the image,
moreover, threshold coding and Zonal coding use transforms to code the image.
Two types of transforms, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet
Transform (DWT) have been used after segmenting the image into blocks, and
then Zonal coding algorithm or threshold coding algorithm is used to get the coded
image. Finally we conclude that using wavelet transform is better than other
transforms when it is used for image coding.

The Application of Neural Network on The Contingency Analysis of Iraqi Super Grid Network

Muthanna Abdulkareem Hasan; Afaneen Anwar Al-Khazragy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 199-213

Many of the problems that occur on electrical power system can cause serious
trouble with in such a quick time period that the operator (in control room) could not
take action fast enough. This is often the case with cascading failures. Because of this
aspect of power system operation, modern operation computers are equipped with
contingency analysis programs that model possible system troubles before they arise.
Therefore, this work has developed an Artificial Neural Network technique to alarm
the operators in control room to any outage in power system elements (Generating
unit or Transmission line) depending upon the results of AC load flow after each
separation in these elements.
The aim of this work is to improve the database system of Iraqi Control Centers
by adopting the facility of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to identify
the transmission line or the generation unit separate’s in the electrical network. The
work comprises four major parts which are; the development of the load flow
program using Newton-Raphson Method, building the structure of Neural Network
program (Radial Basis Function Neural Network), the engagement between the two
programs, and the development of Visualization Technique for presenting the results
via using Matlab language (Version 6.5). After the Engagement between the
Visualization and other programs, the network under consideration (Iraqi Super Grid
Network 400Kv) was studied and analyzed.

Reliability and Effectiveness of the Differential Transformation Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Fourth order Boundary Value Problems

afar Mohamad; Anwar Ja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 214-223

In this paper, differential transformation method is applied to construct analytic
solutions of the boundary value problems for linear and non-linear 4th order nonhomogenous
differential equations. The differential transformation method is
tested using three physical model problems. Results are presented in tables and
figures. It was appeared in comparing results of the differential transformation
method with Rung- Kutta , and RK-Butcher solutions that the differential
transformation method is more reliable and effective in solving linear and nonlinear
differential equations.

Investigatvon of The Effect of The Inflection Point of Stream Line Dwevagin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The effect of the inflection point of die profile has been investigated for
dies designed according to the streamline concept, dies designed with different
inflection point have been adopted (0.25 , 0.5 , 0.75 ) from the original length of
die, under the axismmetric condition with reduction of area (%40), under
frictionless condition, with pass length (20 mm).A special (F.E.M) cod (Ansys 5.4)
has been applied for analysis.The results in this study shows that the position of
inflection point effectual on extrusion load and the strain distribution, and the
inflection point at which the extrusion load is minimum and more homogenous
strain distribution lies in middle of die (i.e at 0.5 L).

Influence of Technological Evolution On Formal Structure of High – Rise Buildings

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 13-29

Architectural design has been influenced by the great technological evolution in
the world . Architects and construction engineers began to use the newest available
technologies in designing and implementing architectural products , especially in
high – rise buildings , which depends basically on technology of all branches (i.e.
style , construction and information) . The research problem is defined as (lack of
oriented comprehensive , practical and ideological studies of the technological evolution
influence on formal structure of high – rise buildings) .
The research aims at (diagnosing the effect of technology , as a basic variable , to
show the distinct formal composition of high – rise buildings) . To fulfill this aim ,
the research depends , in its theoretical part , on defining the most active and influential
variables effecting formal structure of high – rise buildings . In the practical
part , the research aims at revealing the application scope of the theoretical
framework by using qualitative measurement , describing and analyzing the influence
and its implementation in four projects selected as practical samples . At last ,
the research presents conclusions and recommendations for both theoretical and
practical levels.

Spectroscopic Study of benzene molecular

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 30-36

The mid Infrared, Near infrared, visible, and Ultra-violet spectra of Benzene
molecule have been studied. Since Benzene molecule belongs to D6h point group,
with very high symmetry elements, therefore it may be expected for its external
vibrations to be either infrared or Raman active only. The mid infrared spectrum of
the molecule shows only the active infrared fundamental and combination bands.
However no overtone bands have been detected within this region because of its
symmetry. The ultra -violet region shows cut off starting at (350 nm) due to
d d* and π π* electronic transitions. However no absorption has been
observed within visible region (400-800)nm, which is confirmed since pure benzene
liquid has no color.

Principles of aluminium-recycling industry in iraq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 37-45

Aluminium and its alloys are considered as the most important in the series of low
density materials which have different industrial applications to justify the need for
low density suitable for advanced technology. As a result of increasing the cost of
metals and their alloys during the last years, there were critical needs to get the
engineering materials from their scraps; especially for aluminium alloys which have
low melting temperatures. It is world wide known that 40% of the total production of
high quality aluminium and its alloys from their scraps which need low energy around
90% less than that required for production aluminium from ore.
In this study, different scraps of aluminium and its alloys (wrought and casting) were
determined. These alloys were collected from scraps of work shops, industry, ingots,
used cans, used home appliance and equipments. It was found that there are no
information regarding these scraps from industrial and environmental representatives.
In order to obtain new products from these scraps, it requires knowing the quality of
them. In spite of importance of this industry, it still a traditional and applied without
any scientific or technological aspects.