Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 2

Volume 28, Issue 2, January 2010, Page 46-430

The Use of Local Sawdust as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Copper Ion from Wastewater Using Fixed Bed Adsorption

Nagham A. Ageena

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 224-235

The aim of the present work is to study the removal of copper ion presents in
industrial waste water using the local sawdust.
Adsorption column was utilized in the removal process at constant temperature.
The effect of the concentration of copper ion in the range (100-500) mg/L was
studied. Increasing the inlet ion concentration increases the slope of the breakthrough
curve. The effect of bed height in the range of (10-30) cm on copper ion
adsorption from wastewater was studied. The increase in bed height increases the
break point values. The effect of flow rate in the range (0.5-1.5) cm3/sec on copper
ion adsorption also was studied. Increasing the flow rate decreases the breakthrough
time. The best operating conditions in this work for copper ion adsorption
are 100 mg/L of feed, 30 cm bed height and 0.5 cm3/sec feed flow rate. It was
found that the equilibrium relation agrees with Langmuir & Freundlich equations.
Finally accumulation adsorption of copper ion at different operating conditions
was calculated.

Digitally Processed Geophysical Data Sets for Identification of Geological Features in Southern Iraq

Hussein H. Karim; Hussain Z. Ali; Ahmed H. Hamdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 236-252

The conventional remotely-sensed satellite imagery is suited for regional
investigations in areas of good exposures which are reduced in southern Iraq due to
vegetation, water – covered areas and flat terrains. An imagery produced from
digitally processed geophysical data is an extremely powerful technique for
identification of geological features in such areas of extreme economic importance .
By utilizing an appropriate digital processing, the geophysical contour maps have
been converted to geophysical images. Images produced from digitally processed
geophysical data (gravity and aeromagnetic) have been analyzed by polynomial
filtering ( using several degrees ) allow major features to be delineated clearly. An
integrated image of gravity and aeromagnetic data sets has been produced using the
best of polynomial filtering ( 6th degree residuals ) . The interpretation of final output
images shows the association of negative gravity and magnetic residual anomalies
with some anticlinal structures , while positive residuals are associated with the
others. The positive residuals could be due to basement uplift , and the reversed
values could be due to deep- seated light core probably salt beds. Basrah depression
exhibits negative residuals.

Spectral Method and B- Spline Functions for Approximate Solution of Optimal Control Problem

Saba S. Hassen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 253-260

In this paper an efficient algorithm is proposed, which is based on applying the idea
of spectral method using the B-spline polynomials to find an approximate solution of
finite quadratic optimal control problems (QOCP), which are governed by ordinary
differential equations, represent the constraints.

Proposed Enhancement algorithm for Company Employers Management using Genetic Algorithm in Data Mining

Dalia Nabeel Kamal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 261-270

Data mining is a process of automatically discovering useful information in
large data repositories that uses a variety of data analysis tools to discover patterns
and relationships that can be hidden among vast amount of data. From these
patterns and relationships, businesses and organizations can make valid
predictions about future trends in all areas of business. Association rule mining is
a typical approach used in data mining domain for uncovering interesting trends,
patterns and rules in large datasets.
This research concentrates on one particular aspect to improve the efficiency of
the association rules technique in data mining and implement the proposed
algorithm on employers management system. The resulted association which
introduced by applying rule technique, will be treated by genetic algorithm to find
a new rules that might be more efficient and powerful for proposed data base by
propose cross point ,threshold for fitness to deal consistently with the formula of
the association rules, and gives good results.

BSA: A Hybrid Bees’ Simulated Annealing Algorithm To Solve Optimization & NP-Complete Problems

Ahmed Tariq Sadiq; Amaal Ghazi Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 271-281

Swarm-based algorithms such as Bees Algorithm BA have proven to be very
powerful computational techniques due to their search capabilities. Other methods
which are useful in diverse application areas are simulated annealing, evolution
strategies etc. The searching ability of these algorithms can be improved by properly
blending their characteristic features. In this paper an attempt is made to intermix the
search properties of BA and SA, in order to develop a hybrid algorithm which is
equally applicable and has a better searching ability and power to reach a near optimal
solution. This leads to the development of a fast method to solve complicated types of
optimization and NP-complete problems.

The Effect of Artificial Aging on Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Composite

Jenan S. Kashan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 282-288

Recently the use of the composite material based on aluminum alloys matrix is
increased because of their good mechanical properties and light weight.
In this work the addition of % SiC particle to the aluminum (6063) matrix effect was
considered and the solution heat treatment was applied on the produced composite
material which has optimum properties followed by artificial aging.
The work shows that the hardness increased and the wear rate decreased with the
addition of silicon carbide particles (SiC) , where as optimum produced composite
material which has best properties is ( 15% SiC ) . On the other hand the increasing
in temperature and time of artificial aging increases the properties.

Mechanical Properties of The Modified Al-12%Si Alloy Reinforced by Ceramic Particles

Haitham Razouqi Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 289-300

The aluminum alloys are important in many industrial applications
because of their light weight and good mechanical properties. For this reason
many researches had been done to enhance their properties. In this work a
modifier was applied to Al-12%Si alloys by adding different percentage of
Antimony powder (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 Wt %). The mechanical properties of
the modified alloys were considered. The optimum properties were found by
adding 0.3% Antimony powder. This alloy was used as the matrix for the
production of composite material (aluminum matrix reinforced by ceramic
particles (Y2O3) with different weight percent (3,6,9 and 12%Wt)) using vortex
technique. The casting parameters were 3 minute as a mixing time and 300 r.p.m
as a mixing speed. The microstructure, hardness and wear test were applied on the
modified alloy and composite materials. The effect of the addition of Antimony
and reinforcement particles on the microstructure, hardness and wear rate of the
composite material were considered. The results show that the addition of
Antimony leads to the microstructure refinement and change the silicon shape in
the alloy from the flake – like or lamellar – like to fibrous – like In addition to the
increasing the hardness when Sb is up to 0.3%, after that the hardness will
decrease, as well as the addition of ceramic particles increase the hardness and
d e c r e a se the wear rate.

Study the Properties of Silicon Nanocrystallites Prepared By Wet Etching

Mukkaram A. fakhery

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 301-306

This work presents the formation of porous silicon by photo-electrochemical
processes using diode laser 514 nm, 2mW, under different etching times. The time
dependence of porosity values, layer thickness, pore diameter, pore shape ,wall
thickness, and etching rate were studied based on SEM images.

Morphological Aspects of Oxidized Porous Silicon Prepared by Photo Electrochemical Etching

Ali A. A; aa S. Ahmed; Zahr; Alwan M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 314-321

This paper reports morphological properties of porous silicon and oxidized
porous silicon, prepared by photo electrochemical etching from n-type silicon wafers as
a function of experimental parameters. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM)
Observations of porous silicon layers were obtained before and after rapid thermal
oxidation process under different preparation and oxidation conditions .The surface
morphology, Pore diameter, wall thickness, pore shape and porosity values were,
studied based on microstructure analyses of (SEM) images.

Bond Strength-Splice Length in Concrete Beams Confined by Transverse Reinforcement

Sameh Badry Tobeia Shuker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 322-339

This work aim to study the effect of transverse reinforcement , area of splice
bar, concrete cover thickness , rib area and the increasing in concrete strength (highstrength
concrete) on bond strength between concrete and reinforcing spliced bars .
Therefore, a new simple equation is derived for beams with spliced bars and
confined by transverse reinforcement to calculate bond strength and reflects the
effects of these factors .Where many of existing codes and provisions used to
calculate the spliced strength do not include or reflect the influencing of these factors
in bond strength estimation . Based on experimental results from previous works ,
(116) confined beams with spliced bars are investigated in this study , where
concrete compressive strength ( c f ¢
) ranging from 25 MPa to 113.793 MPa ,amount
of transverse reinforcement vary in a wide range and , conventional and high
relative rib area of deformed bars are present in these beams . The proposed method
exceed the limitation of ( f MPa c ¢ £ 69 ) that given by ACI code .Where the
proposed method is examined and applicable for concrete compressive strength up
to 113 MPa . Also, in this work the second root of c f ¢
is examined , as concrete
strength increased with high-strength concrete , to reach a suitable value for both
normal and high- strength concrete and to be more appropriate with the heavy
present of transverse reinforcement . Power of (0.35) is adopted and used in this
work instead of the second root of c f ¢

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesive Sediments

Tahsin M. Toma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 340-355

Laterally loaded single piles are usually analyzed by methods derived
directly from the classical beam on elastic foundation or Winkler soil model. Soil
strength is characterized using modulus of sub-grade reaction.
Early solutions that employed Winkler’s model assumed that the modulus of
sub-grade reaction is constant with depth, or linearly varying with depth, while
in fact it varies nonlinearly with depth due to the nonlinear soil response to
loads. The characterization of soil using “p-y curves” concept; (which relates the
soil reaction and pile deflection at typical points along its length, and extracted
from field tests), is proper for representing nonlinearity in soil response, and
gives better solutions. Another method used for the solution of the problem of
laterally loaded piles is the elastic continuum method. In this method the soil is
modeled as an elastic media, such formulation poses increased difficulty when
the soil modulus varies with depth.
The Sub-grade Reaction or Winkler method of solution is used through this
study. The soil is characterized by a nonlinear springs with employing the “p-y”
model, while the pile is modeled as a two-node element.

Multi Focus Image Fusion Using Statistical Approaches

Rana F. Ghani; Abdulameer A. Kareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 356-368

Pictures of the long focal lengths cameras, suffer from the problem of limited
depth of field. Consequently, it is often difficult to obtain good focus for all
objects in the picture. In this work, the problem of multi focus is solved by taking
several pictures with different focus points, and then fusing them together to form
a single image using image fusion method. Contrast of the source images is used
as a measure to select the proper pixels (pixels with high focus) to obtain the
fused (output) image. This work suggests using three statistical measures of
contrast to calculate the pixels gradient magnitude. Those three measures are
applied and compared with the traditional method of gradient magnitude measures
(Sobel and Perwit) in Multi focus Image Fusion. The results show that the
modified methods gave better results than Sobel and Perwit methods.

Solving Second Order Non-Linear Boundary Value Problems by Four Numerical Methods

afar Mohamad; Anwar Ja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 369-381

The boundary value problems for the 2nd order non-linear ordinary
differential equations are solved by using four numerical methods. These
numerical methods are Rung-Kutta of 4th order, Rung–Kutta Butcher of 6th order,
differential transformation method, and the Homotopy perturbation method. Three
physical problems from the literature are solved by the four methods for comparing
the results. The results were presented in tables and figures. The differential
transformation method appeared to be effective and reliable to find the semi
numerical-analytical solutions for such type of boundary value problems.

Generate Random Image-Key using Hash Technique

Nidaa F. Hassan; Akbas E. Ali; Teaba Wala Aldeen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 382-398

Random image is very useful to be used as a source for clipping randomness
session keys in cryptography. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed to generate
random image .The random image is generated by mixing initialization vector with
normal digital image; the mixing process is applied in the same way as HASH
technique. A special cryptography algorithm for generating random numbers is
used to generate initialization vector. This proposed algorithm is capable of
generating random image that can meet security requirements of cryptographic

Performance Study of a Modified Sine Wave Inverter

Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 399-415

This paper presents the performance of a modified sine wave voltage source
inverter with duty cycle. Evaluation of quality factors like the Total Harmonic
Distortion THD of the output voltage for various values of switching-on angle α
indicates that the minimum harmonic distortion occurs at α=23.2180, where the
THD is 28.96%, about 60% of that of the square wave. The 3rd harmonic is about
12.61% of the fundamental, and about third of the square wave.
The current paper, illustrates the inverter waveforms and how different types
of loads behave when operating from them. Therefore, the THD of the output
current depends on the load types. Results of typical load types are presented.
No heavy filters or complex timing circuits are necessary; therefore, the
resulting inverter is smaller, lighter weight, and simpler, implying greater
reliability and lower cost. These advantages invite a closer look at inverter-motor
systems. Variations in induction motor performance may occur when the motor is
driven from a modified sine wave inverter rather than a sine wave source.

The Influence of Water Injection on Two - Shaft Gas Turbine Performance with Regeneration

Muthana K. Aldoory

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 416-430

A two-shaft gas turbine type GT-85-2-H has been modified and converted
into a research unit. The main modifications consist of incorporating regeneration
system and water spray system in the inlet air duct of the GT-85-2-H gas turbine.
The influence of regeneration and water injection in the air intake on gas turbine
performance has been studied. The results show that regeneration improves the
thermal efficiency by about 56% due to reduction in the fuel consumption, and
reduces the power output due to back pressure losses that occur because of the
regenerative system by about 20.67%.The brake specific fuel consumption is
reduced by about 59%.
Water injection strongly affects the power output. Water injection tends to
increase the brake power output by about 47%.The thermal efficiency is also
increased by about 30%.The specific fuel consumption is reduced by about 29%.

Comparison primary treatment study for chemical and biochemical process on cotton waste products as energy source for A.niger

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 46-51

This study was designed for chemical and biochemical processes on waste
cotton as energy resource by Aspergillus niger. In the tenth day the high
percentage in protein production 13.13% and Cellulose degree consumption
58% by chemical and biochemical process. The chemical process was done by the
use of sodium hydroxide 0.20N, but the biochemical process is very carriage use
the enzymatic extraction of Trichoderme viride.30 mg per mL. At the seventh day
it is found that the biochemical process gives highest degree of protein production
in cellulose consumption 8.93%.

Heat Transfer from Longitudinally Finned Cylinder with Different Inclination angles inside Adiabatic Duct

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 52-62

This study deals with heat transfer by free convection from the outer surface of
two cylinders (Triangular & Rectangular shape fined cylinder 8-fins). The
experimental work was conducted with air as a heat transport medium. The
cylinders were fixed at horizontal rectangular duct and fixed at different inclination
angles (0o, 30o, 60o, 90o) .The heat fluxes were (279, 1012, 1958, 3005, 4419)
W/m2. Where heat transferred by convection and radiation. The results show the
heat transferred from the triangular finned cylinder is maximum at slop angle (30o)
and minimum at the slop angle (0o) with the range from [Ra = (1.68*107 –

The Impact of Educational Architectural Studio's Environment on Student's Performance

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 63-80

Generally;the conditions in an educational studio's by providing a suitable
environment for the students, "place of work' has a profound impact on the student's
physical and mental creativity. Hence; this study forms the basic for the preparation
of a thoughtful generation of architects (designers) qualified to take leading roles in
the development and progress of the society.
Basic requirement in the paper highlights the level of the Environment Conditions in
the educational architectural studios provided for the students and can be considered
as the main motive for the research, in determining the problems and procedures.
The main aim of this research is directly related to the educational environment
created in the studios, "as place of work" and its impact on student's performance.
Therefore, the research attempts to define the main characteristics in the studios and
their specifications in order to explain the nature of the impact; this is done by using
the analysis method and information used in (excel) analytical program. Then
conclusions and recommendations can be drawn.