Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 5

Volume 28, Issue 5, February 2010, Page 122-1037


Thin RC Shell-Slab Roofing System with Steel Rod Connections

Husain M. Husain; Ashraf. A. Al-Feehan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 851-870

An innovated structural system, namely the Shell-Slab Roofing System
(SSRS) of precast thin reinforced concrete cylindrical shell and flat slab has been
fabricated as a roof segmental unit. The flat slab rests on the cylindrical shell at the
crown and also connected to the shell by steel rod connections at each side. Steel
plate strips are fixed on the bottom surface of the slab and on the top and the
bottom surfaces of the shell as external tensile and shear steel reinforcement to
prevent punching shear around the steel rod connections. The ratio of the shell
height to the chord length was (0.1). The structural behavior of the roof system had
been investigated under uniformly distributed static load. Experimental work was
carried out by fabrication of six complete segments with scale-down simulation
factor equal to (0.25). The vertical deflections had been observed at selected
positions on the models. A water/cement ratio of (0.5) combined with a cement:
sand ratio of (1:2) had been employed. The influence of certain experimental
parameters had been studied. The model with only twelve rod connections and
minimum reinforcement volume ratio was adequate to resist the live loads for
buildings with large span roofing. The investigation showed that the combined unit
of thin concrete shell and flat slab with embedded small diameter steel
reinforcement was suitable for construction of such roofing system as large span
structures with lower ratio of shell height to chord length (h/c) equal to (0.1) .

Excitation and Governing Control of a Power Generation Based Intelligent System

Adil H. Ahmad; Lina J. Rashad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 871-889

Modern power systems are complex and non-linear and their operating conditions
can vary over a wide range. In this work, the power system (PS) transient terminal
voltage and frequency stability enhancement have been well investigated and studied
through the following efforts.
• Enhancing the responses of the transient stability by adopting conventional PID
controllers as an additional voltage controller with the Automatic Voltage Regulator
(AVR) in the excitation system for terminal voltage, and in the governing system for
frequency deviation response.
• ANN (NARMA-L2) system is proposed as an effective controller model to achieve the
desired enhancement. This model after training can be called as (Identifier). This
identifier follows the system behavior even in situation of high disturbances.
There are enhancement progress in terminal voltage Vt , and frequency deviation Δω
through the investigation for the three cases (without controller, with PID controller, and
with NN controller) for single machine infinite bus using MATLAB – Simulink software.

An Attitude Navigation System Based on the GPS

Saad A-R. Makki; Mushtaq Talib Abd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 890-907

In this paper, the use of multi-GPS receiver to estimate the parameters of
attitude (orientation) of a platform is developed. The GPS receiver has two
measurements; pseudorange and carrier phase. The latter is highly accurate (sub
centimeter-level).Therefore, it is used to give precise attitude parameters. But the
carrier phase has one problem; an initial integer ambiguity must be resolved first.
Without resolution of this integer, the carrier phase is meaningless. Therefore, the
attitude determination technique based on the carrier phase observable of the GPS
involves two steps; integer ambiguity resolution and attitude estimation. Here, two
methods are used for attitude estimation; first, Single-point method that is based on
the least square approach is developed using the quaternion representation. Second,
Eigenproblem algorithm that is used to minimize a quartic quaternion-based cost
function. In order to resolve the integer ambiguity, an attitude-independent
algorithm is developed. This algorithm first incorporates an instantaneous integer
search to significantly reduce the search space using a geometric inequality. Then,
a batch-type loss function is used to check the remaining integers in order to
determine the optimal integer. The results show that the Single-point method is
more accurate (with RMS 0.137, 0.079 and 0.197 degree in yaw, pitch and roll
respectively), and it convergences exponentially to the correct solution. The
Eigenproblem may diverge when the initial quaternion is far.

Microstructural Characterization of Electroformed Nickel and Its Composites

Sabah S. Abdulnoor; Mofeed A. L. Jaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 908-917

In the present work the nickel metal matrix was developed by electrochemical
forming technique, were the nickel matrix is built around the reinforced carbon
fiber in various thicknesses and fiber volume fractions. The metallographic
analysis indicate that the experimental depositing condition have a dominating
effect on the observed composite microstructure. The grain size of the deposited
nickel is found (from the microstructure) to vary inversely with the amount of the
depositing electrical current density. Also the temperature of the solution seem to
reflect quite well on the microstructure of the metal matrix, were relatively high
and low solution temperature produced rather refined grain structure, while an
intermediate temperature of (50°C) is found to deposited courser grain size.
Secondary thermal and mechanical treatments are found to modify the
microstructure in a way that higher annealing temperatures tend to enhanced the
grain growth process and tend to reduced apparent porosity at (650°C), similarly
the forging of the electroformed composites made at different temperature tend to
reduced the internal porosity, by a notable ratio, depending on the temperature of
the forging process.

An Approximate Solutions of Fuzzy Linear Fredholm Integral Equations

Nuha Abduljabbar Rajab; Mazin Hashim Suhhiem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 918-924

The main aims of this paper are studying and modifying an approximate to solve
fuzzy linear integral equations of Fredholm type.
Two different Kinds of fuzzy functions are used to transform the ordinary linear
integral equations of Fredholm type to the fuzzy form.

An Experimental Investigation of Some Relevant Process Parameters Affecting Formed Thickness in ISMF Process

Wei-Xin Ren; Jamal H. Mohamed; Wissam K.H. Sarraji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 925-940

In this paper, a systematic approach to investigate the effect of some relevant
process parameters on thickness variation aspect in incremental sheet metal forming
(ISMF) process has been studied. The thickness variation aspect was investigated by
disclosing the effects of four discrete process parameters: number of forming passesχ 1,
typology of forming speed χ2, direction of tool travel relative to the rolling direction χ3,
and typology of tool path χ4. The proposed systematic approach utilizes design of
experiment (DOE) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a base to study the effects of
four process parameters and different influential combinations. The analyses results
have shown that number of forming passes χ1, and direction of tool travel relative to
the rolling direction χ3 have greatest effect on the thickness variation. It is
demonstrated that the response table and response graph, main effect plot, analysis of
variance ANOVA and predictive model generation are powerful systematic procedure
to disclose the impacts of the process parameters on the thickness variation.

Data Hiding in Audio File by Modulating Amplitude

Loay. A. Jorj; Hilal H. Saleh; Nidaa F.Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 941-952

In this paper, two methods of a steganography are introduced for hiding
secret data in audio media file (.WAV). Hiding in audio becomes a challenging
discipline, since the Human Auditory System is extremely sensitive. The first
proposed method is used to embed binary sequence with high data rate by
modulating the amplitude of WAVE file. The embedding process utilizes the
amplitude modulation of the cover signal; the manipulation of the sample depends
on its previous sample and next sample. By using this hiding method, good hiding
rate is achieved, but it is noticed that the secret data produced by this method does
not resist the modifications produced compression. The second suggested hiding
methods are oriented to embed the secret data such that it is capable of surviving
against modifications produced by compression. This method exploits some of the
features of speech signal, more especially the features of the Voiced-Unvoiced
blocks. The second proposed hiding method is used to embed secret data by
modulating the amplitude of the voiced blocks of cover audio data. Hiding rate is
not high as first method since it hiddes only in voiced segments ,so it could survive
against compression.

VHDL Implementation of Hybrid Block Cipher Method (SRC)

Ashwaq T. Hishem; Najwa M. Hassen; Ekhlas M. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 953-963

This paper discusses the hardware design of the hybrid block cipher method
that combines the RC6 cipher and the Serpent cipher.
The block size is 128 bits, and the key can be any length up to 256 bytes. This
algorithm is designed to take advantage of the powerful, which is supported by
RC6 and Serpent encryption algorithms with overcoming their weaknesses,
resulting in a much improved security/performance tradeoff over existing ciphers.
The discussion addresses hardware design and VHDL implementation of the key
expansion algorithm and the encryption algorithm.

Transmission System On –Line Fault Location Using ArtificialNeural Network

Adil Hameed Ahmed; Hatim Ghadhban Abood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 964-979

In this work, protection systems for overhead transmission lines are
investigated and an efficient technique for on –line fault location based on
Artificial Neural Network(ANN ) is suggested. First, Studying and investigating
the power transmission lines short circuit modeling and analysis, and then
developing a MATLAB programs to calculate fault currents and voltages for
different fault types depending on the location of the fault in the transmission line
and finding the location of this fault. The proposed technique for the fault
location is the two -end data technique. The pre-fault data plus the fault data
construct a training set for the neural network programs which contain two types,
one for fault detection and classification, and the other for the fault location. Then,
these programs are applied on the Iraqi super grid (400 kV).

Mathematical Modeling of Artificial Kidney Function By Using Blood Samples In Patients With Renal Diseases

Zainab Ismail; Sumia Hamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 980-991

In Hemdialysis ,blood is pumped from the body to special filter (dialyzer ) made
of tiny plastic capillaries . the blood is purified when the waste products diffuse from
the blood across the membrane of these tiny capillaries to the dialysate purified
“clean”blood is then returned to the body and spent dialysate is drained.
The purpose of this study is demonstrate the effect of increase nominal dialysate
flow rate from 500-800 ml/min on the amount of the small solute (urea) removed from
the blood and examine its effect on the amount of dialysis deliverd.
Hemdialysis (HD) is a technique of removing or clearing solutes from the
blood and removal of extra fluid from the body, by using dialyzing machine. The
principle of hemodialysis is primarily, the diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration for
removal of extra fluid. Kinetic modeling is a widely used analytic process that
describes a system from its mass balance the clinical goals of modeling in dialysis
therapy are to improve clinical understanding of the uremic syndrome and quantified
doses of dialysis . In this study, we are interested for new model emerges form
generalization of signal–pool urea kinetic model (variable volume single pool VVSP)
which able to yield an accurate estimate of urea kinetic model such as urea nitrogen
generation rate, urea removal during dialysis and dialyzer urea clearance for
quantifying and prescribing dialysis. The mathematical development of the variable
volume single pool ( VVSP) model for application is based primarily on the three
blood samples. This development provides a method to combine all of the treatment
parameters (Vt,PCR,G),urea is unique among the possible markers in providing
information regarding a patients nitrogen balance . Urea concentration is directly
related to the protein catabolic rate blood urea concentrations reflected the balance
between protein catabolism and clearance. We present the results obtained form a
clinical study carried out on a group of 12 end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients for
blood flow rate less than 200ml/min and greater than 200ml/min, 6 patients with
dialysate flow rate (DFR) 500 ml/min and 6 patients with DFR 800 ml/min to show
the different in variable volume single pool (VVSP ) models for both groups (500 &
800 ml/min) this method done typically in patients treated with HD twice-weekly so a
standard modeling techniques include a standard blood urea nitrogen (BUN) samples
which are drawn before the beginning of HD, after the end of HD, and before the
beginning of the next HD and considering that volume changes occurring over the dialysis cycle this is the key idea that underlies the variable volume single-pool
(VVSP)model.

Characterization of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

Sheelan R. Areef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 992-1000

Master Samples NiTi (without additives) prepared using powder mixture of 55
wt% Ni and 45 wt% Ti by; mixing in a ball mill for two hours, then compacted at 300,
400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 Mpa, and then sintered at 950 oC for 9 hours under controlled
atmosphere (argon). The same approach was made for the samples with Mo and Co
additions compacted at 800 Mpa. From the results, it was found that compaction pressure
has essential effect on; increasing hardness, decreases porosity percentage and corrosion
rate. XRD test shows that the sintered samples are consisting of two phases martensite
and austenite at room temperatures (mean thermal NiTi shape memory alloy). The Results
shown that the hardness property and corrosion rate increased with all weight percentage
of additives Mo and Co, and decreases porosity percentage.

The Treatment of Efficiency of NaI(Tl) Detector By Using Monte Carlo Simulation

A. B. Kadhem; A. N. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 1001-1013

An efficient Monte Carlo computer program for simulation and calculation of the
total and full energy peak efficiency (absolute and intrinsic) of the cylindrical
NaI(Tl)detector (with different: volumes, source-detector separation and gamma rays
energies) is described. All the fundamental physical processes (photoelectric effect,
compton scattering effect and pair production effect) occurring inside the detector are
taken into account. Very fast analytical expressions for the absorption coefficients are
obtained. The same program can be used to calculate the response function of the
detector to gamma ray. The results show quite well agreement with experimental data
and with other calculations within error rate less than 2%. The results can be used in
gamma spectroscopy and determining the activity of sources.

D.C. Servo Position Control Parameter Estimation

Saad T. Kurdi; Nihad M. Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 1014-1023

Open-loop and closed-loop position control systems are obtained using dc
motor. The open-loop uses an estimation of controller parameters to perform the
position control where the closed loop position control systems uses a cascade
controller to maintain the desired position. Controllers are designed using
Matlab/Simulink simulation package. The objective is to design a position
controller which will be able to drive the motor at a specified constant velocity
which might gives the motor some constant torque. The results obtained from the
open-loop position control system parameters estimation shows better
performance specification in the control tasks, such as rise time and overshoot.
The cascade closed-loop position control system shows an improvement in
performance when use the values of estimated parameters .

Combined Hierarchical Wavelet-Coefficient Structures For Grayscale Image Compression

T. M. Al-juboori; Viktar Yu. Tsviatkou; Anatoly A. Boriskevich

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 1024-1037

A suitable algorithm suggested with wavelet compression for gray scale
images based on one- and two-dimension combined hierarchical structure, in the
sub-band which has been generated by the aid of several types of wavelet
functions. It is shown that the using of combined based hierarchical structures
allows us to reduce the calculations complexity of compression and
decompression at constant values of compression coefficients.

Studying Effect of Adding Nickel to Al-Cu Alloy Before and After Heat Treatment

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 122-139

In this research, the effect of adding pure nickel element in different amounts
Al-4%Cu-1.5%Mg) has been studied it (to molten alloy (1-2-3-5%wt)
making the heat treatment (T6) which includes solution treatment followed by
artificial aging at 220 ºC at different times within the range (5 min.-5 hr.)). Also
the effect of nickel element on the microstructure, the grain size and the phases
type which are constructed in the produced alloys by alloying before and after
heat treatment by using optical microscope and X-Ray diffraction test device have
been studied then the hardness and tensile test were implemented and then the
result showed: the alloy with the highest adding rate (5% wt) shows a better response than the other alloys for hardening in longer time period where it have
been reached to highest hardness (125 H.V) in time period (4hr) at (220 ºC).
While the empty alloy of nickel reached to highest hardness equals to (112 H.V)
in a time period less than (2hr). The constructed phases in alloys have been
specified after adding Ni element, where it indicated to the existence of the phase
(Al7Cu4Ni) which is responsible for the slowliness which occurs in the alloy’s
response to precipitation hardening procedure which leads to delay (longer time
periode) to obtain a higher hardness. It also found that adding of nickel causes an
increase and an improvement in the properties of the tensile strength, yield
strength and elongation, which indicates that the presence of the nickel takes two
ways part of it dissolve with Aluminum and copper to produce the phase
(Al7Cu4Ni) which causes the slowing in the construction of the hardening phase
(Al2CuMg), the other part causes refining grains size at the highest temperature
degrees causing an increase in the strength and the hardness in a rate which is
higher for the alloy’s that contain nickel in a comparison with the empty alloy of
nickel.

Analytical Criticizing Study of Contract Conditions for Civil Engineering Works, Issued by the Ministry of Planning and Developing Cooperation at 2007

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 140-156

For the important role of (Contract Conditions for Civil Engineering
Works) as a principal contractual document, that regulates rights, duties, and
delegations of the Client, the Contractor, the Engineer, and their representatives in
the construction project. This analytical criticizing study has been carried out,
covering the Contract Conditions, issued by the Ministry of Planning and
Developing Cooperation in August 2007. The study aims at amendments, seeking
for justice in consequence to preliminary bond, natural conditions, equipment, time
effect on cost, supporting excesses, stopping works, and inception date. Then to be
consistent with Iraqi laws concerning invalidation, definitions, contradiction rules,
calculation mechanism of liquidated damages, limiting variations domain, and
renovating obsolete rules. In addition, it seeks for better organizing by classifying
the rules, providing enough spaces to write down related information, specifying
time schedule and construction method, supporting national products, insurance,
tests, and extending period. It also seeks for proper Arabic by using suitable
expressions and titles, omitting not mentioned refers, correcting words and typing
mistakes. It is recommended that the Ministry of Planning and Development
Cooperation may take with these recommendations.

Study on Heat Transfer of (Al-Mg) Alloy Fabricated By Centrifugal Casting

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 157-169

A Fortran 90 computer program was build to study the heat transfer in two
dimensions (2-D) using explicit finite difference method for (Al-4.5%Mg) alloy.
This alloy was produced by horizontal centrifugal casting, the effect of rotational
speed on cooling rate and solidification thickness is investigated numerically,
using the experimental data. Microstructure and hardness of the produced casting
was investigated for different mold rotational speed, and different preheated mold
temperatures (70, 200 ) o C.

Study on the properties of composite materials produced by centrifugal casting

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 170-189

The aim of this work is to use centrifugal casting process in production of
composite materials reinforced in selected regions, and study the effect of process
parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composite materials.
The composite material was fabricated by dispersing SiC with(53-75) μm particles in
the Al-Mg melt alloy and stirred using vortex technique. Weight fraction of
(5,10,15%) preheated sic particles were added to the melt alloy and manually stirred
until the particles were completely wetted, . The composite slurry was then reheated
to around 750 oC and agitated by means of electrical stirrer .After that the composite
slurry was poured in centrifugal casting preheated die, rotate at different rotating
speeds (900, 1400, 1800) r.p.m . Microstructure examination shows that the most of
SiC particles settled in the outer region of produced composite cylinders, but the
volume fractions for these particles are different depending on process parameters
Also the thickness of reinforced region of produced composite cylinders increases with decreasing rotating speed and with increasing weight fraction of the added SiC%
particles. Hardness test results show significant increase in composite hardness
compares with matrix alloy .The Wear resistance of composite cylinders was higher than that of matrix

The Influence of Sudden Cross Section Change on Two Phase Flow Characteristics

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 190-202

This research study the influence of the solid loading ratio & Reynolds number on
minor losses coefficient and pressure coefficient for sudden expansion region for
two-phase flow type gas-solid through an orifice by preparing an apparatus with
solving the mass , momentum , Bernoulli equations mathematically .
An expansion area was chosen with flow cross-section changing from small to
large with area ratio (5.8) & diameters ratio (2.4) to study the changes which occur
on minor losses coefficient and pressure coefficient with different loading ratio (0)
to (1.645) . Test a different mixture flow-rates (1.02-7.8) kg/min to find the
influence of Reynolds number with ranges of (42863) to (75909) on minor losses
coefficient and pressure coefficient .
It was found that the increase in solid loading ratio reduced linearly the minor
losses coefficient and pressure coefficient for sudden expansion region , also they
depend on (Re) but with little effect .

Study of Polymer Quenchants Effect on Some Properties of Low Alloy Steel Type (St37)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5, Pages 203-216

This study is concerned with the effect of polymer quenching on some
properties of low alloy steel type (St37). Three different operations of heat
treatment have been done including quenching, quenching with tempering and
quenching with freezing. A comparison has been done between the effect of
polymeric quenchant i.e. water solution of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and the
conventional quenchants represented by distilled water, engine oil and food oil in
having better properties. Tests have been done to the original and heat treated
specimens which were Brinell hardness test, wear rate test and thermal
conductivity test. Results had revealed that the heat treatments generally enhance
the properties especially the treatment of quenching with freezing and in most
cases the polymeric quenchants gave better results than the conventional
quenchants. Also a simulation to the results of the experimental work has been
done by using the Visual Basic language, and the results gave us an indication to
the behaviour of specimens’ properties at different concentrations of polymeric
quenchants over the range used in the experimental work, beside the great
possibilities of the program in display the experiments which help in training
engineers in heat treatment and testing fields.