Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 7

Volume 28, Issue 7, March 2010, Page 245-1501

The Effect of Fiber Orientation on Creep Behavior And Flextural Strength In Epoxy Composites

Emad S. AL-Hassani; Sheelan R. Areef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1281-1289

The creep behavior, flexural strength, shear stress was investigated in this
paper for epoxy, epoxy composite reinforced with glass fibers: (chopped strand mat),
woven roven (90о-0о) and chopped strand mat together as a sandwich composite with
volume fraction (21, 25, 29) % for each type. The tests were done at constant
temperature (room temperature (23 ± 2) оC.
The results shown that the increasing in volume fraction increases the creep
behavior, flextural strength, shear stress for all samples also the results shown the
effect of fiber orientation in increasing the creep behavior, flextural strength, shear
stress in sandwich composites in comparession with the composites reinforced with
randomly glass fibers.

Image Compression Based on 2D Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (2D DT-CWT)

Salih Husain Ali; Aymen Dawood Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1290-1305

By removing the redundant data, the image can be represented in a smaller
number of bits and hence can be compressed. There are many different methods of
image compression. This paper investigates a proposed form of compression based on
2D Dual Tree complex wavelet transform (2D DT-CWT). Many wavelet coefficients
are closed to zero. Thresholding can modify the coefficients to produce more zeros
that are allowed a higher compression rate. The wavelet analysis does not actually
compress a signal. Therefore Huffman coding is used with a signal processed by the
wavelet analysis in order to compress data. Wide range of threshold values is used in
the proposed form. From the results the proposed form give higher rate of
compression and lower RMS error compared with that forms based on Discrete
Wavelet Transform (DWT), Dual Tree Real Wavelet Transform (DT-RWT) and the
well known method based Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

Study of Mechanical Properties of Porcelain Restorative Material By Using CO2 Laser Beam

Kadhim A. Hubeatur; Nawras M. Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1306-1315

The aim of this research is to study the mechanical properties of porcelain
restorative material by using CO2 laser beam. (10) specimens of porcelain material
have been prepared. They divided into two groups with dimensions (4*10mm)
& (6*10mm) respectively.
Eight of these specimens are irradiated by CO2 laser device at different laser
powers (2,3,4,& 5) Watt at a fixed time (20 sec). The mechanical properties which
was tested, such as micro-hardness, diametrical strength, density, and porosity. The
value of micro-hardness, diametrical strength, density are increased at different
laser power except (3W), because internal deformation occurred in this laser power
density up to (3W). Glazed layer may be occur because the effect of (4,5) Watt
laser, consequently the value of porosity decreased.

An Improved Algorithm For The Solution of Kepler‘s Equation For An Elliptical Orbit

Mohammed S. Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1316-1320

In this paper, a root finding method due to iterative method is used first to the
solution of Kepler's equation for an elliptical orbit. Then the extrapolation
technique in the form of Aitken D2 - acceleration is applied to improve the
convergence of the iterative method.
In addition, by making use a new improvement to Aitken's method enables one
to obtain efficiently the numerical solution of the Kepler's equation. The speed of
the proposed algorithms is compared using different values of eccentricity( e ) in
the range eÎ( 0,1 ) and for given mean anomaly (M).

Effect of Shaft Misalignment on The Stresses Distribution of Spur Gears

Hani Aziz Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1321-1339

Shaft misalignment is considered as one of the common repeated
problems in most rotating machineries , which leads to generate vibrations and
extra dynamic loads on transmitting gears teeth, also leads to non- uniformity in
distribution of applied load along the meshing tooth face by being concentrated on
one side of tooth face. The present work concentrated on the analysis of stresses
generated on transmitting gear tooth, also studied the effect of misalignment angle
on stress distribution and its concentration. This is important for the gear design
and those who works in gear maintenance , because fracture is expected to initiate
and propagate at locations of stress concentration . ANSYS program using finite
element technique had been used, as this program is efficient and accurate tool in
stress analysis, especially for complicated shapes. Gear tooth model had been
analyzed using finite element method in three dimensions. After calculating
transmitted load and dynamic load, misalignment angle had been changed from
(0°,0.2°,0.3°,0.4°,0.5°) then its effect on distribution of applied load had been
calculated. The finite element program (ANSYS) had been executed for cases of
misalignment angle (0°,0.2°,0.3°,0.4°,0.5°). The results showed clearly, that the
stresses distribution and its concentration on tooth changed with misalignment
angle and the equivalent stress is direct proportional with the misalignment angle.
According to the values of generated stresses, the tooth fracture can be predicted

Visual Cryptography Vs Bit Level Secret Sharing For Image Encryption

Musaab R. Abdulrazzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1340-1349

Secret sharing is a scheme used to distribute secret among a group of users.
Rather than making duplicated copies of secrets among users, the secret is divided
into a number of pieces, called shares. The secret can be revealed if a certain
number of user shares are combined. The method proposed here (i)utilizes bit-level
decomposition and stacking operations to both encrypt and decrypt B-bit image,
(ii) preserves all the features of traditional (k, n) sharing schemes, (iii) allows for
perfect reconstruction of the input B-bit image, (iv) encrypts binary, gray-scale and
color images, and (v) can be effectively implemented either in software or

Design of Hierarchical Architecture of Multilevel Discrete Wavelet Transform Using VHDL Language

Waleed Fawwaz Shareef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1350-1360

The wide spread of devices that use image processing in its
functions, like cellular phone and digital cameras, increases the need for
specialized processors for these functions as a replacement for software
programs that consume more time and resources. This paper presents a
hardware description for discrete wavelet transform (DWT) module in
VHDL language. The design involves the forward DWT (fDWT) and its
inverse (iDWT) characterized by variable number of transformation levels,
ranging from one level to seven levels. Each one of these two modules is
designed as hierarchical scheme that uses one-dimensional processing
module twice to represent two-dimensional processing. The module can be
used repeatedly on the same image for multilevel processing. Three
versions of the design are presented (v64, v128 and v256), each one
adapted different image size. Synthesis process showed that the design
frequency is about 56MHz. The simulation process showed that the
maximum possible rounding error is about 0.012%. This resolution with the
variable number of processing level adapts this design to fit in many
applications. Finally, a comparison of the proposed design with other
related work is presented, considering performance and specifications.

Isobaric Vapor - Liquid Equilibria of Gasoline Additives Systems At 101.3 kPa

Rawa.A.Khamas; Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1361-1385

In this study, isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of gasoline additives for three
ternary systems: “MTBE + Ethanol + 2-Methyl-2-propanol”, “Ethanol + 2-
Methyl-2-propanol + Octane”, and “MTBE + Ethanol + Octane” at 101.3kPa are
studied. Furthermore three binary systems: “ethanol + 2-Methyl-2-propanol”,
“MTBE + Ethanol”, and “MTBE + Octane” at 101.3 kPa have been studied.
The binary system “MTBE + Ethanol” forms minimum boiling azeotrope.
The azeotrope data are x1(AZ) =0.955 mole fraction and T(AZ) =327.94 K. The
other ternary systems and the other binary systems do not form azeotrope.
All the literature data used passed successfully the test for thermodynamic
consistency using McDermott-Ellis test method.
In this study the calculation of VLE K–values is done by using three
methods, the first method uses modified Soave Redlich and Kwong (SRK),
modified Peng and Robinson (PR) equations of state for two phases. The second
method uses SRK-EOS for vapor phase with (NRTL, UNIQUAC and UNIFAC
activity coefficient models) for liquid phase and using PR-EOS for vapor phase
with (NRTL, UNIQUAC and UNIFAC activity coefficient models) for liquid
phase. The third method uses the Wong- Sandler mixing rules and the PRSV- EOS
based on GE of (NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models).
The non ideality of both vapor and liquid phases for the literature data for
the ternary and binary systems have been accounted for predicting VLE K–values
using the maximum likelihood principle for parameter estimation which provides a
mathematical and computational guarantee of global optimality in parameters
The Wong- Sandler mixing rules and the PRSV- EOS based on excess Gibbs free
energy GE of NRTL activity coefficient model give more accurate results for
correlation and prediction of the K-values than other methods for the ternary and
binary systems which contain asymmetric and polar compounds.

Effect of Halogen Ions on The Corrosion of Brass In Na2SO4 Solution

Rana A. Majed; Saad M. Elia; Zahra; a Fadhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1386-1395

This research involves study effect of halogen ions presence in 0.2M sodium
sulphate on the corrosion of brass at room temperature (30oC). Three concentration of
halogen ions (Fˉ, Clˉ, Brˉ, and Iˉ) were used 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 M. The different in
corrosion parameters before and after added the halogen ions interpreted and
discussed which involves corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current densities
(icorr), and Tafel slops (bc & ba) in addition to discuss the polarization curves.
Polarization resistances (Rp) and the change in free energy (ΔG) were
calculated and interpreted, in addition to calculate the rate of corrosion (Rmpy).
The results of this work indicates that the presence of halogen ions in
experimental solution increases the rate of corrosion, and the effect of halogen ions
follows the sequence to increase the corrosion Iˉ > Clˉ > Fˉ > Brˉ.

Observing And Measuring Sunspots In VIS And NIR Regions

Mohamed Saleh Ahmed; Layale Yahya Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1396-1407

This study is dedicated for observing and studying sunspots in the visible and
near infrared regions. Visible and near infrared CCD solar imaging system employing
5 inch reflecting telescope is used. The obtained visible and near infrared solar images
during the period 01-31, January 2007, and their measurements are presented and
Images obtained with the wavelength 850 nm show sunspot groups of sharp contrast
compared with the visible spectrum images. This leads to larger values of solar
activity measurements R and larger daily total sunspots groups areas . According to
McIntosh sunspot classification the frequency of occurrence among the allowed types
of sunspot groups is the same in the both regions. However , the adoption of
wavelength 850 nm is recommended for reliable sunspot observation and calculation .

Measurements of Intermodal Dispersion In Graded Index Optical Fiber

Mohamed Saleh Ahmed; Jassim Kadim Hmood; Abdulla Ali Kassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1408-1415

The aim of this research is to examine experimentally the laser pulse
transmittance in graded index optical fiber. However attention is paid on the evaluation
of intermodal dispersion. Four signals (λ=680nm and power= 0.1mW) of different
frequencies (138.889, 277.778, 645.16, and 1369.863 Hz), of pulse widths (7.2, 3.6,
1.55, and 0.73 ms) respectively are sent through a 400m multimode graded index fiber.
A p-i-n detector is used to receive output signals. Intermodal dispersion has been
noticed and the pulse width broadening for each frequency is recorded. They are (7.22,
3.61, 1.555, and 0.732 ms) that lead to frequencies of (138.504, 277.008, 643.08,
1366.120 Hz) respectively. That change in frequency has to be taken into account
whenever fiber optic dependence communication, guidance, or control systems are

Analysis of Flow Characteristics In Inlet And Exhaust Manifolds of Experimental Gasoline Combustion In A VCR Engine

Ehsan Shamil Omaraa; Mahmoud A. Mashkour; Kutaiba J. M. AL-Khishali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1416-1431

In the present work, an approach to estimate of flow characteristic in inlet and
exhaust manifolds of internal combustion engines is performed using a four-stroke
variable compression ratio single cylinder gasoline engine.
In the theoretical part a computer simulations of the flow field in the intake
and exhaust systems as well as the cylinder cavity for the experimental data
obtained in the gas exchange cycle program using the method of characteristics for
the engine dimensions and timings used in the experimental study as well as the
data obtained from the gas exchange cycle program for the sake of comparison
and presentation of flow characteristic.
In the experimental work, the compression ratio was varied from 7 to 11 at
variable speed with constant throttle opening, where engine performance was
Results of engine performance as well as pressure, temperature and velocity
fields in the intake and exhaust systems obtained by the gas exchange cycle
program using the method of characteristics are presented.

Extraction and Characterization of A Chromosomal Stain From Black Mulberry (Morus Nigra)

Mukaram Shikara; Hiba Muneer Al-Khafagi; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1432-1439

A dark-blue chromosomal stain from Black Mulberry (Morus nigra) was
extracted using organic solvents including dioxane, n-hexane, petroleum ether and
acetone. This extracted stain stained chromosomes satisfactory. In order to
ascertain purity of the extracted stain, it was compared spectrophotometery with
three commercial standards stains; they are Azur II Eosin, Giemsa’s and
Methylene blue Stains using a 200-900nm Spectrophotometric scan at three
different concentrations (25, 50 and 100mg/ml).
It was found that the second peaks produced by Azur II eosin and Giemsa
stain (as well as the single peak produces by Methylene blue) occupied the same
area occupied by the second peak of the extracted stain, which agree to some
degree of similarity. The extracted method proved to be an appropriate analytical
technique with hope that further trials can be carrying out to simplify the
extracting of the stain in future researches and make it less expensive.

Design and Implementation of Web-Based E-learning Management System

Sarmad F. Yaseen; Muna M. Al-Nayar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1440-1453

With the popularization of the internet and the growth of the
communication technology, E-learning is increasingly utilized by both the
academic and industrial communities.
Management is a critical aspect in E-learning system because it provides a
way to create and deliver learning content, monitor student participation, and
evaluate student performance. Also learning management system automates the
administration of training events, handling course schedules and registrations;
delivering learning content; facilitating communication among learners and
between learners and instructors.
This paper introduces a distributed E-learning management system using
client/server model. On the server side of the system, an administrator involving
managing and controlling all the students and tutors activities; making all
administrator's subsystems work properly and transparently without bothering or
interrupting system's users (clients side).

Seismic Analysis Using Three Dimensional Modeling

Mohammed Ahmed A. Al-Hamdany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1454-1463

Three-dimensional dynamic analysis is required for a large number of different
types of structural systems that are constructed in Seismic Zones. The lateral force
requirements suggest several methods that can be used to estimate the distribution of
seismic forces within a structure. However, these guidelines are not unique and need
further interpretations. The major advantage of using the forces obtained from a
dynamic analysis as the basis for a structural design is that the vertical distribution of
forces may significantly be different from the forces obtained from an equivalent static
load analysis.

Gas Hold-Up and Volumetric Liquid-Phase Mass Transfer Coefficient In Solid-Suspended Bubble Columns With Draught Tube

Ali Abdul-Rahman N. Jasim Alazzi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1464-1483

The solid suspended-bubble columns with draught tube are widely used as a threephase
slurry reactor in industrial chemical process such as absorption, biochemical
reactions, coal liquefaction. etc. To design such a column the average gas holdup ( g e )
and the volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient (KLa) should be known. This
study includes the effect of gas velocity, liquid-phase properties, solid-particles
concentration and the static liquid height on both ( g e ) and (KLa). It was found that
both ( g e ) and (KLa) increase with increasing gas velocity and decrease with increasing
solid particles concentration, static liquid height, viscosity and surface tension of

Robotics Engineering


Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 1484-1501

In this work an approach to robotics engineering called layered evolution and
merging features from the subsumption architecture into evolutionary robotics is
presented, This approach is used to construct a layered controller for a small simulated
robot called street sweeper (SS) that learn crossing a busy street and satisfied its goal of
collecting garbage and not getting crushed by passing cars i.e. behaving very adaptively
and intelligently in its specified environment. The system uses three classifier systems,
which has two levels distributed architecture. Three classifier systems were used to
perform complex behavior. First classifier learns simulated robot to crossing the street
i.e. move one step toward garbage when there is no predator such as cars passing the
street or traffic light color is red . Second classifier learns the simulated robot to stop
when the cars are passing the street or traffic light color is green. The third classifier
system is controller classifier system should learn switching policy i.e. to which
classifier system gives the control when more than one of them is active T. est results,
show that the use of a layered evolution can help to control the complexity of learning. a
subsumption architecture were design in which each layer is a basic behavior or a
control behavior. In addition each single layer have smaller search space therefore the
over all task could be easier.

Datum of Subjectivity – Objectivity In Architecture Analyses Study In Architecture Theory

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 245-273

The search is not around the modern, postmodern or deconstruction
architecture, but dealing with the meaning of theory from three aspects:
First: The meaning or theory from its owns.
Second: Meaning of theory and its related with meaning of knowledge.
Third: Search the three meanings of the architectural knowledge in the same conceptual framework.
And this presented by studied of each concept individually and diagnoses the component points between the above conceptions. To present a new read (view) for architectural theory concept to ward architectural knowledge theory and a part of indexes to that is the architecture usually pointed as posteriori criticism that mean the architecture present it self a period of time and then start criticism and theorization phases later on, where is the synchronic is absent between the theory and its existing (architectural existing), but theory criticism occur later after introduced it self as architectural productions and the architecture term obviously clear when be present as being incarnate in this architecture.
And these are leading points to assumptions that the architecture is present before the theory.

The Effect of Artificial Lighting on The Visual Suggestion of The Building's Façade

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 274-290

The light is an energy that surround and distinguish interface configuration ,
Considering that the formation of an optical interface as well as being physicists .
So The research go to clarify the effect of Artificial Lighting in the interfaces
within the effectiveness of the receiver , and to clarify the aesthetic and cognitive
effect on the receiver .
The research care to provide the information base concerning to the lighting
decisions and to facilitate the performance during the design practice . The
research problem depend on the absence clear indicator of the scientific view on
(The effect of artificial lighting on visual suggestion of the building's façade) .
The purpose of research clarifying the effect of artificial lighting on the façade
psychological and aesthetical and to defining the role of lighting on suggestion act .
The results of the research discussed and analyzed the relationship between
artificial lighting and visual suggestion of building façade .

The Effect of Welding Process by MIG on The Fatigue Resistance For Steel At Constant And Variable Capacity Stresses

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 7, Pages 291-300

This paper aims to study the effect of loading constant and variable
capacity on the fatigue resistance of carbon steel AISI 1020 which welded by
metal inert gas and comparing it with metal without welding process .
All the fatigue tests for constant capacity were done by rotating bending
of mean stress estimated to be zero. The test for variable capacity stress was done
at high-low stress, so the amount of high stress was near the maximum ultimate
tensile stress for metal before welding which is obtained from tensile test which
was done for the metal before and after welding. It has been found equal to 400
MPa for the metal without welding and 450 MPa for welding metal. Low stress
which is selected as percent from fatigue resistance for constant capacity stress
which is 10-15-20% from fatigue limit.