Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 8,

Issue 8

Study of Corrosion Behavior of Metal Matrix Composite Based on Al-Alloy (7020) Prepared by Atomization

Muhammad S. Waheed; Muna K. Abbass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1502-1514

An experimental procedure has been fully formulated and carried out to
prepare composite material of an aluminum (alloy 7020) matrix reinforced by Al2O3 particles with weight percentages of 5%, 7% and 10% and its particle size of (+53-75)μm using molten metal atomization technique. These experiments involve the preparation of aluminum matrix composite (AMCS) materials and study their Corrosion resistance in 3.5% solution of NaCl at temperature degrees 30˚C, 38˚C and 45˚C using various testing techniques. These include electrochemical corrosion and optical microscopy .
The corrosion rate was found to increase as the temperature was nominally raised from 30˚C to 38˚C and 45˚C for the 10%wt of alumina in atomized AMCS samples in 3.5% NaCl solution. At a temperature of 30˚C the corrosion rate was found to rise with increasing percentages of Al2O3 particles for 5%, 7% and 10% atomized samples. This is due to galvanic corrosion between the matrix and the second phases (MgAl2O4) and (MgO) in microstructure of AMCS. Optical microscope showed a profound appearance of general corrosion in all microstructural area and grain boundaries.

Diffraction Grating and Periodic Surface on Porous Silicon

M. S. Mohammed; B. G. Rasheed; R. K. Soni

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1515-1524

Fabrication of micrometer size laser-induced periodic surface structures (ripples)
on single crystalline silicon by laser beam irradiation of wavelength (810 nm) in HF
electrolyte has been reported. Nonlinear changes of the refractive index are observed
due to the interaction of laser light with silicon nanoparticles. Spatial self-phase
modulated optical fringes were used to study the nonlinear optical response of
nanocrystalline silicon produced by laser-induced etching process.

Studying the Effect of the Percentage of Cutting Fluid and Cutting Speed on Surface Roughness

Salah Kareem Jawad; Abdullah F. Hauier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1525-1534

The purposes of cutting fluids (MWF) which are used in the mechanical
machining operation are important to make cutting easy, and increase the rate of
productivity. It is now very important subject because the direct effect to produce
best surface roughness and negative effect on work environment and worker. This
paper studies the effect of using cutting fluids on the surface roughness of the
product. The Iraqi soluble cutting type was used, in the experimental work, special
study to do a number of experiments to choose the best metal cutting parameter
such as (cutting speed, condition depth of cut paper, and feed rate) ,also its effects
on the surface roughness. In this paper was used (low alloy steel) and cutting tool
of (Tungsten Carbide) were used which have a high hardness. Different cutting
speeds were used with constant cutting depth and feed rates. was used three
different mixtures in different percentages of the fluid with water and by two
methods of using cutting fluid, the first method is flooding method and the second
is misting method with average of (480 mL/hrs) for three mixtures from the fluid.
From the results appear the best operation case to gain best surface roughness for
product is by use flooding method with ratio (1:20) (oil: water) with linear cutting
speed (94.2m/min). Which gives surface roughness of (0.01 m m). Will have
noted the direct effect of the cutting fluid and the water drop on the fluid on the
surface roughness.

Temperature Profile Measurement in Non-Premixed Turbulent Flame Near Lean Limit of LPG/Air Mixture

Hayder Abed Dhahad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1535-1544

The current research was carried out on the topic of non-Premixed turbulent
The temperature profile of non- premixed turbulent flame of lean LPG/Air
mixture were obtained.
A simple jet burner with two different inside diameter and having two different
perforated plates was designed in order to achieve turbulent flow .
The temperature was obtained at the two diameters and different positions for
perforated plates. The temperature profiles were obtained by using a fine
thermocouple ( 0.2mm diameter ) at height ( 3mm ) above the burner mouth. The
maximum temperature for all cases was found at flame edge, and start decreasing
for both sides .

Evaluation of Observed Energy From Adiabatic Impact on Composite Lamenates

Kadhim H. Ghlaim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1545-1567

In this paper, the energy observed due to impact of conical projectiles on
composite laminates is investigated. Four types of energies observed were studied.
They are strain energy due to deformation of plate, large deformation near the
impact zone, delaminating energy and energy losses due to friction.
The equation of motion of plate was developed for orthotropic laminated
plate and solved with its boundary conditions. Large deformation of delaminated
zone was derived assuming deformation shape formulation to calculate the
penetration depth and delaminating radius. Delaminating energy was calculated
by solving the delaminating failure criteria with equation of motion. Friction
energy was calculated assuming constant friction coefficient.
The results show that the energy of deformation of plate is smaller than
that for the large deformation and delaminating energy. And as cone angle
increases the energy observed will be increased and the depth of penetration
decreases. Numerical and experimental results quoted in published papers show a
good agreement with that of the presented work.

Proposed Photonic Integrated Circuit For Photonic Networks

Hassanain M. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1567-1580

Optical technologies have great potential for the implementation of high-speed
systems due to their potential for a decrease in size, weight and power
consumption and an increase in speed, capacity, bandwidth and integration degree.
In this paper a study for the Integrated Photonics properties versus Integrated
Electronics had been presented, different types of photonic components are
maintained, the fabrication technology is explained using the Encoder/Correlator
on GaAs-Based Photonic Integrated Circuit for Photonic Networks, various limits
and challenges are discussed, different suggestion are discussed for the future.

The Mathematical Description of End Mill Cutters and Effective Radius of Tool Geometry on Multi-Axis Milling

Ahmed A.Abdulwahhab; Jamal H. Mohamed; Bahha I. Kazem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1596-1614

The mathematical modeling and detailed algorithms are derived in this paper
to describe the geometrical shape of end mill cutters for multi-axis milling machining.
Details of the geometry analysis techniques are presented to understand the effective
cutting shape. Three types of cutters are taken in the present paper. Finally, the
procedures of finding the instantaneous cutting profile and local geometry analysis are
discussed. The techniques presented in this paper can be used to eliminate errors of
milling tool path generation in the area of simultaneous multi-axis NC complex surface

Improvement Personalization of Website Using Database and Cookies

Ekhlas Khalaf Gbashi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1596-1614

Personalization involves taking some set of inputs and returning
recommendations to users through some types of computations. The method by which
the personalization is performed depend on the type of data presented as input, the
required representation of the output and (in some cases) the speed and accuracy by
which the output must be computed.
This research tends to build the personalization in a new view, since it builds the
personalization in the client in addition of the personalization in the server and using
mobile agent. That by making the personalization for improvement the speed and
efficiency of search in crawling, producing a technique, that technique involve
recording the previous user’s searches in cookies and databases then if the user try to
make a search on other time the proposed system will produce to him all the previous
search’s results and the latest results from www. The tools used in the proposed
system are SQL server 2000, HTML, ASP, Java script and two computers one
presents server and the second presents the client.

Effect of Pore Water Pressure Parameters on The Stability of AL-Ad'daim Earth Dam

Kais T. Al-Shlash; Eman Fazaa Ali; Haider H.Alwash

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1615-1633

The construction and operation of earth dams (homogeneous and those of clay cores) are
normally controlled by the pore water pressure generated during these stages. These pore water
pressures are the main reason behind the dam deformations, settlements, and instability.
Throughout the experimental part of the study, a large number of classification tests, physical
tests, and B -stress path tests were carried out. In the theoretical part of the study, the finite
element analysis was adopted to assess the effect of the pore water pressure parameters of the
marl (dam core) and the water contents of the compacted core layers on the expected
deformations and stability of an earth dam throughout the construction and operation stages

Vibration Characteristics of Different Cross-Section Pipes With Different End Conditions

Muhsin J.Jweeg; Zahid Ibrahim Mohammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1634-1653

This paper investigates the effect of end conditions on the vibration characteristics
of a pipe conveying fluid with different cross sections such as (sudden enlargement
and sudden contraction). The governing equation of motion for this system is derived
by using beam theory. Three types of end pipe supports (flexible, simply and rigid)
were adopted to investigate their effects on the vibration characteristics. Also, the
effect of some design parameters like pipe diameter, length, pipe material, and the
effect of fluid velocity were investigated.
Two different pipe systems of different diameters were investigated, model-1
[12.7mm, 25.4mm, 12.7mm] and model-2 [6.35mm, 12.7mm, 6.35mm] with length
[0.25m, 0.5m, 0.25m] and model-3 with same diameter for model-1 but with length
[0.5m, 0.5m, 0.5m]. Three pipe materials were tried, copper, steel and aluminum. The
effect of Reynolds number between (500 - 1500) was also investigated. The dynamic
behavior of a pipe conveying fluid is described by means of transfer matrix method. A
Matlab- R2007 language computer program has been developed in this study to predict
the vibration response.
The results of Matlab program were compared with those from ANSYS-11
program and it is found that there is a good agreement between them.

A New Method For Three Dimensional Cubic Bezier Surface Reconstruction Based On Matching The Surface Framework

Wissam K. Hamdan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1654-1671

Numerous efforts have been directed to convert the physical model ( in-hand
model) to a computer model. This work is dedicated for the cubic Bezier surface
reconstruction based on finding the positions of the sixteen control points that form the
surface of the product. The idea is based on inverse progressive search (IPS) method
rather than the approximate surface fitting method already used in previous researches.
The presented method is based on three successive steps:(a) converting the continuous
coordinate measuring machine (CMM) data to discrete data,(b) estimating the
positions of the 12 boundary control points and (c) estimating the positions of the 4
intermediate control points to generate the intended surface. To show the feasibility of
the suggested method two experimental examples are conducted. The results show the
validity and effectiveness of the method from the accuracy and computation time point
of view.

Design and Implementation of Performance Counters for Real Time Database Server Clients

Asia Ali Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1672-1691

The aim of this research is to monitor, check, and do the necessary
refinements for the performance of clients working with Database server in the
real time environment. If there are a number of clients in the network need to
access Database server designed for distributed real time system in particular
sequence, this will cause many bottlenecks in the system, making the work of the
system unstable, especially in critical systems such as that of power and water
distribution. A designed performance counters and objects were added to each
client to know who makes the bottlenecks, also they will be used while developing
and debugging the clients when they access the Database server on the network in
order to tune the performance of the system. After completing the designed system
and installing it at the target, the counters can help system administrators to adjust
configurable settings for that system. Using this new performance counters in the
execution time will help to see the effect of clients on each other, on network, and
on performance of the Database server. The results show that, the designed
performance counters can detect the bottlenecks which are caused by week points
in Client’s program code, so they will help the programmers to amendment and
redistribute the client’s program code on the network with minimum errors when
accessing DB server.Windows NT/XP/2000 provides a mechanism for developers
to add performance objects and counters for their applications and other software
components. These objects and counters can provide performance data to
Windows NT/XP/2000 Performance Monitor.

Study of the Mechanical Properties by Using Thermo- Mechanical Processing of Alloy Steel

Amin D. Thamir; Mohammed H. Hafiz; Mahdi Mutar Hanoon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 1692-1705

The purpose of this work is to study the effects of thermo mechanical
treatments to improve mechanical properties of the alloy steel (DIN 42 Cr Mo4), such
as tensile strength, toughness, and hardness. All mechanical factors affected by the
metallurgical changes in alloy like microstructure refinement and appearing new
phases are thoroughly discussed.
Heating was done in induction furnace at 1150oC and specimens were forged
in temperature of 1000oC but the forging process was done with different forging
loads (deformation percentage) with values of (800, 1000, 2500 and 4000 tons) with a
deformation percentages of (26%, 31%, 45% and 61%) respectively.

Study of Some Structural, Electrical Properties of CuS Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 301-317

In this research CuS thin films have been prepared by Spray pyrolysis to study
their structural, electrical properties .The results of (X-Ray ) diffraction also illustrate
that highest degree of phases purity can do obtained by increasing the concentration of
copper salts , conversely , films may have multi-phase structure and incorporate
impure insulator phases.The films ,which were prepared from copper chloride ,
develop the highest degree of phase homogeneity . The results of electrical
measurements represented by Hall effect , resistivity and temperature variation of
conductivity illustrate from the mobility of the charge carrier has value of
(0.02~1.31cm2V-1s-1), Temperature variation of Conductivity has been explained in
terms of occurrin in the films . Although , high activation energy (0.17~0.67eV) at
relatively low temperature refers to the probability of involving ionic Conductivity.

The Effect of Organic Matter’s Content on the Engineering Properties of Expansive Soils

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 318-334

The aim of this work is to study the effect of organic matter content on the
Engineering properties of expansive clayey soils. Soil from the district of
Qadisiyah the second ,in Mosul have been used. Its engineering properties were
indicated. For the resemblance to the organic soils, dry leaves of the wide spread
trees all over Iraq (Youkaliptous) was used.
The crushed dry leaves, passing sieves No.40 were mixed with the soil, with
the amount (5, 10, and 15) % from dry weight of soil, then, samples engineering
properties were indicated. The study concluded that the presence of organic
matters can cause instability in soil properties generally, so that its decrease the
plasticity(more than 35%), shrinkage(25% decreasing at 15% organic content)well
as high compressibility due to gaining low strength. It has been observed, as well,
that high organic matters cause decrease in shear strength(more than 50%
decreasing in cohesion at 15% organic content) and considerably increase in the
optimum moisture content(25%) with decrease of the dry unit weight.

Engineering Requirement Development of Barium Ferrite as Absorbent Radar Waves Material

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 335-346

This research is a treatment trying of the Barium ferrite properties which
obstacle the using its as an absorbent materials for Radar waves. These obstacles
are the high cost, bad mechanical properties and heavy weight, The solution is
prepareing a new composite material , its matrix is the kaolin and filled by Barium
ferrite. 5% and 15% of barium ferrite have enhanced the mechanical properties of
prepared a samples pressed at 69.4 Mρa and sintered at 1150 C˚ for two hours and
2ºC/min. and 3ºC/min as a heating and cooling rates respectively. The first
percentage has a (0.224) reflective index for 0.8 GHz and 2mm thickness and
(0.093) for 10.4 GHz and 2mm thickness.

Study the Temperature Effect on the Dynamic Response for a Camshaft by Using the Combined Finite Element - Transfer Matrices Method

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 347-375

The present work studies the effect of temperature on the dynamic response for
a camshaft as rotor –bearing system contains branches. The effect of temperature
distribution along camshaft length on the critical speeds and on the distribution of
lateral amounts of vibration (eigen mode) along camshaft length with three
dimension are accounted for. Also this work considers the multi effect of
temperature distribution and bearings number and its positions. The response has
been calculated at different interval of time with different temperatures.
The study has been applied on petrol engine camshaft of Volkswagen 1994 car
with 4 cylinders; the camshaft has 8 cams, 5 bearings, total length of 39.5cm and
total weight of 2.32Kg working with rang (20-80Cº) and SAE 40 oil type. The
dynamic investigation of the camshaft has been achieved depending on the
combined Finite Element – Transfer Matrices technique (FETM). It is accounted
for the shear effect and gyroscopic effect of camshaft gear and the effect of
unbalance forces resulting from the existence of the out of balance of the shaft and
cams masses, Also it considered the dynamic loads that are applied on the cams
surfaces and the temperature effect on the material elasticity and rigidity. Eight
coefficients of damping and stiffness have been computed for each bearing at each
angle of rotation with the considering of the temperature effect on the bearing's oil
viscosity. A FORTRAN language computer programs have been developed to
embrace the theoretical work, the programs are able to calculate the camshaft
dynamic response and its critical speeds, Also calculating forces on cams surfaces
as a function of camshaft rotation angle.
It has been found that there are a certain critical speeds and eigen modes for
each temperature distribution, In general case, the results show that the critical
speeds values decrease as temperature increases and the gradient in the speeds
depends on the rank of critical speed. Also it has been found that the reduction of
bearings number leads to reduce the values of critical speeds and the reduction
ratio depends on temperature and the rank of critical speed. Also it has been found
that the distribution of lateral amounts of vibration are affected by the eight
coefficients of the bearing wich are changed according to the temperature, speed
and camshaft rotation angle.

Determination of effecting factors on enzyme activity (Endo-1-4- β-D glucanase) isolated from fungi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 376-390

This study was designed for determination of effecting factors on increasing of
enzyme activity (Endo-1-4-β-D- glucanase) isolated from fungi. The stable surface
incubation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger after twelve days gave higher enzymatic
activity of 0.55 unit per mL. After the choosing of optimum circumstances of A.
niger culture on 8th day we found that the highest enzymatic activity 5.20 unit per
mL. And that mean 9th times and reducing 96 hour from operation

Using chemical etching technique to determination the crystal orientation for silicon wafer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 391-397

The crystal orientation of a semiconductor play a significant role to effects the
characteristics of manufactured semiconductor solar cells and the optical detectors.
In this research we use the chemical etching technique and microscopic testing
to determine the crystal orientation of the silicon wafer, where mechanical
polishing and Wet Etching described the geometric dislocations pits which refers
to thecrystallographicorientation. Microscopic examination has been describing
differences geometric dislocations pits which reflected from plane (111) in the
silicon wafer, by the impact of different chemical solutions. CP-4 etch appear
dislocations pits in geometric forms flat trigonometric, while using KOH solution
show that pits in conical shape which refers to the vector [111] for silicon wafer.
In this work acid chromium oxide solution has been used to showing the
geometric dislocations pits of plane (100) in the forms of four fold flat symmetry
which refers to that plane in Silicon wafer, as the distribution of Miller Indices in
the cubic system.

Computer Aided Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Plastic Product

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 8, Pages 398-419

Cost is one of the foundations which the producer and the customer depend
on it to distinction between the products Therefore, we find that efforts are being
made to control the cost of manufacturing a product to satisfy the desire of the
costumer (high quality and less costs) and achieve the objectives of the company.
Used for the purpose of the Estimate the manufacturing product cos tdifferent
mathematical methods such as (the traditional cost estimating method , Activity
based costing estimating method , parametric cost estimating method … ) that
can be used manually to resolve the problems of small and few variables, and use
of computer software to help in solving the big problems. The most accurate
method in estimating the cost of manufacturing product cost becouse its one of quantitative methods to be followed to measure the cost and performance for each
activity, and activating the role of oversight based on the continuous comparison
between what has been achieved in the workplace and the plans and evaluate the
level of achievement.The process of estimating the manufacturing product cost in
a productive firm is done by determining the cost of use the equipment, machines,
tools, employees hours, the information required to produce the products, as well
as the cost of service activities and administrative costs. To utilize from the similar
cost of previous products to make the estimating process with some changes
counting on the type of the material and the complex degree of the product.
The research focuses on studying and estimating the manufacturing cost and
applied it on one of the plastic products made by the General Company of
Electrical Products via using estimating the cost method that depends on the
activities and how they consuming the available resources in the productive firm.
Computers used in designing and creating a computer system, to calculate and
estimate the total cost of the products by using (Visual In addition,
comparing the results of this research with the actual ones in a firm adopting the
hand basis utilized from the accumulated experience of the estimator.