Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 9,

Issue 9

FPGA Simulation of Type-3 Feistel Network of The 128 bits Block Size Improved Blowfish Cryptographic Encryption

Ashwaq Talib Hashim; Yousra A. Mohammed; Ekhlas H. Karam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1707-1718

Reprogrammable devices such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
are highly attractive options for hardware implementations of encryption algorithms
as they provide cryptographic algorithm agility, physical security, and potentially
much higher performance than software solutions , therefore this paper investigates a
hardware design to efficiently implement block ciphers in VHDL based on FPGA’s.
This hardware design is applied to the new secret-key block cipher called 128-bits
improved Blowfish is proposed which is an evolutionary improvement of 64-bits
Blowfish designed to meet the requirements of the Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) to increase security and to improve performance. The proposed algorithm will
be used a variable key size up to 192 bytes. It is a Type-3 Feistel network iterated
simple function 16 times.
The resources used to implement the design just described are: the VHDL
hardware description language, an FPGA platform from Xilinx and the Xilinx
Synthesis Technology (XST) software synthesis tools that belong to ISE 9.2i package.
The device of choice is the XCV600-4fg680 belonging to the Virtex family of
In this paper, a pipeline and sequential methods are used to get a high
througput (2.893Gbps) and a low area hardware design respectively.

Effect of Chemical Solutions on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced With Glass Fibers

Emad S. AL-Hassani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1719-1727

Hand lay-up molding is used for preparing sheets of epoxy composites
reinforced with chopped strand mat (randomly direction) glass fibers by weight
fraction of (44%). The sheets were left to solidify at room temperature (23± 2) ˚C. The
samples immersed in (HCL, KOH, distilled water, Benzene, and Kerosene) for equal
period of time at constant temperature (23± 2) ˚C. The impact and compressive
strength were calculated for the samples before and after immersion in different
chemical solutions.
The results shown that the impact strength of the samples that immersed in
(HCL, KOH) solutions were decreased after immersion, while the impact strength of
the samples immersed in (distilled water, Benzene, Kerosene) were increased after
immersion.The results showed also that the compression strength of the samples
immersed in (HCL, KOH, distilled water) decreased after immersion, while the
compressive strength of the samples immersed in (Benzene, Kerosene) were increased
after immersion. Finally the results showed that the maximum relative mass gain
(minimum absorption resistance) was of the samples immersed in (HCL) solution in
both impact and compression test. While the minimum relative mass gains (maximum
absorption resistance) was of the samples immersed in (KOH) solution in both tests

Surface Area of Porous Silicon

Mayasa AbdulWahid Shanon; Mayada.H.Mouhsen; Bassam.G.Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1728-1734

The surface area of porous silicon layers produced by different methods has
been measured in this work. It is found that the surface area of the porous silicon
is optimum when high laser power density is used to etch n –type silicon wafer via
the laser induced etching process compared with that for porous silicon produced
by lower laser power density or by electrochemical etching process. A scanning
electron microscope (SEM) micrographs were used to estimate the surface area.
The surface area of the porous layer is strongly dependent on the porous layer
geometry and its depth.

Inverse Kinematics-Based Trajectory Generation For Robot-Assisted 3D Surface Machining

Wissam K. Hamdan Sarraji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1735-1746

Machining and tracking of 3D surfaces using industrial robot is not a new
method, but the new in this paper is the use of simple trigonometric relations in
the calculations of robots joints variables by using the inverse kinematics
approach rather than the previous conventional methods like forward kinematics,
decoupling, and sensor based machining. Calculations of the joints variables are
mainly based on knowing the robot reference point (origin point) and the
coordinates of the tip of the end effectors which is the cutter contact point (CC-P)
at the surface. The coordinate of the cutter location point (CL-P) is the coordinate
of the normal vector that passing through the intended cutter contact point. The
joints variables are calculated based on simple trigonometric relationships. The
results of the proposed method are verified based on hand-made simulation
programs organized for this purpose. The simulation results explore the high
accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method and its high speed in prediction of
joints variables.

Simple Sliding Mode Controller with Adaptive Fuzzy Saturation Function for Nonlinear Single Input-Single Output System

Hanady A. Jaber; Nahida N.Kadhim; Samyaa Y. Muhammad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1747-1756

Sliding mode control algorithm that uses fuzzy saturation function is designed in
this paper for nonlinear system. The fuzzy saturation function is suggested to improve
the accuracy and the robustness of the sliding mode control which are partially lost
when using a fixed boundary layer. The fuzzy saturation function is simple, in the
sense that both the membership functions and the rule base are simple. The overall
control algorithm has stability assurance for the closed-loop controlled system;
therefore, it may be applied to control different systems, in this paper this algorithm is
applied on nonlinear SISO system with 10%parameter uncertainty and nonlinear
disturbance. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm has good control
performance with negligible chattering.

Scabbing and Perforation Local Effect of Impactors on Concrete Structures

Eyad K. S. Al-hachamee; Hussein A.Azeez

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1757-1770

This paper only deals with the effect of hard missile impact (impacting missile
is so stiff that its deformability is negligible to the target deformability) and missile
velocity between 28 to 103m/s are considered. Available formulae for prediction
the scabbing and perforation thickness of concrete structure impacted by solid
missile are summarized and reviewed. Based on statistical analysis of existing data,
two new more safe formulae have been proposed for predicting the scabbing and
perforation thickness of concrete structures due to impact by solid missiles. The
new scabbing and perforation thickness formulae include, missile parameter which
are weight of the missile(W), diameter of the missile(D), velocity of the missile
(V), and target parameter which are concrete member thickness (t), and concrete
member strength (fc'). The simplified formulae for scabbing and perforation
thickness of concrete structure impacted by solid missile are presented in terms of
penetration depth (Xp). Comparison between present scabbing and perforation
thickness of concrete structures impacted by solid missile with other research
results are presented.

Wettability of Al2O3 by Aluminum and Al-Mg Alloys

M. S. Waheed; Ali I. Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1771-1777

The wettablity at a liquid of pure-Al or Al-Mg alloys/ Al2O3 interface was
evaluated by the sessile drop method at 700oC and with a vacuum pressure of
10-4Pa. The value of contact angle varies (decreases) with time of contact with
Al2O3 substrate. The reduction in θ of the Al-Mg alloy was proportional to the
reduction in surface tension γlv of Al, and to reactions that took place at the Alalloy/
Al2O3 interface.

Experimental Study and Theoretical Model Described Transition Regime Parameters and Hydrodynamic Parameters in a Gas-Liquid Dispersion Column

Fadi Z. Hanna

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1778-1801

Experimental study of total gas hold-up, bubble diameters and rise velocity of
the swarm of bubbles, and regime transition point in dispersion column. The
experimental runs were carried out in two perspex columns of 7.5 cm and 15 cm inside
diameter. The present work investigated the effect of two system of two-liquid phase
(air-water, and air-aqueous-n-propanol solution) in the range (0.05-0.7Wt%),
superficial air velocity in the range (0.025-0.3 cm/s) and two air distributor plates of
1.5 mm diameter holes (i.d.= 7.5 cm, holes=36 and free area=1.4%, and i.d.= 15 cm
holes=121 and free area=1.2%). In this paper, a Krishna et al., 1999 model has been
improved, and the combination of this improved model with derived drift flux model
have been described the hydrodynamics of dispersion column operating in
homogeneous and heterogeneous flow regimes (i.e. transition regime parameterest rans
and Utrans ). Photographic technique was used by taking three pictures in different view
(different angle) of the dispersion column, to measure the hydrodynamic parameters.
From the experimental data, it was found that the addition of a small amount of npentanol
to distilled water and varying dispersion column diameter, is the main factor
that affects, the transition flow regime. Also the experimental results show that the
values of total gas hold-up for air-aqueous n-pentanol solution system are greater than
the values for air-water system, but the values of total gas hold-up decrease with
dispersion column diameter for two systems.
The experimental data show that the values of total gas hold-up and superficial air
velocity at transition regime varied with the weight percent of n-pentanol by fitting of
second order polynomial regressions for the two dispersion column diameters:

Effect of Cross Section Properties on Flat Plate Behavior

Awadh O. Ajeel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1802-1815

On the wise of structural advantages of flat plate slab systems, the
researches still deal with punching shear hazards and solution techniques for
adopting a rational design comes from experimental investigations. Beside that
there is a rapid development in production the high performance concretes using
chemical additives and wide spectrum of different features fibers which avail
additional options for the structural designers.
The present work is an experimental study adopts the comparison between
uniform concrete sections with specific strength and hybrid sections (consists of
two different layers with different strength in the top half and the bottom one) to
provide reinforced concrete flat plate slabs and conclude the more advantage
option for improving their behaviors against eventual punching shear failure.
Normal strength, high strength and fibrous concrete with (34, 48 and 21) MPa
compressive strength respectively are used to produce the slabs in this study.
The results revealed the preference of the high strength uniform section in
improving the slab behavior besides increasing its ultimate load twice in
comparison with a hybrid section contains high strength concrete at the top half
only and there is no advantage from increasing the tension zone strength on the
hybrid section slab behavior except the ductility.

Fuzzy Hilbert Spaces

Jehad R.Kider; Ragahad Ibrahaim Sabre

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1816-1824

we introduce the definition of afuzzy inner product space and discuss some
properties of this space,and we use the definition of fuzzy inner product space to
introduced anew definitions such that the definition of fuzzy Hilbert space ,Fuzzy
convergence, ,Fuzzy complete,and we studied the relation between ordinary inner
product space and fuzzy inner product space.

Corrosion and Hydrogen Attack of Pipelines in Oil and Gas Fields

Sami I. J. AL-Rubaiey

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1825-1835

Conditions for hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide corrosion of pipeline in oil,
gas, and gas-condensate fields are discussed. Various factors are shown to affect the
CO2 and H2S corrosion rate of steel in oil and gas field media. Protective properties
of sulfide film as a function of partial pressures of H2S and CO2, pH and temperatures
are studied.

Influence of Anchorage on the Behavior of CFRP RC Beams in Flexure

Samir F. Dawood; Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1836-1853

This research study involves experimental and theoretical investigations of the
behavior of flexural debonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates
with steel anchorages. A total of nine reinforced concrete beam specimens with cross
section of (150mm width by 250mm height and 2000mm length) were investigated in
this study to observe the flexural strength of each one. Eight beam specimens were
strengthened with CFRP laminates and one beam specimen was tested without
strengthening. The experimental results showed that the use of CFRP strips as external
strengthening has significant positive effect on ultimate loads, crack patterns and
deflections. The percent of increasing of the ultimate load capacity can be increased by
about 65% when using two layers of CFRP strips instead of one layer. The ultimate
load is increased by about 118% for the beams strengthened with bonded CFRP and
external anchorage with respect to the reference beam. Three-dimensional nonlinear
finite element analysis (i.e. ANSYS - version 9.0 computer program ) is used to
investigate the performance of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP.
The comparison between the numerical and the experimental results asserted that good
validity of the numerical analysis and the methodology developed in this study.

Design and Simulation of Linear Array Antenna Using Koch Dipole Fractal Antenna Elements for Communication Systems Applications

Fawwaz Jinan Jibrael; Mohanad Ahmed Abdulkareem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1854-1861

In this paper, the fractal concept has been used in the linear array antenna
design to obtain multiband operation. The fractal linear array antenna has been
designed at a frequency of 750 MHz with equal spacing and uniform amplitude
distribution of the elements array. 1st iteration quadratic Koch curve dipole fractal
element is used in design of the array. The proposed antenna array design, analysis
and characterization had been performed using the Method of Moment (MoM)
technique. The radiation pattern, side lobe level (SLL), directivity (D), and input
impedance of the proposed antenna are described and simulated using 4NEC2
software package and MATLAB programming language version 7.6.

Simple Learning Classifier Machine

Lubna.Z.Bashir; Hind .A.Alrazzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1862-1879

A learning classifier system is one of the methods for applying a genetic-based
approach to machine learning applications. An enhanced version of the system that
employs the Bucket-brigade algorithm to reward individuals in a chain of co-operating
rules is implemented and assigned the task of learning rules for classifying simple
objects. The task is to classify an object that has one or more of the following features:
wing, 2-legs/wheels, 3-legs/wheels, 4-legs/wheels, big, flies into one of the following:
bird, vehicle. the main goal is to exploit the ability of the algorithm to perform well in a
noisy environment and its ability to make little or no assumption about its problem
domain. Results are presented which show that the system was able to learn rules for
the task using only a few training examples and starting with classifiers that were
randomly generated. It is argued that a classifier based learning method requires little
training examples and that by its use of genetic algorithms to search for new plausible
rules, the method should be able to cope with changing conditions. Results show also
The parallel implementation of the algorithm would speed up the training process.

Build a New Biological Treatment Laboratory System to Reduce Pollution of Some Inorganic and Organic Pollutants in Industrial Wastewater

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 420-433

Instruction and implementation of a new laboratory biological treatment
system -unit . The complete removing was achieved after 7 days . The hydraulic
were achieved to reduce the pollution of industrial wastewater of artificial
fertilizers company with some inorganic pollutants ( NH4
, NO2
, NO3
2- ) and organic ( Biological Oxygen Demand , BOD5 ; urea and Total
Suspended Solids ,TSS ). The modified culture media ,by me , were used to
optimize the specific variables related to this study . Immobilized technique was
used in all units of biological system that consists of Mixo- unit with non discrete
spaces, Denitrifying and Sulfate reducing units .
The mixo-unit was operated by Fed- batch technique of the whole volume
meanwhile the other units by batch technique . In laboratory artificial medium
(ND- A ) the primary concentration of ammonium and sulfate were 1300 mg / l
and 3800 mg / l and reduced to 50% and 45% respectively in Mixoretention time
required to reduce 500 and 1300 mg / l of ammonium and sulfate respectively in
fed- batch culture was 40 hr . The retention time of fed- batch became stable at a
range of 25 -26 hr in removing the same concentrations and not across the
environmental limitations of NO2
, NO3
- , in addition to reduce the BOD to the
allowable concentration . The ammonium , nitrite and nitrate were reduced after 4
and 3 days for pretreated and disposed treated wastewater respectively using
Mixo- unit and batch technique . Nitrate was removed by concentration of 500 mg /
l in denitrifying unit using the modified medium ( O3a – A) . The sulfate was
removed in modified medium ( C- medium) by concentration of 2129 mg / l
during 3 days using batch technique and anaerobic conditions.

Effect of Aluminizing Process on The Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Type (305)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 434-443

The aim of this work is to study the thermal surface treatment by Aluminizing
process of stainless steel (305) to modify the mechanical properties of the surface
by pack cementation process. The coating process was done with various periods
of time (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) hours and temperatures (900 1000 1100)°C. The results
showed that the thickness of coating layer was increased with the increment of
time and temperature. The microhardness values of coating layer was reduced
from the outer surface to the core, also the results showed that the highest
microhardness of the coating was obtained at period of (6) hours and temperature
of (900, 1000, 1100)°C, also the highest bending stress was obtained at the period
of (6) hours and at all temperature.

The Immunological And Cytogenetic Effects of Cars Exhaust on Exposed People

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 444-453

This investigation which was extended from Jan – Nov (2008) aimed to
study the effects of cars smoke on the immunological and genetic parameters for
(30) people exposed to cars smoke, their ages were ranging from (20-45) years
compared with (15) rare exposed people as negative controls.
Cytogenetic parameters were showed significant increase in the mitotic
index (MI), blastogenic index (BI), and chromosomal aberrations (CA), in exposed
The immune stimulus was decreased significantly in exposed group by
reducing the phagocytic percent and Phagocytic Index, the total count of W.B.C.
were decreased significantly in the exposed people as well as the hemoglobin
concentration as compared with rare exposed people, while the differential count of
W.B.C. showed decreasing in both of the lymphocytes and monocytes while the
eosenophile raised in number in exposed people.

An Experimental Study on The Effect of Permeable Slot Width on The Performance of Two - Dimensional Diffuser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 454-466

The present study deals with incompressible turbulent flow. The flow
regarded as fully developed in two-dimensional diffuser. For completion of this
study a number of test models of modified diffusers designed and manufactured
with a six modified diffuser models were designed and manufactured with (3, 4
mm) permeable slot and each with (10◦ ,15◦ , 20◦) divergent angle . The air was
used as working fluid during the experimental Program at different Reynolds
numbers ranging between (6.85 × 104) to (1.64 × 105) at the duct inlet.
The results obtained showed that location of separation delayed by decreasing
the divergent angle and increasing the Reynolds number. The static pressure
coefficient recovery increased with the decreasing the diffuser area ratio
(AR).Also, the width of the permeable slot (4mm) in the modified diffuser at
divergent angles (10◦,15◦,20◦), enhances the static pressure coefficient recovery
(Cp) over the case of permeable slot of (3mm) with (23.25%),( 27.33%), and
(33.61%), respectively, and for the case of permeable slot of (2mm) with
(29.22%), (34.74%) and (40.88%), respectively, and with the case of no
permeable slot with (410.13%) , (44.09%), and (51.01%), respectively.

Synchronous Comparison of Different Solar Water Heaters Design

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 467-478

In this paper an experimental study of different design of solar water heaters
was carried out. all the used solar water heaters work on the thermosiphone theory.
The experimental study includes testing of four solar water heaters. The first one is
a Evacuated tube solar heater flat produced by Denka-China. The second one is a
flat plate solar water heater produced by the general company for electrical
industries/Baghdad, it's in working since 2001 and it was used for testing after
simple maintenance. The third one is a flat plate solar water heater produced by
solar energy research center/Baghdad, which is in work in 2007, it is similar to the
first one but with some differences in design and material . The last one is a
portable type - solar water heater.
The testing was done for a period of time from February to July 2007. The
performance was tested of the collectors with no load conditions and with different
rate of load conditions. The no load testing results showed that performance for the
solar water heater produced by Denka Company is better than other solar water
heaters. The flat plate solar water heater produced by solar energy research center
have good performance and it’s the nearest to the performance of a Evacuated tube solar heaters from otheres heaters. Water withdraw results show an improvement in
daily efficiency for the four solar water heaters, where the efficiency of
solar water heaters is (55% - 66%) for the first heater, (48% - 57%) for the second
heater, (51% - 62%) for the third heater and (20% - 35%) for the fourth heater.