Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 11

Volume 28, Issue 11, May 2010, Page 508-2275


A Sandwich Porous Alumina Nanostructures Based on Anodic Alumina

Zeinab A. Jawad; Ahmed A. Moosa; Abdul Qader D. Faisal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2091-2102

A sandwich porous anodic alumina membrane (PAA/Al/PAA) films was produced
using two-step anodization approach on both sides of (250) μm pure aluminum foil
electrode as an anode. A single sheet of stainless steel or graphite was used as a
cathode. Anodization on both sides of aluminum sheet was achieved. The anodization
processes and pore formation were studied and discussed in this work. The produced
alumina membrane (5-30) μm thick was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy
(SEM). The SEM image shows the PAA membranes has a well-defined nanostructure.
The average pore diameter reaches (25) nm. The produced Al 2O3 membrane growing
on both sides of aluminum sheet was separated into a twin nano membrane.

CFD Prediction of Forced Draft Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Performance

Qasim S. Mehdi; Talib K. Murtadha; Jalal M. Jalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2103-2120

Numerical and experimental studies were conducted for open type forced draft
water cooling tower. The numerical part includes a three dimensional computational
solution of air and water simultaneous equations which represents the fluid flow,
heat transfer and mass transfer. Finite volume method with staggered grid and ke-
turbulent model was used. Experimentally, mechanical forced draft counter-flow
cooling tower was used to validate the numerical results. The agreement seems
acceptable between the numerical and experimental results.

Studying Some Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy- Polyaniline (PANI) Composites

mah M.Hsian; SA Weing AL dean

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2121-2131

As ordinary known the ability of synthesizing electrical conducting polymer
composite is possible but with poor mechanical properties, for the solution of this
problem, we carried out this study in order to obtain both properties.
The PANI composite was prepared by using the prepared (EP/glass fiber)
composite as substrate for the deposition of the PANI. The chemical oxidative
method was adopted for polymerization of the aniline and simultaneously
protonated of PANI with a hydrochloric acid at a concentration of (1M).The
oxidation agent (FeCl3.6H2O) was used. The conductivity results showed that the
prepared composite lies within semiconductors region (1.7×10-3(S.cm-1)). The
Hall Effect measurement showed a p-type behavior for the prepared composite.
The creep and tensile behavior was studied and concluded that PANI Precipated
on the EP/glass fiber composite has no remarkable effect on the mechanical creep
and tensile behavior as compared with the untreated composites with PANI.But
have higher creep resistance and ultimate strength.

ANN Modified Design Model to Adjust Field Current of D.C. Motor

Ahlam Luaibi Shuraiji; Suad Khairi Mohammed; Alia Jasim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2132-2142

This work is concerned with designing an adjusted field current of D.C.
motors to obtain constant speed, based on ANN. The design is employed by using
training model with supervised manner with back-propagation algorithm.
MATLAB neural network tool box is used for training purpose.
The feed-forward neural network (FFNN) and learning capabilities offers a
promising way to solve the problem of system non-linearity, parameter variations
on unexpected load excisions associated with D.C. motor drive system.
The proposed ANN controller model is implemented with a control dc motor
drive system in the laboratory. The laboratory test results validate the efficacy of
the based controller model for a high performance dc motor drive.

Effect of HF Concentration on the PS Structures Prepared by Photoelectrochemical Etching

Yasmeen Z. Dawood; Bassam G. Rasheed; Ali H. AL-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2143-2150

Porous silicon was fabricated at p-n junction wafer by
photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching. Silicon wafer with various electrolyte
containing different HF concentrations was used to explain PS formation by the
reaction at the Si/ electrolyte interface. An investigation of the dependence on HF
concentration to formed PS layer was made. The surface morphology of PS layer
was study as a function of HF concentration. Pillar like structures are formed at
low HF concentration and pores structures are obtained a at higher HF
concentration (40%). The etching rate increases with increasing HF concentration
causing faster silicon dissolution. Thus the total pillar volume would increase by
increasing the HF concentration.

Attack on the Simple Substitution Ciphers Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Ismail K. Ali; Ahmed Tariq Sadiq; Hilal Hadi Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2151-2161

This paper considers a new approach to cryptanalysis based on
simulation of behavior of flocks of birds and schools of fish called Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO). It is shown that such algorithm could be used
to break the key for a simple substitution cipher. This paper presents a
proposed 2-opt PSO algorithm to enhance the efficiency of PSO algorithm
on attacking simple substitution ciphers.

Watermarks Technique in MPEG-1Video by B-spline

Noor Kadhim Meftin; Abdul Monem S. Rahma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2162-2177

As the computers are more and more integrated via the network, the
distribution of digital media is becoming faster, easier, and requiring less effort to
make exact copies. One of the major impediments is the lack of effective
intellectual property protection of digital media to discourage unauthorized
copying and distribution.
This paper aims to produce random and dynamic watermarking technique to
provide copyright protection for digital media (video) by embedding a digital
image for video sequences compressed according to the MPEG-1 video coding
standard.
Digital image is used to be embedded in one of the most widespread video coding
standard (MPEG-1), by implementing third degree B-spline curve equation on Iframes
macroblocks data to interpolate data and provide according to the
comparing condition effective points that represent the selected location where
watermark image will be embedded.
Using B-spline curve fitting equation will show distribution of watermark location
through secondary intra-frame of MPEG-1 standard by drawing curves depending
on watermarked points as control points.
Test measurements will be used to prove robustness of the proposed technique
against watermark attacks and control point for curve drawing illustrating how
watermark image is distributed among a number of video samples.

Solar Thermal Water Heating for Domestic or Industrial Application (New Trend Modeling)

Mohammed Hadi Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2178-2195

This paper presents a modeling of Solar Water Heating ( SWH ) used for
domestic or industrial application using Flat – Plate Collectors.
The research uses a new trend of application for Solar Radiation variation during
the day, The model is a ( Half – Sine ) Model for clear day with some assumptions
to predict the temperature fluctuation in the Storage tank and to calculate the
heating energy demand to be added to the Solar energy supplied by Sun.
An encouraging result has been found that will help the designer to have a good
idea and give useful indication about the system proposal to make a proper
economic analysis of any projects.

Face Recognition for Authentication by Using Anthropometric Model

Hussien; Farah Tawfiq Abd El; Emad K. Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2196-2205

This paper presents an automatic technique for detecting important facial
features’ points using a developed anthropometric face model. The facial
features’ points we work on are about the areas of mouth, nose, eyes and
eyebrows. The anthropometric means the scientific study of the measurements
and proportions of the human face. Several processes are performed in order
to recognize human personality authenticated or not, these processes are
beginning by capturing colored image using fixed digital camera and ending
by features isolated into separated sub images and the lengths and distances
among them representing authenticated persons information are stored into
database..
In authentication stage all the extracted features are compared with stored
authenticated facial features in the database, the person is authenticated if a
percentage of similarity equal to or greater than 78% is achieved.

A Novel Microstrip Dual-Mode Band-pass Filter For second Harmonic Suppression

Ali Abdul-Elah Noori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2206-2211

A novel design scheme has been introduced in this paper to suppress 2nd harmonic
from response of band-pass filter (BPF) which appears at about . The filter is
composed of perturbed, square-ring resonator and open end stup length where
wavelength for harmonic located on the output feeder port work as Band Stop
Filter. The harmonic suppression of the BPF may be realized by choosing a
proper length of the open stup which is equal to . The BPF investigated is for more
frequencies such as (GPS, ISM, RFID, and GSM).
The performance of BPFs with open stup structures has been analyzed using
method of moments (MoM) based software microwave office, which is widely
adopted in microwave research and industry.

A Moment Method for the Second Order Two-point Boundary Value Problems

Ahmed M. Shokr; Bushra E. Kashem; Fuad A. Alheety

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2212-2220

In this paper a Moment method based on the second, third and fourth kind
Chebyshev polynomials is proposed to approximate the solution of a linear twopoint
boundary value problem of the second order. The proposed method is
flexible, easy to program and efficient. Two numerical examples are given for
conciliating the results of this method, all the computation results are obtained
using Matlab.

Modeling of Single Channel Monolithic Reactor with The Single pass Flow Operation System

Lange; Zaidoon; A Al-Najar; Jenan; Adel; A. Shuhaib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2221-2236

In the following sections, the recent published studies on modeling and
simulation of monolith reactors were reviewed. Mass transfer, and reaction kinetics
were achieved by establishing mass, energy and momentum balance equations. The
model equations were solved simultaneously. Such a model can be useful for studying
the impact of changes of superficial gas and liquid velocities on reaction rate within
the slug flow regime. The reaction system used is the hydrogenation α–methyl styrene
(AMS) to cumene over a palladium on γ–alumina catalyst, It is a well known
system used to understand three-phase reactor performance under mass transfer
limited condition by the gas mass transfer through the liquid film at the catalyst
surface to the active sites. The effects of superficial gas and liquid velocities on
reaction rate were studied with the range of 10 cm/s ≤ UL ≤ 30 cm/s, and 10 cm/s
≤ UG ≤ 30 cm/s. The flow pattern for all these range of velocities was in the Taylor
flow pattern.

Tuning Controller for Induction Motor using Model Reference Adaptive Control

Nihad Mohammed Ameen; Abdulrahim Thiab Humod

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2237-2246

This paper is an attempt to design an adaptive controller using model reference
adaptive control algorithm involving Indirect Field Oriented Control of an A.C.
Induction Machine as a nonlinear plant, without the need for modeling (knowing
the plant equations) except the plant order. The objective is to study the controller
parameters effect to reflect the performance specification in the control tasks, such
as rise time, settling time and overshoot in order to design a controller with an
adjustment mechanism so us the closed loop system remains stable. The second
plant used is a D.C. Motor as a linear plant to verify the capability of the
suggested method for a linear plant. The model is chosen with respect to the order
of the plant. The suggested method is to find the initial values of the controller
parameters by using a designed table which gives a good response compared with
the conventional method (tuned PI controller); in addition the designed controller
has an enhancement on the response with the time regarded to the adaptation
mechanism.

Improved Image Segmentation Algorithm Using Graph-Edges

Imad Kassar Akeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2247-2258

In this paper an efficient algorithm for segment digital image has been
developed by measuring the evidence for a boundary between two regions in an image
using (graph-edges). The regions in the image were sorted as components, where each
region in an image represents a component in the graph. The region comparison
predicate evaluates if there is evidence for a boundary between a pair of components
by checking if the difference between the components, is large relative to the internal
difference within at least one of the components. A threshold function is used to
control the degree the difference between components must be larger than minimum
internal difference. An important characteristic of the method is its ability to preserve
detail in important image regions while ignoring detail in unimportant regions. The
classical methods depend just on external difference and ignore the internal
difference, when segment two neighboring regions.

The Effects of Different Environmental Conditions on the Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Plates

Ghydaa K. Yass; Safaa H. Abdul Rahman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 2259-2275

The failure of polymer matrix composite upon exposure to the environment
conditions has been assessed in the present study. Glass fabrics and unsaturated
polyester resin were selected to fabricate 8-layer laminates cross ply [(0/90)8]
arranged in symmetric and antisymmetric stacking sequence. Environmental
conditioning using Sea and Tap water with humidity exposure and Ultraviolet
radiation was conducted to investigate the vibrations characteristics of symmetric
and antisymmetric composite samples. After exposure time to the conditions
above for 500, 1000 and 2000 hr, laminates were subjected to three point bending
testing, in order to study their flexural properties (stiffness and strength) before
and after these exposures. Then a finite element analysis using the package
program ANSYS (version 10) was used for the analysis of free vibration
characteristics. The object was to obtain the natural frequency for each case of
environmental conditions at different exposure times. The results showed that
natural frequencies of cantilever laminate plates decreased with the increased
exposure time for the different environmental conditions.

Study of Mechanical Properties for Polyester Reinforced by Date Palm with Maleic, NaOH, and HCl Chemical Treatments

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 508-519

In this paper achemical treatment with (Maleic, NaOH, HCl) solutions at
aconstant concentration with different times (3, 18, 72, 168, 240 Hours) is
conducted in natural fibers (Date palm) are used as reinforcing phase in polyester
matrix to form composites. Mechanical properties of these composites such as
flexural strength, impact are evaluated and possible chemical reaction taking place
during composite making. Maleic treatment showed a relatively good effect in
improving the mechanical properties of the composite. Flexural strength and
impact energy reached the maximum values of (2.912 MPa) and (3.4 J)
respectively at immersed time (18 Hours).

The Effect of Utilizing Photovoltaic Systems Technique as External Finishing Materials in the Architectural Product

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 520-534

Forms of advanced technology have influenced contemporary architecture; some
of which are related to environmental-climatic control systems, such as
Photovoltaic systems which fall under a set of concepts concerned with the
integration of building with the environment.
These concepts have emerged as a result of a basic idea, namely, the utilization
of technology by applying it to architectural design ideas in order to reduce energy
consumption used in operating a building such that it can reach a minimum. In
addition, photovoltaic systems can integrate with a building as finishing materials which become part of the external crust design, considered as elements having the
capability of responding and being evoked by external environmental causes.
Accordingly, the research problem is exemplified by the unavailability of
comprehensive knowledge concerning the nature of treatments or procedures that a
designer can adopt while employing the Photovoltaic systems as external finishing
materials in the crust of the building.
This research aims at getting acquainted with the methods of architectural
integration with Photovoltaic systems and the means of utilizing them in promoting
the formal acceptance of the final architectural product. This research also puts
forward the assumption that the Photovoltaic systems carry the potentials which
qualify them to have an effect on the shape of the building when they are employed
as finishing external materials.
The end of this research arrived at the conclusion that it is necessary to try to
balance two things: achieving the formal aspect of buildings and saving the energy
produced by those systems, in addition to the necessity of achieving a positive
conformity between passive and active systems in designing a building.

A Mathematical Model for The Reverse Osmosis Mode Used for Treating Water In Electrical Power Stations

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 535-543

In this investigation, a mathematical model is built and solved with
computer programs to get results for the design calculations of the reverse osmosis
mode used to remove salt from the river water before being utilized in the boilers
of electrical power stations in Iraq. The principles of the reverse osmosis mode ,
the conditions and factors affecting their operation, are discussed .The number of
stages with their arraements in the reverse osmosis mode are calculated using the
cascades theory for the first time.
A mathematical model and computer programs including all the mentioned cases
are built and applied on the reverse osmosis mode of AL-Nassiriya and AL-Daura
electrical power stations. The results of these calculations are compared with the
practical results and showed a good agreement .

Determining Performance Evaluation Equation for Companies of the Ministry of Housing and Construction

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 544-555

Performance evaluation is one of the most important factors of control function
for firms regardless to the nature of the firms and their objectives. Then reaching
the value that represents the total performance for any company can be considered
as a high important issue. Hence contracting companies of the ministry of housing
and construction can be considered as the executive arm for the ministry, then ’ist
important for the top management to check the total performance for these
companies to compare between them and to compare the annual progress in
performance development. TheTheoretical part for this paper is represented by
definitions and functions of performance evaluation. On the other hand,a field
survey was done by collecting data required to attain research objective
represented by the mathematical model of performance evaluation As these data
were not enough, a questionnaire was designed and collected to accomplish the
missing data reach a mathematical model using multiple linear regression analysis.
The final result was an equation of eleven independent variables giving the total performance result for contracting companies of the ministry of housing and with
correlation factor R of 1.0.

Vibration Analysis of Simple Home Generator

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 11, Pages 556-570

Abstract
This research presents an analysis for the vibration of a small electrical
generator, which is widely used for domestic purposes. This generator is of a type
(ASTRA 3000) that gives an electrical power up to (2200 W), The analysis is
achieved by using the method of the transfer matrices. The generator consists of
arotating system, abody cover (casing) and bearings so a mathematical model has
been built accordingly. The mathematical model consists of two beams connected
to Each other with some springs and dampers where the rotating system has been
represented by rotating beam under the gyroscopic moment effect, but the body
cover is represented by a non-rotating beam. And each bearing has two stiffness
coefficients and two damping coefficients This model also considers the effect of
supporting braces for the body cover which is represented by a flexible spring and
damper. The generated magnetic relucting force has been calculated and converted
to flexible springs which are accounted for in the prepared model.
The current research studied the effects of the instantaneous changeable electrical
load and the stiffness of the supported plastic pieces, on the critical speeds and their mod shapes and the dynamical characteristic values of the vibrated system all
over the rotating length and the casing with the existing of the exciting forces. Also
a comuter program has been developed by (New Fortran) language to embrace the
theoretical work and from which the values of shear forces, the bending moments,
deflections and slopes can be calculated over the entire length of the rotating
system and casing.It is concluded that: the change of the electrical load affects the
critical speeds values and the response of the generator. It has also been found that
the extreme values of the stiffness of the plastic pieces according to their original
values decline the critical speed values. However, there is a value little less than the
original value, increasesthe critical speed values.