Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 13,

Issue 13

Preparation and Characterization of Polymer- Ceramic Composite Bio-material

Rabab Asim Abdul-Aziz; Waleed Asim Hanna; Kahtan Khalaf Al-khazraji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2497-2515

This work focuses on studying the addition effect of the prepared HA powder as
a filler material before and after the calcination process with different volume
fractions (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15) vol% to the unsaturated polyester resin matrix.
Many mechanical and physical tests were used to determine the properties of the
prepared composite material which involved tensile strength, the modulus of
elasticity, the elongation percentage at break, compression strength, compression
modulus, bending strength, impact strength, fracture toughness, hardness and water
absorption percentage. For the prepared HA powder, the Ca/P ratio was increased
after the calcination process from 2.45 to 2.51. X- ray diffraction patterns for the
prepared HA powder before and after the calcination process revealed an increase
in the HA peak intensity after the calcination process. Secondary phases also
appeared after the calcination process like (α- Ca3(PO4)2 ) and (β- Ca2P2O7). For the
prepared composite material with both groups of HA filler particles, the results had
shown that the mechanical properties which included: tensile strength, modulus of
elasticity, compression strength, compression modulus, bending strength, fracture
toughness and hardness have been increased with increasing volume fraction of
HA filler particles and reached their maximum value at (7.5 vol%). Furthermore,
the increasing in volume fraction revealed a decreasing in the evaluated properties.
Both the elongation percentage at the break point and the impact strength
decreased with increasing volume fraction of HA filler particles. The water
absorption percentage as a physical property for the prepared composite material
showed an increase with increasing volume fraction of HA filler particles. The
improvement of unsaturated polyester resin with calcined HA filler particles had
shown greater values for the fore-mentioned properties than the improvement of
unsaturated polyester resin with uncalcined HA filler particles.

Multivariate Multisite Model MV.MS. Reg for water Demand Forecasting

Cheleng A.Arselan; J.Al-Kazwini; Muhannad; Rafa H.Shaker.Al-suhaili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2516-2529

A new multivariate multi site MV.MS.Reg model is developed in this
research depended on regression analysis mixed with Auto regressive multisite
Matalas model (AMMM)and used for water demand forecasting .This developed
model was applied to Kerkuk city as a case study for long term forecasting of
water demand for different types such as domestic demand,industrial,commercial
and public demand.This was done by dividing the city into four sites and
dividing the total water demand in each site into three types of
demand(domestic,industrial with commercial and public demand) .Each type of
water demand in each site was analyzed by multivariate regression base then the
cross correlation between this type of demand for the four sites were included in
the model using multi site Matalas model.Many explanatory variables were
concluded to be most effective factors affecting different types of demands such
as monthly temperature,monthly evaporation ,number of residential units
,number of industrial and commercial units and number of public units which
were forecasted successfully using Stochastic weather generation (SWG)

Image Denoising Using Framelet Transform

Ali K. Nahar; Hadeel N. Abduallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2530-2550

In many of the digital image processing applications, observed image is
modeled to be corrupted by different types of noise that result in a noisy version.
Hence image denoising is an important problem that aims to find an estimate
version from noisy image that is as close to the original image as possible. In this
paper, introduces firstly was applied method of computing one and twodimensional
framelet transform .The applying method reduces heavily processing
time for decomposition of image keeping or overcoming the quality of
reconstructed images. In addition, it cuts heavily the memory demands .Also, the
inverse procedures of all the above transform for multi- dimensional cases
verified. Secondly, many techniques are proposed for denoising of gray scale and
color image. A new threshold method is proposed and compared with the other
thresholding methods. For hard thresholding, PSNR gives (13.548) value while
the PSNR was increased in the proposed soft thresholding, it gives (14.1734)
PSNR value when the noise variance is (20). Some of the above denoising
schemes are tested on Peppers image to find its effect on denoising application.
The noisy version with SNR is equal to (11.9373 dB), the denoising image using
WT with SNR is equal to (17.4661 dB), the denoising image using SWT with
SNR is equal to (18.1459 dB), the denoising image using WPT with SNR is equal
to (19.3640 dB), the denoising image using FT with SNR is equal to (21.9138
dB). Finally the denoising image for color image using FT with SNR is equal to
(27.3443 dB).

An Efficient Technique for Information Recovery of Erroneous Medical Image Blocks Transmitting Over Error Prone Networks

Ekhlas H. Karam; Media Abdul Razak Ali; Fatimah S. Abdulsattar; Khamis A. Zidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2551-2559

Imperfect transmission of block-coded images often causes lost blocks.
These blocks may contain very important information of image. In this
paper, an efficient method of error concealment scheme is proposed for
restoring lost blocks and lines in medical images that are transmitted over
error prone network such as the internet and wireless networks. It adopted
the idea of data hiding that can be implemented in the DCT domain. The
algorithm determines the most important information in each block of
original image and rotated one by 900 clockwise and embeds this information
into another block that is not adjacent to it, since adjacent blocks have high
probability to be lost at the same time. Simulation results show that the
visual quality and the PSNR evaluation of a reconstructed image are
significantly improved using the proposed scheme with respect to other

Hyperelastic Constitutive Modeling of Rubber and Rubber- Like Materials under Finite Strain

Hassan M. Alwan; Muhsin N. Hamza

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2560-2575

This paper is concerned with determining material parameters for
incompressible isotropic hyperelastic strain–energy functions. A systematic
procedure analysis is implemented based on the use of least squares optimization
method for fitting incompressible isotropic hyperelastic constitutive laws to
experimental data from the classical experiments of Treloar [3] on natural rubber.
Two phenomenological constitutive models are used to fit the experimental data
of natural rubber, these are Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models. The material
parameters using Mooney-Rivlin are obtained using the linear least squares
method, while for Ogden model the material coefficients are nonlinear,
consequently the nonlinear least squares approach has been used. In this work the
nonlinear least squares method with trusted region TD have been used using
MATLAB Ver. 7 to find these coefficients. The comparison shows that the present
mathematical formulations are correct and valid for modeling rubbery materials.
Also it was found that Mooney-Rivlin model is suitable when the deformation is
not to exceed 100%, while Ogden model is more appropriate when deformation
exceed 100%. In addition, as the degree of non-linearity in material behaviour
increases more material coefficients are required.

Using Genetic Algorithm in Image Clustering

Muna Y. Saghir; Saad K. Majeedd

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2576-2591

The aim of this work is to optimize gray scale image clustering using two
traditional methods, these are thresholding technique and genetic algorithm (GA).
The clustering optimization is achieved by applying three features (gray value,
distance, gray connection) based thresholding technique and genetic algorithm. In
this work clustering optimization includes segmenting the image to find regions
that represent objects or meaningful parts of objects depending on the above
mentioned three features which base on gray value of image and two standard
mathematical theories these are chessboard distance and breshenham's algorithm.
There are many recent researches in this subject some of them depending on gray
value feature to clustering images, but in this research depended on three features
which is making the clustering operation more accuracy.

A New Algorithm for Less Distortion and High Capacity Steganography Model Using Blocks-Based Method

Wathiq L. Abd Ali; Salah Mahdi Saleh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2592-2607

Most steganography methods suffer from many problems that effect on
their efficiency and performance. Some of these are the capacity of cover media,
the distortion of cover media, and etc. In this paper we are proposed a new method
to hide audio file (WAV format) in image (BMP format) that overcomes most of
these problems. Also the proposed method aims to meet most the requirements of
any steganography system (like capacity, security and undetectability). It depends
on finding the similarity between the embedded data blocks and others in the
cover-image. It can be used as a powerful tool to get a high capacity data
embedding and a less distortion stego-image, where the PSNR for the stego-image
is large.

Effect of Hold Time Periods at High Temperature on Fatigue Life In Aluminum Alloy 2024 T4

Mahir H. Majeed; Dhafir S. Al-Fattal; Husain J. Al-alkawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2608-2621

In some applications, the aluminum alloy 2024 T4 may be subjected to an
interaction of fatigue and creep effects at high temperature. This paper investigates
the effect of this interaction by studying the effect of constant amplitude fatigue
(CAF) and creep separately, and then fatigue-creep interaction is introduced by
testing the alloy under constant amplitude with some holding time periods through
the test at high temperature (150 oC). The results showed that the life time of the
alloy decreases due to fatigue-creep interaction as compared to creep alone in
about 77%, and in about 80% as compared with fatigue alone. This is a result of
accumulated fatigue damage superimposed on creep damage. Creep allows more
free spaces for fatigue cracks paths that accelerate failure. A theoretical model to
calculate the time to failure due to fatigue-creep interaction has been proposed.
This theoretical interaction model predicts very close time to failure values to the
experimental results.

Simulation of Aircraft Control Using Bond Graph Techniques and Matlab/Simulink Software

Usama Staar Kazem; Assim Hameed Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2622-2637

to develop the nonlinear transformer that is required for particular
implementation of a complex aircraft control system. Aircraft longitudinal and lateral
motions are presented by studying and analyzing the aircraft dynamics. The equations
of motion are covered both forces and moments exerted on the aircraft using Newton's
second law with the assumption that at each equation the aircraft is regarded as a rigid
body. Six equations were classified, three equations for the longitudinal motion and
three equations for the lateral motion. The matrix for the differential equations
vectors for each force and moment were found with the aid of the computer aided
modern bond graph program (CAMP-G) including symbolic manipulation.
MATLAB/SIMULINK offered additional simulation capability.

Effect of Masonry Units Type and Concrete Grouting on Compressive Strength of Prisms

Ali A. Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2638-2653

Masonry is a well proven building material possessing excellent properties in
terms of appearance, durability and cost in comparison with alternatives.
However, the quality of the masonry in a building depends on the materials used,
and hence all masonry materials must conform to certain minimum standards. The
basic components of masonry are block, brick and mortar, the latter being in itself
a composite of cement, lime and sand.
Two types of masonry units (brick and concrete block) were used to construct the
prism and some of them were grouted by concrete. The uniaxial compressive
strength test was done and stress-strain behavior has been obtained. Using linear
regression analysis, a simple empirical equation has been proposed for obtaining
the compressive strength for masonry that can be used in the analysis and design

Analytical Solution for Anthropomorphic Limbs Model, (IK of Human Arm)

Y. I. Al-Mashhadany; M.Z.Al-Faiz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2654-2665

This paper considers a proposed algorithm for computation of the inverse
kinematics(IK) model of the human arm. This algorithm introduces a new IK method
suitable for reaching tasks performed by autonomous and interactive virtual humans.
The basic problem is to pose the character in such a way that arm hand reaches the
target ( position and orientation ) in space. The algorithm is composed of two phases.
The first phase is the limitation of real task which concerning the human arm
movement and the second phase presents the analytical solution for inverse kinematics
problem (IKP) by trigonometric relations and algebraic solution according to
limitation of joints. This algorithm is simulated by using MATLAB Ver. R2008a, and
satisfied results are obtained, that explains the ability of the proposed algorithm to
solve the inverse kinematics problem for real human arm.

Optical Flow Estimation Based on Curvelet Transform and Spatio-temporal Derivatives

Atheer A. Sabri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 2666-2276

Optical flow estimation is still one of the key problems in computer vision.
When estimating the displacement field between two images, it is applied as soon
as correspondences between pixels are needed. The choice of the transform is an
important tool in optical flow estimation. So in this paper curvelet transform is
proposed to estimate the optical flow. it is found that the proposed algorithm is
much better than most recently previous work based on multiwavelet. This is
because curvelet transform can be efficient in finding estimates along curves.

The Design System for Educational Environment In The Theme of Digital Revolution

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 604-617

The appearance of digital media (Information and communication), in the
twentieth century and its development during the twenty first century has made noticeable achievements and has clearly inflected our way of life activities. The change from normal activities to digital activities, especially with increased use of the international information network (the internet) suggested a new logic and a different entity to a new community which we can call "Digital community". The digital revolution appeared in all fields of life and affected in a huge way many life activities in form of jumps or shocks in the civilized society. The importance of this research draws its material from the current and future digital revolution in
educational environment and attempts to forecast the future outcomes, so that education policy makers and designers of educational services hear in mind these changes during decisions taken for necessary strategies. The research is based on the analytical syllabus that builds the current and future outlook for educational
environment systems, and study's the reality, predictions for near future. The research is divided into five main parts; the first takes an abstract look into digital revolution and its effect in educational environment. The second; involves the analytical study in the methods and goals of the projects. The third; presents a study in two dimensions and they are, the digital education activities as a theme in the age of digital revolution, and the digital education environment in the new age of digital revolution. The fourth; involves discussions of the system of educational environment and its design dimensions. Conclusions and recommendations for future remedies are drawn from the syllabus and listed in the fifth and final part.

Preparation of ELISA Kit for detection of Brucella infection

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 618-626

Preparation of antigen from Br.melitensis strain Rev1 was done by using
ultrasonication, Column chromatography used to analysis of protein component of
antigen; four peaks on chromatography were observed.
Electrophoresis techniques used for characterization of antigen, different in
molecular weight (M.W) protein bands were showed in electrophoresis ranged
between 478630-123060 Dalton.
A group of guinea pigs was infected experimentally with virulent strain of
Brucella abortus & Brucella melitensis.Peak that obtained by chromatography
were used to indicate Brucella infection with the 2 virulent strains (Brucella
abortus & Brucella melitensis).
The best result obtained by using peak two which have the protein concentration
364.2 μg/ml a comparative study was done using a kit prepared by Synbiotics
Company and the result was positive in Brucella abortus infection and negative in
Brucella melitensis infection.

The Use of Multi Media Filter for removing pollutants from Nineveh Drugs Industry

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 627-641

Study depending on using of multi media filter consists of activated carbon,
ceramic, sand in order to treatment wastewater of Nineveh Drugs Industry which
contained of many amount of chemicals .Raw effluents passed through filters to
found the efficiency removal of pollutions .Many tests had done for more than 20
samples such as ;pH, E.C, COD, T.S, S.S , T.H, Ca-H, PO4,NO3, pb, Cu, Zn , Cd,
Ca, Mg .The highest and lowest value of organic load value of the waste have
been chosen for treatment at rate 5 and 10 m/hr .Comparison carried out between
(Activated carbon-sand) filter and(ceramic –sand) filter in order to finding the
most effective of removal .The results showed that filter(activated carbon –sand) is
more effective than filter (ceramic-sand).Removal efficiency on to (activated carbon–sand) at lowest and highest organic load respectively reached to(92% and
73%) for SS and (%58, % 40) for COD( 85% and 56%) for lead. Lead was the
most effective removal from heavy metal. Multi media filter is gave most effective
removal efficiency at lowest and highest organic load respectively (95%, 92%) for
S.S and (%73 %58 ) for COD and (87.5%, 73%) for lead.
The effluent casting to river except cadmium was within limits . COD value was
within limits of casting to river at low organic load and exceed limits at high
organic load. Current velocity at rate5 m/hr is most effective

The Effect of the Cerium Addition on the (Corrosion Fraction Wear) Properties of (Aluminum – Iron) Base Alloy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 642-657

The present study deals with the effect of addition cerium in the corrosion–
fraction wear behavior of with added (0.25%) cerium element. The solution used;
salt solution ( 3%Wt.NaCl ) by weight , acidic solution (3%Vol.HCl ) by volume ,weight loss method ; electrochemical method ( Tafel Extrapolation ) and
microscopic examination are used for study corrosion behavior of alloy . The result
of weight loss method showed different continues weight loss while the (B) alloy
showed weight loss at the first stage of the test then showed weight gain. The result
of electrochemical method ( Tafel Extrapolation ) showed the corrosion potential
and corrosion current of ( A ) alloy in the salt solution was E Corr.=-641.3 mv;I
Corr. = 34.42μA/Cm2 while the corrosion potential and corrosion current for (B)
alloy was E Corr. = -681.6 mv ; I Corr.= 51.50 μA/Cm2. The result of weight loss
method in acid solution showed convergence in the result at first hour of the test
after that (A) alloy showed signification superiority on the ( B ) alloy . The result
of electrochemical method ( Tafel Extrapolation ) showed the corrosion potential
and corrosion current of ( A ) alloy in the acidic solution was E Corr.= -324.7 mv ;
I Corr.=19.13 μA/Cm2 while the corrosion potential and corrosion current for ( B )
alloy was E Corr. = -697.9 mv ; I Corr.=507.35 μA/Cm2. The result of fraction
wear test showed significant superiority of alloy ( A ) on the alloy ( B )

Effect of Using Bumps on Wings Aerodynamic Characteristics at Low Reynolds Numbers

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 658-677

The effect of using bumps on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at low Reynolds numbers is presented in this research. A theoretical study was done on the (NACA 4418) airfoil consist of bumps that have radius (2% c) on the upper
and lower surfaces at (Re=25×103). Experimental study was also done on the
control of flow around (NACA 0015) airfoil of backward facing step with and
without bumps inside the step at (Re=4.4×105). Theoretically the (Fluent 6.3)
package was utilized for simulating the flow around the airfoils. Experiments were
done in a low-speed wind tunnel in order to obtain the pressure distribution on the
airfoil surface and lift and pressure drag coefficients. The airfoils used in the
experimental study were the basic airfoil, airfoil of backward facing step on the
lower surface with and without bumps, and airfoil of backward facing step on the
upper surface with and without bumps. The theoretical results illustrate the benefit
of using bumps on the lower and upper surfaces of the (NACA4418) airfoil. The
laminar separation bubble was delayed. Also the theoretical and experimental
results show the benefit of using bumps inside the steps on the lower or upper
surfaces of the airfoil. The (Clmax) was increase by (25.04%) with respect to the
basic (NACA 0015) airfoil and by (7.14%) with respect to the airfoil with smooth
step on the lower surface. When using step and bumps on the upper surface the
(Clmax) was increase by (16.85%) with respect to the basic (NACA 0015) airfoil
and (5.86%) with respect to the airfoil with smooth step on the upper surface.

Insulating Light Weight Aggregate Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 678-691

The weather in Iraq is hot in summer and cold in winter. Therefore , the
thermal insulation is of the main problems facing the engineers working in
building and housing sector
The paper presents an experimental investigation, It includes preparation of
several concrete mixes using lightweight aggregate (siporex and porcelinite &
suwdast ) to obtain light weight concrete of two densities ranging from (350-880
kg/m3), which provides a good thermal insulation. Based on the analysis of
experimental results several graphs and Tables have been prepared and presented
which can be used in the mix design of similar siporex concrete of densities from
(350-880 kg/m3) . The physical properties of siporex concrete , have been found
which included density (765-822kg/m3) , compressive strength (1.51-2.2 N/mm2)
& (2.8-3.7 N/mm2) ,thermal conductivity ( 0.19-0.39 W/M.K) for the two groups

The Effect Of Temperatures and Chemical Solutions on The Elasticity Modulus Of Hybrid Composite Materials

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 692-706

In this one of the work a hybrid composites materials were prepared which
consist polymer blend – Phenol formaldehyde – Novolac type and epoxy resins
reinforced by silica, alumina powder and asbestos fibers with two volume
fractions (30%, 40%), six hybrids prepared. Bending test was done in order to
determine the Young's modulus in different temperatures and different chemical
solutions. the result show that Young's modulus decreases with increasing
temperatures and with increasing the immersion times in different chemical
solutions , and the result show that the samples H6 (Volume fraction 40%) gives
high values of young modulus while the samples H1 (Volume fraction 30%) gives
low values of young modulus

Effect of Gating System Design on Microstructure &Grain Size for Al-Mg Alloys

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 13, Pages 707-722

The objective of this paper is to study gating system design effect onAl-5%Mg
alloy Microstructure Measurement (By Jeffrece's Method) and freezing range,
two sand mould were made with different gating systems Practicality (in Runner
length & Runner depth) to study the effect on freezing ratio & Microstructure, a
VBA Program was bulid because Most of result are stored in Microsoft Excel
2007Spread Sheet in which Calculation of Grain size were performed for many
specimens ,Results shown that the gating system with runner length 2.5 cm and
taper sprue gave better results than gating system with a 4cm runner's length and
cylindrical sprue .