Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 14,

Issue 14

Effect of Alumina-Doping on Structural and Optical Properties of Zno Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Ali A. Yousif; Nadir F. Habubi; Adawiya J.Haidar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4677-4686
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.1

Alumina-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films on quarts glass substrates
have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser with the wavelength of (ë= 532 nm) and duration (7ns).
The structural and optical properties of these films were characterized as a function of Al2O3 content (0-5w.t%)in the target at substrate temperatures (400°C) and energy fluence (0.4 J/cm2). The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that the undoped and Al2O3 -doped ZnO films exhibit wurtzite crystal structure and high crystalline quality. The optical properties were characterized by
transmittance, absorption spectroscopy measurements. For all films the average transmission in the wavelength range (330-900) nm was over 90% and the absorption edge shifted toward a shorter wavelength as Al2O3 concentration increased. The optical energy gap of Al2O3 doped ZnO thin films, measured from transmittance spectra could be controlled between (3.32eV and 3.59eV) by adjusting alumina concentration. AFM results show that the samples with increasing concentration of Al2O3, the surface roughness increases

Convergence of The Discrete Classical Optimal Control Problem To The Continuous Classical Optimal Control Problem Including A Nonlinear Hyperbolic P.D. Equation

Jamil A. Ali Al-Hawasy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4687-4702
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.2

Our focus in this paper is to study the behaviour in the limit of the discrete classical optimal control problem including partial differential equations of nonlinear hyperbolic type. We study that the discrete state and its discrete derivative are stable in Hilbert spaces 1 H0(W) and L2(W) respectively. The discrete state equations containing discrete controls converge to the continuous state equations. The convergent of a subsequence of the sequence of discrete classical optimal for the discrete optimal control problem, to a continuous classical optimal control for the continuous optimal control problem is proved. Finally the necessary conditions for optimality of the discrete classical optimal control problem converge to the necessary conditions for optimality of the continuous optimal control problem, so as the minimum principle in blockwise form for optimality.

Nonlinear Analysis of Thermoviscoelasticity of Laminated Composites

Muhsin J.Jweeg; Adnan M. Al-Sultany; Raed Naeem Hwyyin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4703-4721
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.3

The nonlinear thermoviscoelastic behavior of composite thin plates is
investigated. An experimental program covers an achievement of creep tests under different temperatures, dimensions of specimens and distribution loads to describe the equation of creep compliance. The stress relaxation is also determined from the experimental creep compliance. A new equation of creep compliance function D(ts, ,T) and relaxation modulus E(t,e,T) were predicted from the experimental results to describe the nonlinear thermoviscoelastic behavior of composite thin plates. A good agreement has been observed between the proposed models of nonlinear behavior at different temperatures and experimental results and between both theoretical and FEM results.
It was found that thus the deflection is increasing at the beginning and the rate of increase is nearly constant and increase with increasing temperature from 30 Co to 60 Co with approximate rate (34.6%) for simply support plate at distributed load (q=1.934E-3 N/mm2), relative dimensions (a/b)=1.0 and time=15 min.
The results indicate that the shear stress increases with rate (50.7%), so that strain in y-axis increases with rate (19%) as a result of increase the temperature from (30 Co to 60 Co).

Approximated Solution of Higher–Order Linear Fredholm Integro–Differential Equations by Computing of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)

Amaal A. Mohammed; Sudad K. Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4722-4729
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.4

Our main concern here is to give an approximate scheme to solve a linear
Fredholm integro–differential equations of higher–order (LFIDE) using expansion method with the expansion functions as basis functions associated with weighted residual technique ( collocation method ). Computing of singular value decomposition (SVD) has been used to treat these equations approximately. For this method a program is written in matlab (ver.6.5), examples are solved, results are tabulated and comparison is made between the exact and the approximate solution depending on least squares error method.

Design and Implementation of Adaptive Modulation Modem Based on Software Defined Radio(SDR) for WiMAX System

H. T. Ziboon; Zeinah Tariq Naif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4730-4749
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.5

This paper presents design and implementation of adaptive
modulation modem for WiMAX system. (BPSK, QPSK, 8QAM, 16QAM,
32QAM and 64QAM) are used in this work. Software Defined Radio(SDR)
is used for implementing this modem. This work examines the benefits of
using adaptive modulation in terms of probability of bit error and spectral
efficiency. It specifically examines the performance enhancement made
possible by using linear prediction along with channel estimation in
conjunction with adaptive modulation. Simulation results proved that the
adaptive system performance with estimator and predictor is better than
other modulation alone. The simulation results for adaptive modulation in
compared to each modulation technique alone show that for BER=10-3 with
(fd=50Hz -200Hz)system the improvement occurs by decreasing S/N by 2-
3dB. As for BER=10-4 with same Doppler frequency, the system
improvement takes place by decreasing S/N by 1.3dB- 4dB. Recarding
BER=10-5 with same Doppler frequency, the improvement is by decreasing
S/N by 1.5dB-5 dB. Simulation results also show the flexibility of the
adaptive system to operate with different level of modulation based on
switching of S/N. Matlab7.8(R2009a) used for simulation of adaptive
modulation system with AWGN and fading channel.

Evaluation of Transverse Construction Joints of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Qais Abdul-Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4750-4773
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.6

Construction joints are stopping places in the process of placing concrete, and they are required because in many structures it is impractical to place concrete in one continuous operation. The amount of concrete that can be placed at one time is governed by batching and mixing capacity and by the strength of the formwork. A good construction joint should provide adequate flexural and shear continuity through the interface. In this study, available experimental tests were analyzed by using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element ANSYS computer program (v. 9). In addition an interface model was proposed for the transverse construction joints.
Six beams with different transverse construction joints at mid-span as well as to one reference beam without joint are analyzed. The reliability of the model is demonstrated by comparison with the experiment and alternative numerical analysis which shows 5-7% difference.

Performance Characteristic of Distributed Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier(D-EDFA)

Sharif M. Rashid; Banaz Omer Rasheed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4774-4788
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.7

D-EDFA have their signal gain distributed over long fiber lengths. This paper deals with gain and noise figure characteristics at 150dB/km Rayleigh constant of a forward, and bidirectional pumped distributed EDFAs, operating in 1550 nm as a function of fiber length, Erbium ion density, injected pump power and signal input power. These studies are done by using optiystem 6.0 software simulation (optical
amplifier and communication system design software) at bit rate of 2.5 Gbps

Developing Multistage Heuristic Algorithm To Minimize Idle Time And Makespan In Job Shop Scheduling

Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4789-4805
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.8

The behavior and performance of job shops have been the focus and
attention in both operations research and operations management literature. Job shop scheduling has received this large amount of attention, because it has the potential to dramatically decrease costs and increase throughput, thereby, profits. Moreover, the increasing of product customization creates more job shop environment in manufacturing world. No doubt, a wide variety of approaches to
the modeling and solution of job shop scheduling problems have been reported in the literature. But, the research in this area is continuous. In this paper, Multistage Heuristic Algorithm based on priority dispatching rules is developed. This algorithm has been implemented to solve three cases. Schedules generated have
been compared with those obtained by means of the basic algorithm. As a result, Multistage Heuristic Algorithm shows the ability of minimizing: machines idle time, total time of machines and makespan.

Two Layer Optimum Design of Low Dispersion Optical Fiber (1500-1600 nm) Using Evolutionary Synthesis.

Alaa Hussain; Ali H. Al-Hamdani; Muhammed A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4806-4815
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.9

Amathematical procedure for optimization depends on the evolutionary
algorithm has been proposed to estimate the optimum design of single mode optical fiber upon finding the core and cladding material and core radius. The results of the optimum design achieved minimum total dispersion and minimum dispersion slope. The operating wavelengths are chosen in the range (1500-1600) nm. The optimization using evolutionary algorithm can explore all the possible solutions and then choosing the best solution that has maximum merit function

The Study of Immunological And Cytogenetic Effects of Polyvinyl Alcohol

Falak O. Abas; Azhar M. Halim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4825-4832
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.11

This study has been designed to investigate the toxicity effects of
polyvinyl alcohol at different concentrations on peripheral blood lymphocytes by measuring each of blastogenic index, mitotic index and chromosomal aberration in addition to the polymorph nuclear leukocytes activity through determine both of the phagocytosis percent and phagocytosis index .The results show that PVA have no toxic effects at the concentrations 0.1,1,10,100,250 ƒÊg/ml because the cytogenetic parameters undergo not significantly raised (at P < 0.05) and
phagocytosis percent and phagocytosis index have been increased significantly (at P . 0.05). The immune response has been found to be significantly too (P . 0.05) in the presence of PVA with Candida albicans antigen as adjuvant via increasing the foot pad swelling in the immunized mice with 50 ƒÊg/ml of C.albicans antigen.

The Dependence of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Efficiency on The Charge Carrier Mobility

Wisam A. Latif; Dayah N. Raouf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4833-4842
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.12

The power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells based on donoracceptor blends is governed by two competing processes, extraction and recombination of charge carriers. Both processes are strongly dependent on the charge carrier mobility. Using microscopic effective medium simulation, we demonstrate that the best device efficiencies are achieved in the mobility range . For lower mobilities lead to losses by bimolecular recombination and higher mobilities lead to a reduction of the open circuit voltage, and consequently a drop in efficiency

The Design of a Tuned Mass Damper as a Vibration Absorber

Taghreed M. Mohammad Ridha

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4843-4852
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.13

The protection of civil structures, including their material contents and
human occupants, is without doubt a world-wide priority of most serious current
research. Such protection may range from reliable operation and comfort, on one
hand, to serviceability on the other. Examples of such structures which leap to
one’s mind include buildings, towers, and bridges. In like manner, events which
cause the need for such protective measures are environmental like earthquakes
and winds, or moving loads like cars and pedestrians in the case of bridges. The
earthquake hazard is translated in severe vibrations for the structural systems. In
order to handle this world wide problem auxiliary damping devices is added to
absorb those vibrations. One of the early used damping devices is the Tuned Mass
Damper (TMD) which is a passive system in that it absorbs the structural response
without adding an external control signal. In this work a case study of three stories
building model excited by a simulated earthquake hazard is investigated versus the
response of the same building supplied by a TMD.

Factors Affecting Compatibility between (S.B.R) Polymer Repair Materials and Concrete Substrate

Haider A. Abdul-Hameed; Aseel S. Mansi; Maan S. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4853-4865
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.14

In this study, the compatibility of polymer modified repair mortar and
substrate concrete was investigated in three stages. First stage includes studying the individual properties of polymer and conventional repair materials, and also two types of concrete, such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength using standard ASTM test procedure. Second stage includes evaluating the bond strength of composite cylinder for different combinations of repair materials
and substrate concrete. Third stage includes investigating the compatibility using a composite beam of repair material and substrate concrete under third point loading. The experimental results show that the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength is not a crucial factors for the success of concrete repair system. While bond strength tests are provide strong indication about the
compatibility. The bond strength of S.B.R polymer material produced by Al- Khaleej Company was not strong enough to be recommended to use for concrete repairing systems.

Generalized Spline Approximation Method for Solving Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations

Nabaa N. Hasan; Suha N. Al-Rawi; Fadhel S.Fadhel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4866-4873
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.15

The main theme of this paper is to approximate the solution of ordinary
differential equations by using basis of generalized spline functions then using tensor product analysis to generalize the approximation for solving partial differential equations, (PDE's).

Dynamic Failure Mode And Impact Energy Absorption of Filament-Wound Square Cross-Section Composite Tubes

Mohammad Abdul Hassan Whaib; Hussain J. Al-Alkawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 4874-4889
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.16

In the present work simulation of impact response using LS-DYNA explicit
finite element code is described to investigate the crash behavior and energy absorption characteristics of square glass fiber reinforced plastic tubes, subjected to impact load. Filament-wound tubes with two layers [+45º, -45º] were fabricated and tested. The experimental crushing characteristics data are compared with the obtained numerical results, showing good agreement. The effect of geometrical parameters, winding angle and the failure mode on the energy absorption
characteristics are also investigated.

Processing of Butter From Anhydrous Milk Fat and Reconstituted Dried Skim Milk

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 723-731
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.17

Butter was produced from a mixture of anhydrous milk fat and reconstituted dried skim milk in a ratio of 1:3 and different percentages (0-5%) added to starter mixture. Electrical butter churner was used for butter production. Composition, physicochemical, microbiological, and the effect of cold storage at 8ْ C of the resultant butter were studied. The composition of the resultant butter was similar to natural butter and it was awarded a total score of 92.5 for the organoleptic properties (taste, flavor, shape, body(texture), color) as compared to 97.0 for the natural butter. The pH of butter was reduced from 6.5 to 4.5 with increasing the added starter from 0 to 5%. Peroxide values of freshly prepared butter were 0.15-0.30 and increased up to 0.25-0.45 after 4 weeks of cold storage. The total bacterial counts, coliform counts, yeast and mold counts were within the
limits of the standards.

The Effect of Carbon Particles on Styropore Solvent by Benzene

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 732-742
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.18

In this research is improvement of physical and mechanical properties by
solvent the styropore with labaritory benzene (C6H6) and then mixing with
different weighted ratio of carbon particles ( 2.5 , 7.5 , 15 , 30 and 60 )% at size less from 63ìm were added to dissolved styropore to proper samples were applied to many tests of dielectric constant, hardness, thermal conductivity.

Establishing Total Quality Management Application System For School Building Projects in Iraq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 743-760
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.19

ISO 9001 certificate becomes an important issue in the resent time specially for global objectives companies that have an extended activities over different countries. ISO certificate considered as passing permit which over come all barriers and introduce a company, establishment, or organization to customers certifying its products and management compatibility to the certificate requirements. Locally the certificate becomes an important effort toward applying the mentioned
specification due to different reasons. The first reason is organizationally to create an environment conditions to achieve quality in their products and operations, the second reason is to raise morale and to inforce confidence in their sel’fs, and their organization in a level that is not less than the level of other international
organizations. Other reason in contracted one whether internally and specially externally which require the optioning of ISO certificate.
School building directorate considered one of the governmental important
directorates. Its importance is due to its function of providing scientific services to the society. Therefore the construction of school buildings will be constructed according to the highest quality standards and specifications. Achieving the required standard is the responsibility of the designer and the constructor which means in general is the responsibility school building directorates.
This research reveals that there is no total quality management system that is applied by for school buildings in Iraq even when some total quality items were appeared that are applied in this research and this is due to the efficiency of some administrations and its obedience to the existing law. The research recommended full items application of the proposed total quality management system. Program is prepared to simulate the application of total quality management system having different approaches and benefit can be obtained by a adopting the
application of the program by contracting companies, and school building

Tensile Strength of Lime Stabilized Gypseous Soil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 14, Pages 761-772
DOI: 10.30684/etj.28.14.20

This work aims to study the properties of tensile strength of lime stabilized gypseous soil considering to the following variables: curing conditions which include the temperature and duration of curing and initial water content. In addition, the effect of wetting and
drying cycles on the tensile strength was carried out. The soil was stabilized with a (3%) lime as a results of the unconfined compressive strength. The results indicated a significant improvement of the tensile strengths, and increases with the curing temperature and
duration. When the curing duration extended to (180) days at (49, 60C0), a reduction in the tensile strength occurred as compared with the samples cured for (90) days. The effect of drying and wetting cycles on the tensile strength for the lime treated soil were investigated. The treated samples were subjected to (15) cycles of drying and wetting, the results showed a reduction in the tensile strength varied between (2-64 %).