Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 17

Volume 28, Issue 17, August 2010, Page 799-5635

The Optical Fiber Fault Detection By Computer Simulation for OFDR System

Hussain Joma Abbas; Adnan Taha; Salah Al

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5389-5403

Mathematical simulation and theoretical investigation for faults detection in
optical fibers were discussed by using computer simulation. The purpose of this work is to
detect the faults that lead to decrease the level of the signal of the single mode fiber (SMF)
for a length of (20km) for two wavelengths (1310nm & 1550nm) with attenuation of
(0.34dB/km & 0.2dB/km) respectively by using Optical Frequency Domain
Reflectometer(OFDR).The fusion splice is assumed to be existent about (5km),the
connector about (10km) and the bend about (15km). The losses of these splices, bends,
connectors and the levels of the reflected signals from the beginning of the fiber to its end
have been calculated for two wavelengths. The calculation of the reflected signals by
OFDR system has shown high resolution. the attenuation of wavelength (1550) nm is less
than (1310) nm especially in the long distances (Z ³15km), where the bending leads to
big attenuation for the wavelength (1550) nm than (1310) nm where the level of the
reflected signals at the point of bending for wavelength (1550) nm was (-87.852dBm) and
(-80.2dBm) for the wavelength (1310nm). A novel technique was used to detect the fault by
(phase method) by using OFDR system, The degree of the phase is changing suddenly for
the reflected signals in the places where the faults are happening. The phase degree
increases with the increase of the fiber length.

Evaporation of Hydrocarbon Fuel Droplet under Elevated Temperatures

Muna Khalil Asmail; Abdulhassan Abid Karamallah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5404-5420

Extended model is a theoretical and analytical model for evaporation of
hydrocarbon fuel droplet. This model assumes that there is a moving hydrocarbon fuel droplet in quasisteady environmental air. Four types of fuel (n-heptane, nhexane, n-decan, and light Diesel) are used for analysis at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from about (300 – 1500) K. The initial droplet size used is 100 μm for a Reynolds number ranging from (0.1 – 1800). Computer programs have been developed in (Matlab-7) language to find out the mass evaporation rate, variation
of size, droplet life time, and flame stand off ratio. The percentage value for maximum mass evaporation rate from the extended model is (0.13%) greater than that obtained from the mass evaporation rate from classical model due to the increasing of the heat gain to the movement drop. the results are compared with the existing theoretical and experimental work in literature and acceptable agreements are obtained

Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling with Surfactants

Mahmoud Kamel Getan; Balasim Ahmed Abid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5421-5439

Boiling with surfactant is important in many key industrial applications such
as the petrochemical processing, refining, refrigeration, hygiene and personal care,
pharmaceutical, and food processing, among others.
The aims of this study are experimental determination of the heat
transfer coefficient with and without the addition of surfactants to pure
water and quantify the effects of surfactant concentration, ionic nature, its
ethoxylation, and molecular weight on the nucleate boiling performance of
water on vertical cylindrical heater.
Several different surfactants were employed: [SDS(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate),
SLES (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate) (anionic) ]and [Triton X-100 (Octylphenol
Ethoxylate) (nonionic)], they have different molecular weights, ionic nature and
number of ethylene oxide EO groups attached to its polar head.
The boiling results show that with the addition of small amounts of surfactants,
the saturated nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of water is found to be
altered due to reduction in the surface tension and this enhances the heat
transfer.The enhancement in nucleate pool boiling depends upon wall heat flux (or
temperature difference), concentration of surfactant, ionic nature, molecular weight
and number of (EO) group.The heat transfer coefficient is found to increase by as
much as (81.9%) over that for pure water for SDS solutions while (53 %) for SLES
and (45 %) for Triton X-100 at CMC (critical micelle concentration).
The enhancement increases with concentration and the enhanced solutions are
found to be with C ≤ CMC. The optimum enhancement is at or near the CMC of
surfactants. However, the maximum heat transfer enhancement is in the order of
SDS > SLES > Triton X-100, this is also, in the reverse order of their molecular
weights and number of (EO) groups.

Analysis of Z-Source Inverter For Space Vector PWM Fed 3-Phase InductionMotor

Majid K. Al-Khatat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5440-5454

This paper presents analysis of operation and implementation of Z-source space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter fed three phase induction motor. The Z-source is an alternative power conversion topology that can both buck and boost the input voltage using only passive components. It uses a unique LC impedance network in
the DC link between rectifier and inverter fed induction motor. It also allows the use of the shoot-through switching state, which eliminates or reduces the dead-times that are used in the conventional inverters. Therefore, the Z-source inverter can buck and boost voltage to a desired output voltage that is greater than the available input voltage. In addition, it reduces the harmonics, improves power factor, increases reliability ,low cost and highly efficient single-stage structure for buck and boost power conversion. Theoretical analysis and simulation studies using PSIM software have been performed
to demonstrate these new features.

Image Compression Using Lifting Scheme

Yasir A. Ahmed Al-Obaidi; Hadeel N. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5455-5467

This paper introduces, firstly, a proposed method of computing one and
two-dimensional wavelet transform .The proposed method reduces heavily
processing time for decomposition of image keeping or overcoming the quality of
reconstructed images. Also, the inverse procedures of all the transformations for
multi- dimensional cases verified.
Secondly, computes quantization and run length encoder. Different types
of quantization are presented in this paper with effects of these differences on
Compression Ratio (CR).
Thirdly, compute PSNR, RMSE, CR, and size. The effect noted this
difference in levels of FLWT on same picture, where PSNR, MSRE, SIZE, and
CR different from one level to another.

Design and Implementation of a New Proposed Electronic Clock System Based on The Integrating Amplifiers

Azzad B. Saeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5468-5480

In this paper, a new proposed system of electronic clock is discussed, designed and implemented, it consists of digital electronic components such as, logic gates and decade counters, and analog electronic components such as, integrating amplifiers. These integrating amplifiers converts the digital output signal of the minutes and hours counters to an analog triangular signal. Two signal indicators are used in this design to measure the minutes and hours output signal, which they are scaled in desired and proper manner. This system has vary good forward linearity between the measured time and the output signal of the integrating amplifiers. This system is practically implemented and tested using software package Electronic Workbench version V9, whereas, the practical, simulation and theoretical results were approximately identical, therefore, this system has successful design and implementation.

Influence of Temperature on Fracture Toughness of Jute Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin

Akram R. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5481-5494

Jute fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites (J/UP) were
subjected to low velocity impact tests in several Temperatures degree in order to study the effects of temperature variance on the intrinsic fracture toughness Gc impact properties. An investigation was conducted onto the effects of temperatures on impact resistance of jute fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composite. Impact tests were performed on the specimens at different temperatures. The temperatures were 27, 50, 75 and 100 Cº. The results reflect the influence of ambient temperature on impact toughness measurements. The results
indicate an obvious correlation between the ambient temperatures and impact load, total absorbed energy and fracture toughness. The prepared specimens exhibited brittle fracture behavior with a lower peak load, lower impact energy and less time to fail compared with results at temperature higher Tg. The impact test results show that the total energy absorbed at 100 C° have higher energy when the composite behavior changed from brittle to ductilebehavior. The intrinsic
fracture toughness is higher for specimens tested in 100 Cº and 75 Cº and shows ductile behavior; while specimens tested with temperature lower than Tg show brittle fracture and lower Gc.

Bernstein Polynomials Method For Solving Linear Volterra Integral Equation of The Second Kind

Haleema S. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5495-5501

In this paper, Bernstein polynomials method are used to find an
approximate solution for linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind.
These polynomials are incredibly useful mathematical tools, because they are
simply defined. It has been shown that the polynomial has a fast convergences
with only few steeps. Numerical example is prepared to illustrate the efficiency
and accuracy of this method

Using Modified Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree Algorithm with Discreet Cosine Transform to Compress Color Images

Ban Nadeem Dhannoon; Khairiyah Saeed Abduljabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5502-5513

The aim of this research is to investigate the performance of a suggested
image compression system. The scheme of the proposed system utilizes Tap 9/7
wavelet transforms to decompose the image signal, and then uses Discrete Cosine
Transform (DCT), and uniform quantization; to compress the approximate
coefficients. The detail coefficients are coded by hierarchical uniform
quantization, and then the original and modified Set Partitioning In Hierarchical
Tree (SPIHT) methods were applied on each color band separately. At the end
some spatial coding steps were applied on List of Significant Pixels (LSP) like
Run Length Encoding (RLE) and Shift Coding to gain more compression. The test
results indicate that the modified compression scheme shows a good performance
aspect in addition to its simplicity.

Artificial Neural Network Control of the Synchronous Generator AVR with Unbalanced Load Operating Conditions

Helen J. Jawad; Fadhil A. Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5514-5523

This paper proposes the using of artificial neural networks (ANNs') to
control the synchronous generator automatic voltage regulator (AVR), with unbalance load operating conditions. The neural network for control a nonlinear system is described and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the neural network for control the drives with nonlinearities. In this study, performances of a simulated neural network AVR evaluated for a wide range of unbalanced loads
operating conditions. The variance factors are calculated, as an indicator of optimum operation, and their values are compared for different feedback signals and various unbalanced operating conditions. The optimum control is introduced, which gives an average variance factor in ANN controller is about 1.105%, whereas the average variance factor in traditional PI controller is about 2.035%.

Operation and Ph Control of A Wastewater Treatment Unit Using Labview

Adnan Abdual Arazak; Farooq A. Mehdi; Ghanim M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5524-5546

LABVIEW is a powerful and versatile graphical programming language that
had its roots in operation, automation control and data acquisition of the system. The pH control system of a non-linear wastewater treatment unit, contains heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni and Zn), had been developed depending on dynamics behavior of the process. The pH value of wastewater is change by addition chemicals (lime or Na2S). The semi-batch pH process system dynamically behaved as a first order lag with dead time. The tuning of control parameters was carried by
several methods; Internal Model Control (IMC), Minimum (ITAE) criteria and Adaptive mode. Since the process was fast, the Integral of Absolute of Error (IAE) criteria was used to compare between the above tuning methods. Adaptive control was the best and effective to determining the values of proportional gain (Kc), Integral time constant (t I) and Derivative time constant (t D ).PI mode was found to be the best for control the fast pH process.

Studying the Effect of Some Inorganic Phosphors Salts on Fire Retardant and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated polyester Composite

Haider Mohammad A. Dakhil; Mohammad B. AL-Baiati

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5547-5560

In this work, the effect of four types of inorganic phosphors salts on
flammability and mechanical properties (Flexural and Tensile) strength, of unsaturated polyester reinforced with glass fibers has been studied ; also , the influence of two types form of glass fibers (chopped strand mat and woven roving ), on flammability and mechanical properties of the composite, were studied . Sheets of composites with different weight percentage of additives and reinforced with two layers of each type of glass fibers, were prepared. Four standard test methods used to measure the flame retardation and mechanical properties, which are: ASTM: D – 2863, ASTM: D – 635, ASTM: D – 790 and ASTM: D – 638.
Results obtained from these tests indicated that, additive IV has high
efficiency as a flame retardant, self – extinguishing (S.E.) was occur at the percentage 1.5 % and non – burning ( N.B. ) was occur at the percentage 2.5 % for resin reinforced with glass fiber type woven roving and showed high effect to reduce the values of the mechanical behaviors, but additive I have low effect on retard composition and showed low effect on the values of mechanical properties

The Effect of Die Types on Yield for Drawn Copper Sheet in a Pneumatic Forming

Abbas Abudallah Ahmed; Adnan Ibrahim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5561-5567

Pneumatic forming of nonferrous alloys is widely used to produce
components for many traditional and advanced applications. The plastic behaviours of high purity copper sheet were investigated under pneumatic forming using open and closed dies. Experimental yield loci were determined based on the strain energy theory for open and closed dies. It has been found that the yield loci in open die expanded more than that in close die. The formability was improved due to reduction in friction coefficient. The plane strain forming and the strain distribution remain mainly uniform throughout the drawing sheet. The formed copper sheets were not thinned at the centre of the doom

Damaging Effect of Armoured Vehicles with Rubber Tires on Flexible Pavement

Saud A. Sultan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5568-5580

Presented in this paper is a new study of the damaging effect of military armoured vehicles with rubber tires on flexible pavements. Two types of military armoured vehicles with rubber tires were studied, namely LAV-AT four-axle and LAV-300 triple-axle. A measure of the damaging effect of military armoured vehicles with rubber tires loads was achieved by correlating their equivalent loads with the AASHTO equivalency factors. The equivalent load was developed on the basis of mechanistic - empirical approach. It was found that the damaging effect of the studied military armoured vehicles with rubber tires loads is 0. 0.200 to 4.736 times the damaging effect of the standard 18 kips (80 kN) axle load depending on the thickness of asphalt layer.

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Micro Pin Fins Heat Exchanger Used in Convective Cooling Application

Auday.A.Abbo; Mohammed I. Abu-Tabikh; Kutaeba J. AL-Khishali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5581-5602

Experimental and theoretical investigations of flow and thermal performance of an annular pin fin heat exchangers exposed to constant heat flux have been preformed. A special test rig was designed and built for this purpose. The main test section is an annulus of radius ratio (0.85) containing 10 rows of 1mm diameter pins with 5 pins in
each row. The range of cooling air Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, is (6774 to 11120). In the Theoretical part the well known Fluent (6.3)
package was used for solving the governing equations for flow and Energy equation for heat transfer with RNG k-ε turbulence model. Results showed that the pin fins enhanced the heat transfer by a factor of (1.31 to 1.42) and increased the friction factor by (3 to 4) times compared to the one obtained for smooth annular channel without pins. A Nusselt-Reynolds correlation was obtained from the experimental data
valid in the Reynolds number range studied. Reasonable agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained with average difference (5%) over the Reynolds number range. The overall thermal performance obtained was larger than (1).

Measurement of Encryption Quality of Bitmap Images with RC6, and two modified version Block Cipher

Baedaa H. Helal; Ashwaq T. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5603-5613

With the fast evolution of digital data exchange, security information
becomes much important in data storage and transmission. Due to the increasing
use of images in industrial process, it is essential to protect the confidential image
data from unauthorized access. In this paper, RC6 with two modified version 512
bit RC6 and 640 bit RC6-Cascade encryption algorithms will be analyzed to
investigate the encryption efficiency for them to digital images and providing a
new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency. Detailed results in terms of
security analysis and implementation are given. Comparative study with three
versions of RC6 encryption algorithms is shown the superiority of the modified
algorithms. Three measuring quality factors will be considered to evaluate and
compare between the three encryption algorithms RC6, 512 RC6, and 640 RC6-
Cascaded. These measuring factors are the maximum deviation, the correlation
coefficient and irregular deviation.

Hydrological Operation Requirements for Restoration and Improving Water Quality of Abu Zirig Marsh

Ammar Adel Ali; Haitham A. Hussein; Mahmoud S. Al Khafaji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5614-5627

A hydrological routing study for Abu Zirig Marsh was carried out to
estimate the hydrological state within the marsh for the Present and future conditions of the marsh.The water surface elevation, area and storage within the marsh at the present and for the future conditions were estimated and the effect of uncontrolling outlets on the hydrological and water quality state of the marsh at the present conditions was specified. The salt mass balance equation was used to estimate the inflow and outflow discharges that required for reducing the effect of evapotranspiration on the water quality and flashing out the accumulated mass of salts and then improving the marsh water quality. This equation was applied on the future conditions of the
marsh and inflow and outflow discharges that required for this purposes were estimated. The results of the hydrological routing for the present conditions showed that the maximum water surface area is 79 km2 which occur during Spring. While it is between 34 to 43 km2 during Summer and Autumn and it can not be increased during these months since the outlet of the marsh is uncontrolled. The TDS concentration within the marsh increases during the months of high evapotranspiration although the inflow increases during these months. For the future conditions, the inflow discharges required to sustain the restoration requirements must be increased to decrease the deterioration in the marsh water quality. These discharges increase with the increase in the marsh area
during the months of high evapotranspiration values.

Influence of Natural Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

Noor Sabah Sadeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 5628-5635

The present study deals with the effects of natural fibers on some mechanical
properties of the Epoxy composite. This research was carried out by reinforcing
the matrix (Epoxy) resin with natural material (cane sugar fibers) and synthetic
fibers (chopped carbon fibers). The natural fibers were exposure to chemical
treatment before reinforcement.
The hybrid composites contain of chopped carbon and cane sugar fibers is
produced using hand lay method. Each sample was reinforced with different
volume fraction such as 30%, 20%, and 10%. After preparation of composite
material some of the mechanical properties flexural and impact tests were studied
of prepared samples.
Cane sugar composite has the higher values (of flexural strength 490.77 MPa and
of impact strength 93.92 KJ/m2 ) than chopped carbon composites (flexural
strength 93.19 MPa and impact strength 23.92 KJ/m2). It was found that the
additions of natural fibers (cane sugar) to chopped carbon fibers improve of the
mechanical properties of hybrid composites

Contour and Digital Terrain Models of Soil Properties Digital Maps Using Geographic Information System

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 799-813

The research aims to use the technical abilities for geographic information system in the field of designing and drawing maps by saving huge amount of information in a fast and organized way also to shows data and maps from the computer in high speed. In addition it makes corrections on maps in high speed and in the least cost and time. Also high accuracy in data analysis which is difficult in manual ways.
Further more it enables as to analyze the geographic information and connect between them in an easy way. It takes out new information from the original information on the maps like taking out digital terrain model from the Contour Maps and to show loca information system on the computer with maximization and minimization also changing the scale easily and the ability of three dimensions showing. In this study the information were gathered from the soil reports of the National
Center for Construction Laboratories for different parts of Baghdad area in addition to Laboratory reports done by Consultation Bureaus. Three soil properties were studied permeability as a physical property, pH as a chemical property and bearing capacity of soil as a engineering property. These data were treated and analyzed by using geographic information system to produce contour maps, after that local
analysis was done for data to come up with digital terrain models in a three dimensional figure to manifest earth surface. By these abilities, a digital data base was made for these properties that can be generalization for all soil properties and for all parts of Iraq, which enables to do the recyclization and treatment and analysis easily in making the designing and planning of any engineering project

Experimental study of the effect of vertical vibrations on forced convection heat transfer coefficient from circumferentially finned cylinder

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 17, Pages 814-833

The aim of this work is to perform an experimental study for the effect of forced vertical vibrations on forced convection heat transfer coefficient, by the use of circumferential finned cylinder made of Aluminum. The cylinder was heated under the condition of a constant heat flux which is generated by applying an alternating voltage on a fixed resistor mounted inside the interior space of the cylinder which was located horizontally or inclined in multiple angles at a range of (0°-45°). In this experimental study the circumferential finned cylinder prototype of inner diameter (16 mm), and outer diameter including the fin of (48 mm), and the effect of the frequency
at the range of (2-16 Hz) and the vibration amplitude range of (0 - 2.2mm) have been studied with various heat flux range from (500-1500W/m2).For the results of this study it was found that the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and amplitude
of vibration is incrementally for all inclination angles from (0°-45°), and reaches a maximum ratio of (%13.34), also increment of inclination angle reduces the values of forced convection heat transfer coefficient and , that because the fins works as path lines helps to increase the movement of convection currents in the case of horizontal prototype , but in case of inclined cylinder fins works as obstructions for the
convection currents and thus reduces the ranges of forced convection vibrational heat transfer coefficient, Generally the heat transfer coefficient increases as Reynolds number increases.