Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 18

Volume 28, Issue 18, September 2010, Page 834-5802

A Knowledge Representation Language for Arabic Semantic Web Using Resources Description Framework

Jamal F. Tawfeq; Abdul Monem S. Rahma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5631-5639

The World Wide Web is the greatest repository of information ever assembled
by man. The web was not designed to be processed by machines. The web
information is meaningless for computer, and it is very hard to find out what you are
looking for. For this reason, it has new challenges a raise to build a Semantic Web
infrastructure where documents will be understandable by human and computers. The
knowledge creation and development of Semantic Web application has not yet been
In this paper Resources Description Framework (RDF) will be used as a
knowledge representation language which allows the representation of an Arabic
Sentence in Web environment to be annotated with semantics. And present formalism
for the language and discuss the features that make it well suited for the Arabic Web.

Electrochemical Behavior of Chemical Conversion of Coated Aluminum 1100Al in a Neutral Tartrate Solution

Khalid H. Rashid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5640-5650

1100 Al specimens were anodically oxidized in different concentrations of
tartaric acid-tartrate solution (pH=7) in 1, 1.75, 3.25 and 4 wt % at temperatures of
30, 37.5, 52.5 and 60 ºC by applying a range of potentials of 30, 37.5, 52.5 and 60
V at exposure times of 40, 47.5, 62.5 and 70 min.. These four variables are
manipulated through the experimental work using Box – Wilson experimental
design where second order polynomial model was proposed to correlate the studied
variables with the thickness of anodic film of aluminum alloy (1100) to estimate
the coefficients of the proposed polynomial adopted via statistica software.
Optimum conditions for achieving the maximum film thickness are obtained from
optimizing the above correlation and are found as follows: temp. = 44ºC, acid conc.
= 2.8 wt %, voltage = 43.6 V, time = 54.6 min.. Stagnate Solutions of 3, 5, 10 and
25 wt % Nacl at 25ºC have been investigated using polarization technique at
optimum conditions for anodizing. The most important feature achieved was the
great difference in behavior between the anodic polarization curves for bare and
anodized aluminum in different concentrations of Nacl solutions. The corrosion
rates for anodized specimens are lower than those for unanodized ones. The
polarization behavior of anodizing specimens shows that the breakdown potentials
are shifted to more noble direction than bare specimens which is more pronounced
in 25 wt % Nacl solution due to anodizing.

Effect of (Zn & Mg) on Corrosion Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys

Sheelan R. Areef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5651-5659

Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloy (Nitinol or NiTi) is a fascinating
material for dental applications. In this work the alloy has been produced by powder
metallurgy approach. The effect of Mg and Zn additives studied on the; hardness,
porosity percentage, and corrosion rate has been studied. Master Samples (without
additives) were prepared using powder mixture of 55 wt% Ni and 45 wt% Ti by
mixing them in a ball mill for two hours, then compacted at 300, 400, 500, 600, 700,
and 800 Mpa, then sintered at 950 oC for 9 hours under controlled atmosphere
(argon). The same approach was used for the prepared samples with Mg and Zn
additions compacted at 800 Mpa. XRD examination shows that the sintered samples
are consisting of two phases martensite and austenite at room temperatures, this mean
thermal NiTi shape memory alloy. From the results, it was found that Mg additives
increase hardness and decrease the corrosion rate while Zn additives increase the
corrosion rate.

Carrier Life Time, Time Constant, And Other Related Detector Parameter For Porous Silicon /Silicon Heterojunction Detector

Evan T. Salem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5660-5673

In the present work, Porous silicon constituting silicon nanostructures layer
have been produce on crystal silicon using different preparation condition in laser
induced electrical etching process. Were a (800 nm) , (1watt) semiconductor laser
has been used with the electrochemical etching process to prepare the porous layer
on the surface of (111) n- type silicon substrate. Two different Silicon resistivities
of (0.564,4.29) was employed to prepared (Ps/ Si) heterojunction at different
preparation condition. The characteristic of the prepared device has been found to
depend directly on the formation current density and substrate resistivity. The
obtained device has good parameter to work as a detector in the (V- NIR) region .

Active Directory Monitoring System Using Optimized Web Database Application And AJAX Techniques

Mohammed Najm Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5674-5682

The process control network and subscribers to extract information entry and
exit, supported them by providing time for the cases of entry and exit, and archiving in
databases has become one of the basic requirements of each organization
In this paper, we propose designing a system control and monitoring of participants
within the scope (Domain) by taking advantage of the previous registration system
(Active Directory) through the use of modern techniques to ensure speed and
protection, that is (ASP.Net) and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)
technology with data storage in using archive (MS SQL Server)
The implementation results show the capability of AJAX that meets the optimal
performance through implementing an employees ’ logins monitoring system. This is
done through taking the benefit of Microsoft domain server logs file that records the
logins for all employees linked to that domain and collecting these information to be
nicely showed in web report automatically every day. This daily task is controlled by
using Microsoft tasks schedules linked to Microsoft SQL server tasks. So this
implementation of the employees’ logins monitoring system illustrates the building of
a system using Microsoft IIS, Microsoft SQL 2000, AJAX, and Microsoft.NET
Framework to create powerful control web applications.

Derivation Mathematical Formulas For Tilt Angles of a Flat Plate Sun Trucking Collector with a Simulation In C++ Language

Fadhel Nooraldeen Abed Almousawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5683-5694

In this paper a mathematical formula was driven to estimate the tilt angle of
surface from horizontal Σ and the surface azimuth angle Ψ for a flat plate solar
collector which gives maximum total incident solar radiation on a flat plate solar
collector designed for heating water. According to the formulas of estimating Σ and Ψ
which driven in this study a C++ program had been built and used to simulate the
performance of a sun trucking solar collector, so the collector orientation varies with
day time to give maximum incident solar radiation at each hour (in this case one hour
time interval used) by estimating the surface azimuth angle and the tilt angle of
surface from horizontal at the desired hour (time),and compare the results with the
normal case of using stationary solar collector (oriented to the south with tilt angle
equal to latitude). All calculations done for the city of Baghdad in January .Results
show that the incident solar radiation and storage temperature in the case of sun
trucking collector system is greater than it's in the case of stationary collector (normal
case) which gives system more stability.

An Improved Distributed Association Rule Algorithm

Saad K. Majeed; Hussein K. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5695-5710

All Distributed association rules mining (DARM) algorithms which bases on Apriori algorithm don't have an efficient message optimization technique, so they exchange numerous messages during the mining process which needs several distributed scan operations to the distributed warehouses or distributed databases to get the support values, also the performance of these DARM algorithms decreased with increasing communication cost especially when increasing the number of
distributed mining sites as well as the itemsets to be mined become more larger . The aim of this work is to improve association rules in distributed data mining by proposing a new efficient method of distributed association rule mining, which reduce the average size of records transferred, datasets and messages transferred without need
to any distributed scan to the distributed data warehouses or distributed databases to retrieve the values of the support values of these datasets. The results obtained from the proposed method prove that the proposed method is better than the existing algorithms by reducing communications costs, centralstorage requirements, enhance
performance and achieves high degree of scalability compared with the existing algorithms.

A New Computational Method for Optimal Control Problem with B-spline Polynomials

Suha N. Al-Rawi; Fuad A. Al-Heety; Saba S. Hasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5711-5718

The main purpose of this work is to propose direct method which is employed
by using state vector parameterization (SVP) to convert the quadratic optimal control
problems into quadratic programming problem. The state vector parameterization is
based on the spline polynomial which includes: B-spline as a basis functions to
approximate the system state variables by a finite length of the basis functions series
of unknown parameters. An example as application of this method is given

Damaging Effect of Tracked Armoured Vehicles on Flexible Pavement

Saud A. Sultan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5719-5731

Presented in this paper is a new study of the AASHTO equivalency factors
of military tracked armoured vehicles on flexible pavement. Two types of military
tracked armoured vehicles were studied, namely Challenger 2 tank and MT-LB-T
tracked armoured vehicle. A measure of the damaging effect of military tracked
armoured vehicle loads was achieved by correlating their equivalent loads with the
AASHTO equivalency factors. The equivalent load was developed on the basis of
mechanistic - empirical approach. It was found that the damaging effect of the
studied military tracked armoured vehicle loads is 0.039 to 5.750 times the
damaging effect of the standard 18 kips (80 kN) axle load depending on the
thickness of asphalt layer. It was found that the damaging effect of military
tracked armoured vehicle loads on flexible pavements of major highways and
main principal roads is much more than its damaging effect on the flexible
pavement of local and secondary roads. It was found also, that tracked armoured
vehicles have a severe damaging effect on the functional serviceability of surface
asphalt layer in terms of deformation and strains due to the effect of rigid track

The Effect of Solvent Additions on theMechanical Properties of Epoxy

Khalid K. Abbass; Akram R. Jabur; Saad B. H. Farid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5732-5743

The effect of the TolueneC6H5CH3 and Acetone (CH3)2CO additions on the
mechanical properties of cured Epoxy is studied. Different weight percentages of
Toluene (0, 4, 8, 10 & 14 wt%) and Acetone (0, 3, 5, 8 & 10 wt%) were used
under curing temperatures (40°C and 60°C) for Toluene and 40°C for Acetone
with curing time of 24hrs. The results show improved mechanical properties
(Young modulus and Fracture stress) for Epoxy samples cured at 40°C with the
increase of Toluene to a maximum of 8wt%, then these properties are degraded as
the Toluene percentage increase. In the contrary, the Epoxy samples cured at 60 °C
shows poorer properties with increased weight percentages of the Toluene.
Epoxy samples thinned with different amount of Acetone solvent is
prepared and cured. These samples show best mechanical properties at Acetone
addition of 5wt%. Extra amounts of Acetone addition degrade the results. The
mechanical properties, fracture morphology and FTIR spectra shows more
aggressive effect of the Acetone compared with Toluene as solven

Face Occlusion Detection and Recovery using Fuzzy C-Means

Wildan J. Hadi; Emad K. Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5744-5756

This paper presents a framework to detect and recover the occluded facial region. We based on fact that any face has symmetric and not symmetric facial features and all these symmetric facial features are consistent with the shape of the face. So that, if there is an occlusion in one half of the input face image, then the second half is used to recover the occlusion. Using symmetry feature of the face
makes the recovered face very close to the original face image in terms of pixel values and in general appearance. In other side when features do not symmetric, the occlusion can not be recovered using the symmetry feature of the face as the case the mouth region is occluded, so the images database is used to select from it the most similar face images to the occluded face image to use it to select similar face to recover occlusion. In current work, we first detect the occluded face image
by using pixel based skin color segmentation and eye template matching. Then, using fuzzy c-means to detect occlusion. Finally, the procedure for recovery is implemented. The results shows that the proposed algorithm provides an effective solution to solve the problem of face occlusion. This work can used in many applications as in repair the important persons historic image and archive image which we get results reaches to 73% of identical to original image which has 40% occluded

Upgrading Two Dimensional Search Radar to Three Dimensional Search Radar Based on SDR

H.T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5757-5770

This paper presents an exploitation of the existing two dimensional radars
(2D) which have two identical antennas for reception to be upgraded to a three
dimensional radar (3D) in order to measure the height as well as the slant range
and azimuth direction. The height measurement is important for preliminary
information for reducing the time required for acquisition. Software Defined
Radio (SDR) is chosen for the implementation of height finder processor is given
in this paper. Design parameters are selected for the proposed height finder
processor in order to accommodate SDR requirement. This work is also concerned
with the analysis of the parameters which affect the accuracy of height finding.
These parameters include the refraction index, smooth surface reflection,
divergence and rough surface reflection. The results of the analysis show the
feasibility of this proposal to upgrade the 2D to 3D radars

Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions By Adsorption with Coal Ash

Neran K. Ibrahim; Shaymaa H. Khazaal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5771-5781

Dynamic adsorption studies were performed to study the suitability of coal ash to remediate fluoride-contaminated water. A series of experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions containing 2.5, 5, 10, 50 and100 mgF-/ℓ at 29 oC in a column packed with 500g of coal ash. The flow rate through the bed was 2 mℓ/hr. The effects of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration and sorbent particle size range on fluoride removal efficiency were studied. Better removal efficiencies were obtained with lower particle size ranges. The F- concentration in
the effluent gradually decreased reaching 0 mg/ ℓ after 96-168 hours depending on the initial adsorbate concentration. The kinetic results showed that defluorination follows first order kinetics. An empirical formula was proposed to describe the relationship between the fluoride removal efficiency and the dependent operating variables with 95% confidence level.

Analysis of the Performance of Flexible Pavement under the Effect of Wheel and Thermal Loads

Mohammed Y. Fattah; a Abd. El-Ghany; Shayma; Ahmed S. Abdaljabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 5782-5802

One of the major sources of distress in roads is the cracks that appear in flexible asphalt pavements. Combined wheel and thermal load induced cracking in the form of bottom-up and top-down fatigue cracking.
In this paper, combined effect of wheel loads and temperature is considered in finite element analysis of flexible pavement layers. The heat flow equations are derived and the program (ANSYS V 5.4) is utilized to carry out the analysis. The subgrade layer is modeled as an elasto-plastic material following Drucke–rPrager model for yielding of the isotropic material, while both the asphalt and base layers are
considered elastic. Three different thicknesses for the asphalt layer are tried; namely, 0.05 m, 0.10 m and 0.15 m, respectively. A temperature rise of 40 oC was considered in addition to wheel pressures.
It was found that an increase of wheel pressure from (500) to (700) kN/m2 leads to increase in vertical displacement of about (4 – 8)%. This increase becomes (10 – 22%) when the wheel pressure becomes 1000 kN/m2. The temperature rise leads to decrease in the effect of wheel pressure because temperature leads to expansion (upward movement) reverse to wheel load effect. The effect of wheel load is transmitted directly to the underlying subgrade within the wheel zone. The deformed zone under the wheel becomes larger when the load increases. The maximum displacement increases by about (24%) when the load is

Study the Rates of Corrosion in Aluminium Reinforced By Silicon Carbide

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 834-846

In this work production of aluminium matrix composites with silicon carbide (α-SiC) as reinforcement material were fabricate, the particle sizes of (SiC) used were (500μm- 250 μm and125 μm), with weight percentage of (7.5% - 10% - 15%) from silicon carbide for eachparticle size. The single action pressing was used as one of P/M methods then followed by sintering process at temperature of 450 ºC. The samples subjected to the electrochemical corrosion test at room temperature.
The medium of corrosion was solution of 3% weight (NaCl+distilled water)
solution. It is found from the photograph microscopy and the results test that all samples which reinforced by(SiC) particles have a(craves or pit) which caused by the particles that act as a cathode sites , and when the size and the percentage of particles increase the Icorr through it also increase as shown in the result.

Ethanol Production From Whey ByMixed of Yeast

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 847-859

The study is aimed to improve of ethanol production from crude whey
dependency on mixed culture of lactose-fermenting yeasts and baker's yeast ( S.cerevisiae) under optimum condition of pH and mixture of sugars concentration, hence studying the effect of defferent agitated speeds on ethanol production. The study was included: Studying the effect of sugar concentration and pH value in working of each yeast
through making expirements for Ethanol and Biomass production from different concentrations whey lactose and experiments, to produce ethanol and Biomass from crude and supplimented whey, by (K2HPO4 NH4Cl, MgSO4.7H2O) by using S.cerevisiae at different pH values, 35 °C for two days . - mix-culture of yeasts above were used for producing ethanol and biomass from different whey Lactose concentrations.
- Studying effects of defferent agitated speeds on ethanol production from whey by the beast co-culture producer , under four Agitated speeds (50, 100, 150, 200) rpm under optimum determined pH5, (6)% lactose concentration ,35°C for two days.
- The results was:
- Obtained two Isolated yeast strains C.kyfer-T, and C.kyfer-Sfrom crude whey.
- Incapable of S.cerevisiae to produce ethanol from all concentrations of synthetic lactose ,crude ,and additive whey lactose , but it able to produce biomass from each type of lactose , the ablity of both C.kyfer strains to produce ethanol and biomass, and C.kyfer –T is the beast producer.
- The beast ethanol production was (5.1)% from only(6)%whey lactose by mixculture of (C.kyfer –T + C.kyfer –S).
- the best was (11.4)% ethanol at (150)rpm , while biomass production was contineous increasing , and the best production was (12.1)% biomass at (200) rpm
by mix-culture of (C.kyfer –T + C.kyfer –S).

Sublimity In Architecturea Study of The Emergence of The Sublime In Architectural Form Through Structure Manipulation

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 860-879

Within the discipline of architecture, theory is a parallel discourse which describes the practice and production of architecture and identifies challenges to it especially in its structural composition .
One of the most important theoretical contemporary terms is sublimity .
where the term of aesthetic theory had changed , and sublimity was one of the key concept in nineteenth century and romantic aesthetic .
Following its root in phenomenological and psychological approaches in
which rhetorical effects of the sublime are described in details , which reflect sense glorious , luxuriousness and beauty .
Terminological meaning of sublimity not only refer to this name but
extended to express highness , dread and grandeur . the postmodern notion of sublimity present itself today in several guises including the uncanny , grotesque and the indeterminate . Analysis of previous studies addressing sublimity in architecture has shown
lack of an adequate knowledge concerning the application of sublimity concept in architectural composition . In particular , emphasis was placed upon the nature of sublimity that achieved through different structures , and that what the research problem concentrates on " There was no previous perception about the aesthetic sublime that is accomplished through the structure manipulation in architectural
form " . To achieve this it is necessary to : First phase , formulate conceptual framework composed of two parts ; first , discuss theorists ideas that laid the groundwork for today's emerging aesthetic of contemporary sublimity , and the second , isolate and structure the main and the secondary indicators of sublimity , Second phase , to examine the nature of this indicators on elected architectural
composition that possess a unique structure and finally to determine the final conclusion of the research .

Study The Characteristics Thermal For Polymer Matrix Composite Reinforced By Copper Particles

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 880-893

In view of the developments of industrial applications, this happened in recent years and the need to use composite materials in general and polymer composite especially in the various industrial applications developed. this research deals with the study of the thermal characteristics for polymer composite and its matrix material
is (unsaturated polyester) reinforced by copper particles for circular form of spacemen with Special dimension to examine in Lees Disk Apparatus by using the following weight fracture
(7%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%,35%,40%,45%,50%,75%).we found increasing in the
thermal conductivity with increase of weight fracture and when comparing the values of thermal conductivity to resin unsaturated polyester without any additions the value is (0.17w/ and when at the weight fracture 7% the value is (1.049 w/ and the values of the thermal conductivity begin to increasing with the increasing of
the Wight fracture whish used in this research were the value of thermal conductivity is (1.838 w/ ) at weight fracture 30% and still increasing to the highest value to (7.269 w/ )at the weight fracture 75% , its mean the positive effect of copper particles on the polymer composite materials and returns to increasing and improve
the thermal characteristics of polymer material .

Most Distresses Causes in Flexible Pavement For Baghdad Streets At Last Years

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 894-906

It is clearly evident that the service sector, especially recently, requiring discussion and solution. Because this section involves the daily life of the citizen and is complex in nature and requires urgent consideration to determine points of weakness during implementation stage in Baghdad city (both sides). Road and highway are vital in Baghdad where roads maintenance having a great significance.
Through observation of materials used and the performance of working standard involved, it has become operant where failure can be visible. This paper reflects evidence through observation of laboratory tests of asphalt mixtures and their failure and the repeat of divergence from. General specification for road and bridge. Department of planning and studies 2003, revised edition 2003. It also, covers operational performance of road and streets covered by this study by comparison of deviations between laboratory tests results for these roads and
streets and actual performance after certain period of time. The conclusion shows special divergence (through aggregate graduation of asphalt mixture, bitumen percentage, marshal stability, degree of compaction and asphalt layer thickness). These divergences are effective and commonly repeated which require certain action to a void failure by doing job mix formula according to the required
specification for the used layer course in addition to used the raw material that successful in laboratory tests with the implementation with the correct steps that giving the correct depth of layers. Consequently, better performance standards can be achieved.

Evaluation of Diabetes Treatment Methods And Effect of Their Complications on Kidney

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 18, Pages 907-922

The study included 82 patients whom infected with diabetes disease and 15 healthy individual from different places in Baghdad ( 1/4/2008 to 1/6/2009 ) patients were subjected to the glucose rate test in blood. The patients were divided into two groups, the first was included the patients who treat with insulin, while the second group included the patients who treat with oral hypoglycemic drugs. The study aimed to measure the glucose rate test in blood on those who have diabetes disease and it's relationship with the time and power of infection and the way of treatment and the comparison between the two sex and it's effect on the infection of nephropathy from measuring the protein's level and activity of some ( enzymes Alkaline phosphates and acid phosphates) AL.P, AC.P, Albumin (A ), A/G ratio, ( Glutamat oxaloacetate transminase ) GOT, ( Glutamat pyruvate transminase ) GPT, ( Total protein ) T.P. Results show increasing in glucose's concentration in blood has relationship with long duration of infection and the infection of male and female is similar. Long duration of infection has a great effect on occurring nephropathy while
the infection with nephropathy was a result of infection with diabetes disease in female in old ages is more than in male. The study is also appeared that the treatment with insulin is more qualification that the treatment of oral hypoglycemic drugs, noticed that the glucose rate is decreased in patients who have treatment with insulin.