Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 19,

Issue 19


Effect of the Number of Horizontal Construction Joints In Reinforced Concrete Beams

Maha Ghalib Ghaddar; Layla Ali Ghaleb; Qais Abdul-Majeed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5803-5821

In this paper some results from previous experimental test are adopted
and analyzed using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element ANSYS
computer program (v.11) to investigate the effect of the presence of
horizontal construction joints (H.C.J.) on the behavior of reinforced
concrete (RC) beams.
Three beams having one, two and three (H.C.J.) that divide the beam into equal
parts, as well as one reference beam without a joint were analyzed. The results
obtained from the finite element analysis show very good agreement with the
results obtained from the previous experimental test. The maximum differences in
ultimate loads were about (8.2-10.4)% for all types of tested beams. The presence
of one, two and three (H.C.J.) in RC beams under flexure gave a decrease in the
value of the cracking load such that Pcr was (97%), (85%) and (80%) of (Bref).
The respective ultimate load capacity Pu was (96%), (89%) and (84%) compared
to (Bref).

Improvement of Gypseous Soil by Clinker Additive

Mohammed A. Mahmoud Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5822-5832

In this paper, mechanical properties were studied for gypseous soil
brought up from Al-Axandria region, Babylon Governorate. Gypsum
content is equal to (40%). Many tests were employed on disturbed and
undisturbed samples collected at depth (1-1.5) m.
Clinker material used in cement was chosen as additive to study its
effect on improvement of gypseous soil by using three crushed percentages
(2, 4, & 6) %.
The results marked that (4) % clinker decreases the collapsibility
sharply; more than 73 % of improvement in collapse potential has been
achieved at this percent of clinker. Also, compressibility decreases with
increase of clinker percentage. The compression index decreased from 0.17
to 0.1 (29 – 41% reduction with increases of clinker).
The shear strength parameters of the treated soil determined by
direct shear test are more those than for natural soils due to increase in the
cohesion and decrease in angle of internal friction.

Proposal of Mutation-Based Bees Algorithm (MBA) to Solve Traveling Salesman & Jobs Scheduling Problems

Saran Akram Chaweshly

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5833-5843

This paper presents an improved swarm-based algorithm which is based on Bees
Algorithm and Mutation Operator. Mutation-based Bees Algorithm (MBA) is very
useful to solve some NP-complete problems. This paper contains the basic version of
MBA with solving two NP-complete problems as examples and experiments for
testing the suggested approach. These two problems are Traveling Salesman Problem
and Job Scheduling Problem. The experimental results show that the suggested
approach is very suitable for solving NP-complete problems and gives good results
compare with traditional Bees algorithm.

Speed Control of Permanent Magnet D.C. Motor Using Neural Network Control

Lina J. Rashad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5844-5856

This paper proposes the speed control of a permanent magnet direct current
(PMDC) motor by varying armature voltage. The objective is to control the
rotor angular speed to follow the desired value. The main feature of the
proposed controller is neural network, which captures the nonlinearity system of
the motor. Neural network (NN) performance is compared with the
conventional controller performance like PI (Proportional-Integral) controller to
show that NN performance is excellent. Numerous work reported in recent past
have shown that Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller has a potential to
replace the conventional PI controller. Artificial Neural Network control
apparently offers a possibility of obtaining an improvement in the quality of the
speed response, compared to PI control. This research proposes NARMA-L2
(Nonlinear Autoregressive-Moving Average) as an improved ANNtechnique,
and trained as a close loop controller, which gives an ideal performance as
compared with PI controller to control the angular speed of rotor in a permanent
magnet dc (PMDC) motor. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the
proposed control scheme.The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB
toolbox.

Studying the Compatibility between Metakaolin Repair Materials And Concrete Substrate

Maan S. Hassan; Zainab T. Hadad; Shaymaa T.Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5857-5868

In this study, the compatibility of Metakaolin repair mortar and substrate concrete was investigated in three stages. First: individual properties of Metakaolin as a pozzolanic material and conventional repair materials(cement mortar), and two types of concrete, such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength, were determined using standard ASTM test procedure. Second: the bond
strength of composite cylinder for different combinations of repair materials and substrate concrete were evaluated. Third: the compatibility was investigated using a composite beam of repair material and substrate concrete under third point loading.
The experimental results indicated that repairing weak substrate concrete by Metakaolin modified repair material is not preferable du to disparity in mechanical properties and create high level of mismatch between them. Furthermore, bond strength is considered as great influence factor on the success range of repair system.

Core Polarization Effects on the Inelastic Longitudinal C2 Form Factors of Open Sd-Shell Nuclei

Adel K. Hamoudi; ad A. Radhi; Gaith N. Flaiyh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5869-5880

Inelastic longitudinal C2 form factors for + ® +1 1 0 1 2 1 and + ® +1 2 0 1 2 1
transitions in open sd shell nuclei (22Ne, 26Mg and 30Si ) are discussed taking
into accounot the effects of core polarization. These effects are calculated using
the shape of Tassie model together with our derived form of the ground state twobody
charge density distribution (2BCDD). Remarkable agreements are obtained
between the calculated inelastic longitudinal C2 form factors and those of
experimental data.

Influence of Deposition Condition on the Properties of Chemically Deposited Cu2O Film

Abdal-Satar Kuther; Ali M. Mousa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5881-5892

Cuprous oxide films have been deposited by chemical bath method from
alkaline solution at pH=8.6.The deposited oxides were investigated using X-ray
diffraction, surface morphology, optical and electrical measurements. It is shown
that during deposition two different stages could be distinguished. the band gap of
the deposited film tuned from 2eV to 2.5 eV by decreasing deposition time. X-ray
diffraction (XRD) measurements showed formation of CuO and Cu2O phases, the
structure shows a thickness dependent. The grain size of as deposited and
annealed films at different temperatures were calculated from SEM data, The
results showed that the grain size of films increased with increasing deposition
time and annealing temperature. The resistivity of the films had significantly
decreased with increased deposition time, also films activation energy decreased
with increasing thickness

Effect of Elevated Temperature on Punching Shear of Regular and Irregular Shaped Self-Compacted Concrete Slabs

Luma Fadhil H

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5893-5906

The exposure of reinforced concrete slabs to high temperature causes changes
in their structural behavior.
This work aims to study the post-heating behavior of self compacted concrete
(SCC) regular (square) and irregular (trapezoidal) shaped flat plates and assessing
the residual punching shear strength of these slabs.
Twenty four reduced scale reinforced concrete slab specimens divided into
two main groups (square and trapezoidal slabs), each of which consists of twelve
slab identical in size and shape but different in concrete compressive strength
(30,50,70) MPa. These specimens are subjected to different temperature levels
(100, 300, 500) 0C and still heated in that temperature level for one hour using an
electric furnace and the results are compared with specimens tested at room
temperature 25 0C.
The effect of specimen shape, heating level, concrete compressive strength on
the punching shear resistance of slabs are discussed in details.
Results indicate that the reduction in punching shear strength is ranged between
(0 and 16) %, for square slab, at maximum temperature exposure (500) 0C, while
this rate is ranged between (6.3 and 40.4) % for trapezoidal slabs. This indicates
that the punching shear resistance of regular shaped slabs is higher than that of
irregular shaped slabs.

Design New Block Cipher Algorithm With New Concept

Saad K. Majeed; Maki Mahdi Abdulhasan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5907-5918

There are several techniques to safeguard the security of the information stored in
the computers or transmitted by networks; the most powerful tool is encryption.
Encryption provides confidentiality for information; additionally encryption can be
used to achieve integrity and availability. In this paper we design new Block cipher
algorithm with new concepts that are " encryption keys updating " where this result a
new approach not used in all the known block cipher algorithms which is " The same
key, encrypts the same plaintext multiple times and produces different cipher texts ",
also user does not inform anything about encryption keys, that giving the proposed
algorithm protection from the cheating of user and the secrecy of the encryption keys
remain only in Key Management Center (KMC), finally, this algorithm work
approximately as one-time pad.

Increased Damage to Uphill Rigid Pavements from Full- Trailers

Sabah S. Razouki; id R. Al-Muhanna

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5919-5937

Design charts for truck equivalence factors for full-trailer on uphill rigid
pavements were developed for a terminal level of serviceability pt=2.5. Each chart
is devoted to a certain rigid pavement slab thickness giving the truck equivalence
factor versus the total weight of the full-trailer for an uphill gradient of 0, 6, 12
and 18% as well as a certain ratio of the height of center of gravity of each unit of
the full-trailer to the corresponding wheel base (H/B). Five values for slab
thickness were considered namely D = 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 inches (15.2, 20.3,
25.4, 30.5, 35.6 cm respectively) and one value for H/B ratio of 1.0 were used.
Due to axle load redistribution on upgrades, the axle loads for the full-trailers
were calculated assuming uniform motion and taking into account the effect of the
moment of the component of the weight of the tractor and trailer unit parallel to
the upgrade and acting at the center of gravity of each unit.A strong linear
correlation between the rolling resistance and total weight of the trailer unit was
obtained to arrive at the pull force in the rod when travelling on uphill pavements.
The paper reveals the significant effect of the upgrade magnitude as well as of
the H/B ratio on the truck equivalence factor. The truck equivalence factors
increase non-linearly with increasing truck weight, H/B ratio and upgrade
magnitude. This increase is quite significant for the higher values of upgrade, H/B
ratio as well as the slab thickness. The critical full-trailer is that having a total
weight exceeding about 400 kN beyond which the corresponding equivalency
factor on uphill pavement diverges significantly from that on level highway.

Removal of Phenol From Aqueous Solution By Agriculture Waste

Tagreed Lutfee A

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5938-5955

Using agriculture waste products waste Tea (WT) and activated carbon
waste Tea (WT-GAC) as biosorbent for phenol from aqueous solution was
studied. Adsorption in this way more economical in comparison with other
conventional methods which are usually costly. Batch kinetics and isotherm
studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time,
phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and PH value. It was observed that the
adsorption process is instantaneous and attained equilibrium within 10 minutes for
activated carbon waste Tea and 30 minutes for waste Tea at phenol concentration
(100-600) mg/L. the adsorption of phenol increase with increasing the solution pH
value till pH 7 then it decrease with increasing pH value. The Freundlich and
Langmuir models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption
equilibrium and it was found that data fitted very well to the Freundlich models.

T-Semi Connected Spaces

Bushra Kadum Awaad; Hadi J. Mustafa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5956-5959

In this paper, we introduce a new concept, namely T-semi connected
space, where T is an operator associated with the topological T defined on a nonempty set X. Several properties of this concept are proved

Spectral Eigenface Representation for Human Identification

Hana; a M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5960-5972

Human identification based on face images, as physical biometric means, plays an
imperative role in many applications area. The methods for human identification using
face image uses either part of the face, all face, or mixture from these methods, in either
time domain or frequency domain. This paper investigate the ability to implement the
eigenface in frequency domain, the result spectral eigenface is utilize as a feature vector
means for human identification. The converting from eigenface implementation in time
domain, into spectral eigenface implementation in frequency domain, is based on
implemented the correlation by using FFT. The Min-max is invoked as normalization
techniques that increase spectral eigenface robustness to variations in facial geometry
and illumination. Two face images are contrast in terms of their correlation distance. A
threshold (10.50x107) is used to restrict the impostor face image from being identified.
The experimental results point up the effectiveness of a new method in either using
varying (noisy images, unknown image, face expressions, illumine, and scale s), with
identification value of 100%.

Development of A Fuel Card Application Using Basic Smart Card

Huda Fathil Alwan; Mohammed Najm Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 5973-6000

This work is devoted for smart card technology and focusing on software
and security. The main differences between smart card software and Personal
Computer software have been reviewed. The BasicCard is adopted to design
a Fuel Card Application; Fuel Card Application deals with the two parts of
smart card software namely, card side and host side. In the present technique
programs for Issuing Company, Card User and Fuel Card have been
developed. The threats those may attack a Fuel Card application were
analyzed then solutions have been proposed to fulfill the security
requirements; this is done by designing Fuel Card Application with security
which has different cryptographic algorithms that use different keys in a
single Fuel Card. Under ZeitControl BasicCard @Development Kit, two Fuel
Card Application models, with security and without security, were developed
and simulated using Professional BasicCard, memory and time of execution
for the two models have been compared. It is concluded that applying
security increases memory in not more than 25%, while the increase in the
execution time is about 60% but this increment is insignificant relative to the
inputting time

Estimation of Fatigue Life Components By Proposed Mathematical Model

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 922-932

In this study the fatigue behavior of an aluminum alloy designated 2024 – T3
under constant and variable amplitude of stresses is considered. The applied load
adopted is a rotating bending one, the cross Section of the laboratory samples is
circular with a diameter of (6.74mm). All tests were carried out under a stress ratio
of R = - 1 and at room temperature condition. The study consists of two parts
experimental and theoretical. The experimental part includes carrying out
laboratory tests on two groups of specimens the first group was tested under
constant stress amplitude to establish the S-N curve of the specimen's material,
while the second group was tested under variable amplitude of stress to assess the
effects of the accumulated fatigue damage. The theoretical part of the study
includes a review of previous literature adopted to derive a theoretical and
mathematical model depending upon the variation of the stresses obtainedby
some previous theories, taking into consideration low and high stress levels, and
even post yield.
The derived model is denoted as elastic-plastic model for the evaluation of life
time of machinery parts. The linear theory of Miner and the theory of Elastic
Cracks Propagation are also studied throughout the theoretical part of the study.
In order to assess the capability of the two theories with the derived model: a
comparison is held between the experimented results and the results obtained by
applying the two theories.
It is noted that results obtained by applying the two theories are lower
(underestimates) than those obtained from the experimental study and that results
obtained by the suggested derived model are in better agreement than those
obtained by the two theories.

The Effect of Planning Limitations on Minimizing the Holding Capacity of Cities Extension (Case Study: Sulaimaniyah City)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 933-952

Big cities suffered from overcrowding problems which push them to grow
horizontally and vertically. The extended cities will face the use of new land
problem around them, which not vacant from the physical limitations that
constraint that extension and make it difficult which minimize the holding
capacity for that costly extension. These limitations was the topic of this research
especially the artificial ones which surrounded the Sulaimaniyah city especially in
the study area which regard as a main direction for its extension and caused a
series of planning problems and minimizing the holding capacity is one of them.
The research showed that the effect of artificial limitations was exceeded than
natural limitations in spite of that the area is known with the second is more than
the first one. And showed that the maximizing of the passive effect of artificial
limitations was caused by littleness of directorates, experiment in the planning and
investment.

Theoretical and Experimental Study of Using Solar Energy to produce Hydrogen (Baghdad-Iraq)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 953-967

A theoretical and experimental study was done about using solar energy to
produce Hydrogen; Hydrogen is one of the main options to use as unpolluted fuel
for environment and alternative energy instead of traditional fuels.
Theoretical study included mathematical model for Hydrogen-solar system to
predict, solar radiation, solar cells electrical power generation and the amount of
Hydrogen gas decomposed in an electrolyser at specific condition.
Experimental study included manufacturing and testing of Hydrogen-solar system
model, using electrolysis water solution method.
The system consists of a solar cell module and electrolyser which was tested
during day's hours of many random days, the analysis study of the experimental
results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions of solar radiation,
the amount of generated Hydrogen and small deviation in the solar cell's electrical
power because we canceled the electrical resistance of the system.
The study showed the ability of using solar energy to produce Hydrogen and to
deduce the best conditions to increase the production and the efficiency of the
system.

Stability of Al-Hadba minaret a-parametric study

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 968-981

Al-Hadba minaret in MOSUL City is one of the famous and oldest Islamic
monuments in the city. This minaret suffers from cracks in different places and
partial collapse in the outer stairs and in the upper dome. In addition to that, the
minaret is suffering from leaning. In this research the stability analysis,
displacement, and stress distribution were investigated using ANSYS 11 program
to represent the effect of external loads, and loads from maintenance work. In the
analysis the minaret and its foundation were considered as a one unit. Further
more, the effect of changing the nature of surrounding soil was investigated.
Results showed that the underground soil around the foundation is fill and
very loose material containing high percent of organic material and cavities. This
formation is extend down to (4.3-9.8 m) below the ground surface and have no
pronounce effect on the stability of the minaret .The analysis showed that the maximum compressive stress at the base of minaret in the inclination direction of
the minaret, where the opposite direction is under tension and the highest value
was at the base of cylindrical part.

Low Cycle Fatigue Failure of AA7020 Aluminum Alloy at different heat treatments

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 982-998

The present work encompasses Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) of
the Al-alloy AA7020 with three conditions; annealing, natural
aging and artificial aging. The LCF tests carried out using standard
specimens cantilever beam types. Optical Light Microscope (OLM)
and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were employed to
examine the fracture features .The results confirmed that AA7020-
O sustained cyclic ha rdening, while 7020-T4 & 7020-T6
undergoing cyclic softening, therefore make the annealing
conditions more resistance to LCF. The values of fa tigue str ength
exponent (b) is varying from (-0.064) to (-0.14) and fatigue
ductility exponent (c) from (-0.554) to (-0.60), whereas these
values within the general limitation of the metals. The number of
transition cycle (NT) for annealing condition is more comparing to
the other conditions which emphasis that the annealing alloy will
withstand more cycles before introducing the plastic zone. The
information extracted from Engineering Stress-Strain curve; (σu/σy)
as well as strain harden exponent (n) can be need to estimate the
behavior of annealing and artificial alloy, while the natural aging
alloy will need LCF testing to definite the conducting because of
its "n" less than (1.2) and (σu/σy ) more than (1.4) .The SEM
examination districted many point of cracks initiation for the three
alloys at stresses more than Yield point. OLM investigation of the
cross-section of fracture surface indicated the dominating of
applied stress when it is more than Yield point of artificial aging
alloy. Where the stress concentration is the most important role for
annealing specimens because of companion of cycle strain
hardening

Theempact of information on the architect design

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 19, Pages 999-1016

The accelerated evolution of informatics is considered the core aspect of
information age. , which had focused on the production of materials, the
age of informatics revolution came, which concentrated on production of
ideas rather than materials, and those countries that have more information
are the most control over the events in the world. The last twenty years
witnessed phenomenal development in the information and communication
sector which we never had before and this development has changed the
features of the new world, therefore functions replaced others and new
techniques came up which have changed the activities of society and
affected concepts and postulates, As other activities of life, architecture was
largely influenced by the informatics evolution causing a change in the
concept of architecture and architectural design in terms of
thinking,analysis and performance and production methods. The research
also explains the concept of informatics, technology and globalization ,
brings up a definition for the architectural design, shows the importance of
informatics on thedesigning process and then impact of informatics in the architectural formation, reaching to a new formulation for the designing
process in the information age and extract indexes for informatics like the
artificial intelligence, communication development, information building
and globalization. And then to examine these indexes' impact on the
designing process via creating a questionnaire, reaching to a conclude that
the elements and informatics technologies raise the designing process's
proficiency, Finally, the research recommends it is necessary that students,
academicians, vocational people and those who work in the architectural
engineering domain to recognize the elements and informatics technologies
in the designing process in order to go along with the age development