Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 21,

Issue 21

Development Approach of Automated Recognition for Isolated and Intersection (Complex) Manufacturing Features for Prismatic Mechanical Parts

Hussein. S. Ketan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6215-6227

The intersection between part features caused ambiguousness in feature
representation because the topology in this case will be change. To overcome this no unique and ambiguousness by combine the topology and characteristics to extract and recognize the intersection features. This paper introduces new general algorithm to: (1) construct developed Attributes Adjacency Matrix (DAAM) and (2) analysis the DAAM to extract and recognize the isolated and intersection (complex) manufacturing features. This algorithm consists of two stages, preprocessor
stage which performs extraction of information from Design Exchange
Format (DXF) file, and post-processor stage which recognizes part’s features depending on the relations included in DAAM. The parts are represented in AutoCAD using Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) technique and the algorithm built in visual basic. Several parts tested and succeed to recognize several types of intersection (complex) manufacturing features. The main contributions of this research include building the adjacent relations between faces of the part by
geometrical characteristics in form of matrix, and use clustering operation to extract the exact faces of feature and use different classes of geometrical characteristics to assisting to recognize interacting depression prismatic features.

The Effect of Adding Nickel Element on Mechanical and Wear Properties of SiCp-Cu Composites

Samir B. Younis

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6228-6236

Reinforced composites are prepared from a Copper as a matrix with SiC
powder in different percentage ( i.e 5-25 vol.%) .For each prepared reinforced
composite with respect to SiC addition , they divided into two parts , one undergo to
addition of Ni in fixed percentage (2 wt%) and the other part leave without addition.
After drying , mixing and milling process, disc samples were prepared . these
samples were heat treated at (900°C) using furnace at argon atmosphere. Density,
porosity, Vicker microhardness , compressive strength were performed. Dry sliding
wear tests of Cu–SiCp composites were carried out using pin on disc apparatus with a
typical experimental plan of simultaneous variation of loads (5,10)N . The results
show that the density was decreased while porosity increased with SiC content , and
this was less remarkable with nickel presence. Vicker microhardness, compress
strength were improved by the nickel wettability on the reinforcement. Moreover
decreasing in wear rate comparing with the absence one. The nickel presence modifies
the interface structural model and is effective in passing load between the matrix and
the reinforcement, by lessening the extent of interfacial debonding.

Optimizing Opto-Electronic Cellular Neural Networks Using Bees Swarm Intelligent

Hanan A.R.Akkar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6237-6252

This paper presents an application of Bees algorithm to the optimization of cellular neural network for opto-electronics design, where cellular neural networks bees are a large – scale nonlinear analog circuit which processes signals in real time. It is made of massive cells, which communicate with each other directly only
through its nearest neighbors. Each bee cell is made of a linear capacitor, a nonlinear voltage controlled current source, and a few resistive linear circuit elements with photo diode and photo-detector for connections. In this paper application of bee cellular neural networks in pattern recognition is presented with its opto-electronic circuit design. It is found the real opto-electronic arrays, with all
their deficiencies are able to learn and perform various processing tasks well.

Preparation and Characterization of MOS Device using MgO Film as A Dielectric Material

Farhan A. Mohamed; Evan T. Salem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6253-6262

In the present work, fabrication and characterization of Al/MgO/Si MOS
device has been carried out using PLD as a deposition technique, and for
comparison Al/SiO2/Si MOS device has been also constructed. The obtained
result show that , The Electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of MOS device are strongly dependent on the oxide type and thickness, beside that, the C-V measurement reveled that prepared device are of abrupt type. The Spectral Responsivity measurement of (Al/MgO/Si) MOS device is found to be 0.27A/W while of (Al/SiO2/Si) MOS device is 0.20A/W and the Rise and Response time measurement of (Al/MgO/Si) MOS device was shorter than of (Al/SiO2/Si) MOS device.

A Modified BEZIER Algorithm For Controlling and Generating A Third Degree Curves

Ali Adil Saeid; A. M. Jaber; A.M.S. Rahma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6263-6273

This paper presents a new method to generate curves, which allows
the designer to produce a curve in combinational way allowing him to get
the shape that he had in his imagination with keeping the four control point for the curve design. Basing on the modified BEZIER curve, the upgraded algorithm used de Casteljau algorithm on interval [r, s] as a mathematical base to upgrade the suggested method. The suggested method shows a great flexibility at the curve controlling area with changing one, more or no need to change the control points of Bezier curve as it shows in the figures presented in the paper

Influence of Annealing, Normalizing Hardening Followed By Tempering And Laser Treatments on Some of The Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel

Sanna A. hafeed; AbdulKhaliq F. Hamood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6274-6287

This research illustrates the influence of different heat treatments on the mechanical properties such as stress-strain curves ,wear resistance and fatigue properties of medium carbon steel,. This steel was treated by annealing, normalizing, hardening followed by tempering and laser treatments. The bulk mechanical properties of ultimate ,fracture and yield tensile strength were evaluated. Surface mechanical properties of fatigue, wear resistance and hardness were evaluated as well. Microstructure of treated alloys also were inspected. Results showed that (hardened -tempered) steel had improved tensile strength,
fatigue{limit, life}, wear resistance, hardness then laser surface treated alloy, then the normalized alloy came in order ,but annealed alloy had the lowest mechanical properties. Annealing caused softening and growth of alloy structure. It was found that the microstructure of treated alloy play an important role in the improvement
or deterioration of bulk and surface mechanical properties and by analyzing the obtained results. For (Quenched -tempered) alloy found fine tempered martensititic structure, laser surface treated alloy had martensititic structure in the skin and ferritic- pearlitic structures in the core .Normalized alloy had ferriticpearlitic structures, Annealed alloy had coarse ferritic- pearlitic structures

Analysis of Induction Cooker Coil

Hassan A. Al-Ssadi; A.K.M. Al-Shaikhli

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6288-6305

The use of induction heating in industrial applications is old and wide. In recent years, this technology was entered to domestic use. This research deals with the analysis and applications of induction heating for cooking food, as these techniques have safe and economy, as well as cleanness and the atmosphere of work comfortable. Knowledge of the electrical resistance of induction heating system is very important to designers working in the high frequency-supplies. This research also analyzes and studies this resistance, by used solid, litz and twisted
wire, and offers simplification of equations derivation help anyone interested in this subject. The MATHCAD V.14 program has been employed to obtain the results. The results presented as general curves for three types of wires (solid, litz and twisted wire) so that a designer can use them without lengthy and complex calculations.

Improving the Accuracy of Static Relative GPS Positioning using Genetic Algorithm

Farazdak Rafeek Yasien

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6306-6314

Over the years, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has evolved to become an important navigational and positional system and is widely used across the world. The system promises high accuracies if the navigational signals transmitted by the GPS satellites are observed accurately. The modeling of a single point and relative point determination of user position includes pseudorange measurements. Taylor series is used to linearize the nonlinear model. Two methods are used to estimate the three dimensional user position: Recursive Least Square (RLS) method and continuous Genetic Algorithm (GA) method.
Real data is used and results show that the GA enhances the estimation of user position more than the RLS by high error minimization and the minimum number of available satellites needed. RLS with three satellites give an error that exceeds the allowable limits, while GA gives an acceptable error. Relative positioning method is more accurate than the point positioning method for both RLS and GA methods..

2D-Flow Analysis Through Zoned Earth Dam Using Finite Element Approach

Hayder Hassan Al.Jairry

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6315-6324

This paper presents an application of finite element analysis using
CivilFEM/ANSYS(11) software to predict two dimensional steady state water seepage through an earth dam of two soil zones resting on impervious base. Seepage characteristics (quantity and length of seepage surface) produced at downstream are investigated against permeability coefficient ratio changing of the two soil zones, and based on results of the solution it was found that seepage quantity and velocity downstream are very sensitive to any change of permeability
ratio of the two soil zones forming the dam.

Bond Strength Assessment for Different Types of Repair Materials

Aseel S. Mansi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6325-6336

The main objective of this work is to evaluate the bond strength for
different types of repair materials. Three test methods; slant shear, splitting prism and Bi-Surface shear test with conventional and two polymer modified repair mortars were used, The conventional mortar (MC), polymer modified mortar (MSBR) was prepared by admixing SBR 15% of cement weight, polymer modified and fiber reinforced repair mortar named commercially Cempatch S (MCS) was prepared by mix Cempatch S with a water ratio of 0.2. The results show that the use of SBR and Cempatch S improves the bond strength of repair mortar compared with conventional repair mortar but the percentage increased with Cempatch S was greater than SBR. The percentage increase in bond strength for concrete substrate repaired with Mcs (CMcs) were 52.67, 174.8, and 46.7% for Slant Shear, Splitting Prism and Bi-Surface shear test
respectively relative to the corresponding repaired with conventional mortar MC(CMC); while, the corresponding percentages increase for concrete substrate repaired with MSBR (CMSBR) was 45.13, 129 and 30%. It is found that the bond strengths obtained from some tests was up to an average of four times larger than those obtained from others.

Accuracy Evaluation of SRTM (used in Google Earth) by Comparison with National Topographic maps (1:50,000) in North of Iraq

Haval Abdul-Jabbar Sadeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6337-6346

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of a region can be generated from stereo
pairs of satellite images , enables the work to improve decision-making, take faster and more informed action based on geospatial information, but some times these data may be unavailable or expensive for students to use it in a mapping and preliminary design. Today Google Earth Enterprise helps organizations with amazing speed, full context, imagery and other geospatial data DEM with incredible resource for downloading topo data, makes that information accessible
to all employees who need access via data with no cost. Google earth Geospatial data DEM it been lunched from (SRTM) NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The aim of our study is to assess the quality of the GE-SRTM-DEM derived from the X-SAR system and comparing it with selected national topographical maps for north of Iraq with scale 1:50,000 . An important aspect of the study is to be able to conclude on the real relevancy of the GE-SRTM product compared to the already existing products, for instance is it to be considered as a new global topographic reference or should it be only limited to some applications
such as GIS-projects, hydrological, mapping, even it can be used in preliminary design stage for projects.

Determination of the Stresses Concentration Factor and Cracks Growth in the Buildings by Finite Element Method

Alyaa Hassan Abood; Hani Aziz Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6347-6365

The novel analysis of two buildings A and B, by finite element method via ANSYS software and experimentally are presented. The investigation is carried out to show the stresses distribution and the deflections and the cracks propagation in the walls and concrete slabs and beams for the two buildings. In both buildings the investigation included load-deflection curves, stresses and cracks patterns. The stress concentration factor is calculated for two buildings. Results are shown that the factor of concentrated for building A is between (8.4-11.4) for walls contain four windows and (6.1-7.4) for walls contain two doors, while in building B the factor of concentrated is between (13.4-14.1) for walls contain one door, and (13.9-14.6) for walls contain three windows. Also the results indicated that the cracks growth in the sites of high concentrated stresses and the load-deflection curve are approximately linear even with different loads.

Air Pollutants and Performance Characteristics of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in CI Engines

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6365-6383

Owing to the energy crisis and pollution problems of today,
investigations have concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption and on
lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products by
using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable and non-polluting fuels. While conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal are nonrenewable, alcohol can be coupled to renewable and sustainable energy
sources. In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of diesel fuel and ethanol blends were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder DI diesel engine at full load at 1500-rpm engine speed. The experimental results showed that diesel ethanol blends provided significant reductions in CO, unburned HC, and NOx. Ethanol blends had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. The results indicated that ethanol may be blended with diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine

An Investigation of The Up and Down End Milling Force Process under Runout and Tilting Effects

Mohammed J.AL Tornachy; Muawafak A. Tawfik; Raed R. Shwaish

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6384-6405

This paper provides a comprehensive study into cutting forces for (Up and Down) milling process methods either through machine cutting tool errors (Run out and/or Tilting) or not according to vectorial multi-axis rigid cutting force model where flat end mill cutter with peripheral cutting is used. This paper instates a contribution to illustrate the nonsmooth characteristic of milling operation.
Theoretical analysis of the milling process is conducted in this study by simulating the mathematical model of the process through a computer program prepared in FORTRAN language. The theoretical analysis consists of empirical parameters which are estimated according to measured force data for material cutter and range of cutting conditions taken from references concerned with numerical simulation of milling process

Determination Variety of Pavement Layers Thickness by Using Ground Penetration Radar Technology

Mundher Ali Seger

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6406-6413

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a high-frequency electromagnetic
method commonly applied to a number of engineering problems especially in the transportation sector. GPR surveys are routinely and successfully used for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) verification in many Transportation Agencies of the world in last ten years. The present work is to apply the GPR technique for a selected roads sectors to measure variation of pavement layers thickness, (surface layer, base course) hot-mix asphalt (HMA) material, and granular subbase layer.

Effect of Additives Types and Contents on the Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures

Qais S. Kareem; Ahmed I. Ahmed; Noor M. Asmael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6414-6426

Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. SMA does not application in Iraq; in order for adopt the use of SMA mixtures particularly on high volume roads such as highways and urban intersections in Iraq. So, the new methodology has to be evaluated using Iraq materials and conventional laboratory methods to insure good performance in the Iraq's highway. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of additives type and content on the performance of stone matrix asphalt mixtures. A detailed
laboratory study is carried out by preparing asphalt mixtures specimens using aggregate from Al-Nibaay, (40-50) grade asphalt from dourah refinery and two types of fiber (carbon fiber and polypropylene fiber) with percentages (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%) by weight of total mix and two types of polymer (phenol and polyethylene) with percentages (7.5, 10, 12.5, 15%) by weight of total mix were tested in the laboratory. Compacted mixtures were tested to evaluate the effects on SMA bulk specific gravity, maximum specific gravity, void content, Marshall
Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) and permanent deformation. Three different tests temperatures (20, 40,60C°) were employed in the creep test and two temperatures (5, 25 C°) were used in indirect tensile test to investigate the susceptibility of these mixes to change in temperature. The results clearly indicate the importance of using the proper type of stabilizing additive. According to the study results, polymers additives were found to be more effective than fibers
additives. SMA Mix modified with phenol additives can be used in cold and normal temperature area, whereas SMA Mix modified with polyethylene additive can be used in high temperature area.

Stator Fault Diagnosis of Single Phase Induction Motors Using Fuzzy Logic System

Ahlam Luaibi Shuraiji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6427-6438

Fault diagnosis of electrical machine is gaining particular importance in view of machine down-time and revenue losses to the industry. Therefore, it is always essential to check motor performance from time to time. This paper use the technology of fuzzy logic for detecting and diagnosing the stator faults in single phase induction motor to avoid the damage of the motor. The application of fuzzy logic is simulated using fuzzy logic tool box in MATLAB. The main function of fuzzy logic
fault detection consists of two inputs the first for stator current and the second for the rotor speed and one output which is the incipient fault.

Thermal Analysis of High Performance Lightweight Concrete Sandwich Panels

Wasan I. Khalil; Zain A. Raouf; Husain M.Husain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 6439-6457

This work is concerned with experimental and finite element investigation to determine the temperature distribution in hot weather through the section of the high performance lightweight concrete sandwich panels. In the experimental work thermal conductivity of unreinforced mortar, reinforced mortar and polystyrene concrete were
investigated, then the thermal conductivity of eight series of 1000mm length and 200mm width concrete sandwich panels with two reinforced mortar faces of 20 mm in thickness and core of 30 and 50mm in thickness from polystyrene concrete were calculated. A nonlinear one – dimensional finite element analysis has been used to conduct an analytical investigation on the temperature distribution through the section of concrete sandwich panels. ANSYS (version 8) computer programme was utilized and 2-node LINK elements were used.
The experimental results show that thermal conductivity of the concrete sandwich panels is low with average value of 0.446 W/m.K and the thermal conductivity of the panels with similar type and volume content of reinforcement decreases by about 17% when the core thickness increases from 30 to 50 mm. The finite element results of
temperature distribution show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Studying Some Mechanical Properties and Wear Resistance of Aluminum - Glass Composites

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 1030-1039

The research is aimed to prepare an aluminum matrix reinforced with window glass particles with weight percentages of (1%,2%,3%,5% and 7%) ,with particle sizes varies from 75-150μm. Composite materials are prepared by using mechanical stir- casting method. The formation of vortex in aluminum melt helps dispersion of glass particles in aluminum melt . Electroless copper coating on glass particles is carried out to improve wetability between glass particles and aluminium melt. Many inspections and tests have been done such as microstructure, hardness inspection, compression test and dry sliding wear test type Pin-on Disk with different loads and at a constant speed and sliding distance
It was found that addition of glass particles coated with copper to pure aluminum increases hardness , compression strength and wear resistance .

Study The Effect of Blowing Material Which Extracted From Okra Waste in Some Properties of Natural Rubber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 21, Pages 1040-1048

The aim of this research to use extracted natural material from waste product of Okra as blowing material by simple method for production sponge rubber with good damping properties. The sample of rubber was prepared with adding different percent from extracted material of waste product of Okra (0-25)% to study the effect of this material on properties of natural rubber. When we added blowing material that extracted from plant of Okra ,we get productions of cells
inside the sample due to release gases and get sponge rubber causes decrease
hardness (from 37.5 to lower than 30) IRHD, resilience ( from 77.64 to 41.53)% and damping time (from 57.79 to 18.55) sec. Also developed from damping properties of rubber at low temperatures (0,-8) °C by good percent in compare with pure sample, . This mean is extracted material of waste product of Okra is suitable to use as blowing material to get sponge rubber and this work exists with a good replacement for synthetics blowing materials avoiding their toxicity and their highly cost.