Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 22

Volume 28, Issue 22, November 2010, Page 1049-6622


Using Remote Sensing & Gis Tichenck to Study Soil Chemical Properties for Hour Al-Hammar (South Of Iraq)

Abdul Razzak T.Ziboon; Salah Abdul Hammed; Aseel Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6458-6468

This work includes the digital image processing (image enhancement and
the digital classification techniques) using ERDAS, ver.,8.7, package for Landsat 7 (ETM+), 3-visible bands with resolution (14.25m), acquired in March 2004 . The field investigation includes GPS device (Global Position System) to determine the coordinates of soil sample location , which coincides with the reports of the laboratory tests (chemical tests), which include organic matter, total dissolved solid, sulphate, and electrical conductivity, due to the effectiveness of
these chemical properties on the spectral response of soil, and spectral
measurements by using radiometer instrument. The main results of this study, by using GIS techniques depends on remote sensing data, using ArcView software ver.3.3, a geographical database and information about layers of soil of the overall studied area have been registered and
constructed digitally to represent the geotechnical soil haracteristics in associated files, and produce digital soil map. It is considered the preferable technique to represent the ground truth regarding the characteristics of soil, in comparison with the traditional method, because they are easy to produce, use, store and update, in addition they save in efforts, time and cost.

Effect of Heat Treatment on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloys 2024 And 7075

Ahmed. N. Al-Khazraji

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6469-6481

This research studies the effect of heat treatment (precipitation hardening) on fatigue life of two aluminum alloys (2024) and (7075). The alloy (2024) is hardening by natural aging, while the artificial aging is used to hardening the alloy (7075). Mechanical tests are performed to determine the mechanical properties such as yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, hardness and endurance limit of the
alloys. The specimens which used in the tests are divided into eight groups according to the type of alloy, type of heat treatment, and shape. Notched and un-notched specimens are used to perform the tests. The fatigue tests are performed for different type of specimens.
The equations of fatigue life estimation are determined according to data which is obtained from the fatigue tests and endurance limit is calculated by using these equations for each type of specimens.

Integration of Photogrammetry and Geographic Information System (GIS) in Digital Mapping Production

Afrah M. Daham

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6482-6495

This research introduce the utilization of Geographic Information
System (GIS) and photogrammetry in digital map production. An aerial
stereopair was used to produce an orthophoto by ERDAS LPS software.
The Arc GIS software then used to prepare a digital map with multi layers for that study area. The produced map could be used and updated any time by GIS software. The research proved its effectiveness for integrating the GIS and photogrammetry in digital mapping since it is a time and cost consuming technique when it is compared to the conventional methods. Also the resulted accuracy ((Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) was (35) cm which was suitable for large scale mapping.

Climatic Change Scenario(2007-2037) For TuzKhormatoo Region

Cheleng A.Arselan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6496-6505

The estimation of minimum temperature, maximum temperature,
humidity and precipitation and all other climatic variables needs a range of models depending on the time scales involved. In this research a comprehensive models to generate minimum, maximum temperature and humidity based on monthly mean values for TuzKhormatoo region were developed for 30 years ahead .All these models were depended on a previous monthly data which were documented for the period (10/1978-12/2009). The Stochastic weather generator (SWG) models were used to compute the climatic variables by adjusting the parameters appropriately for the future climates factors and then by using them to
estimate maximum, minimum temperature and humidity .It was concluded from this research that there will be an increase in the monthly mean values of the maximum and minimum temperature values of this region in the future. It was concluded also due to the generation process that there is a need for highly correlated climatic variables to build such model .

Methodology for Water Balance in Hemren Reservoir

Mustafa Majeed Al-Mukhtar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6506-6517

The water balance is considered as an important subject in the present time which has a great role in estimation of the quantity of water entering a dam. In this paper approach to estimate the water balance in Hemren dam, an equation has been found to calculate the discharge entering to Hemren dam through relate the variables (Qout from Derbendi-Khan, Qin to Hemren reservoir and rainfall intensity falling on the intermediate catchment area between Hemren-Derbendi- Khan dams) by using the regression analysis. The data were collected for the
interval from 1980 to 2004. The equation gives a correlation oefficient 0.956 for the relation between the observed and calculated discharges.

Effect of Riblets Geometry on Drag Reduction

Nibras M. Mahdi; Ikhlase M. Fayed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6518-6535

The effect of longitudinal riblet surface models (U, V and semi-Circular and U with fillet corner riblets) on the performance of unsymmetrical airfoil (NACA23015) which has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical investigation involve examining drag reduction by solving the governing equations (Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations) using the known package FLUENT version (6.1) in turbulent regime with appropriate turbulence model (κ-ε). Also measurement in experimental work will be carried out. The results indicate that the riblet surface models are the key parameters for controlling the boundary layer characteristic. The most effective riblet surface is U-riblet with fillet model (Mo.4, h=0.1mm), by compare to smooth model, the results show a small increment in lift slope curve about (9%) and total drag decrease (12%) over the angles of attack range from (0° to 17°).

Image Authentication Using PCA And BP Neural Network

Abbas Hussein Miry; Akel A. Alzaiez; Mohammed Hussein Miry

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6536-6545

In this paper, a recognition system for image identification by using
principal component analysis (PCA) and back propagation (BP) Neural Network is proposed. The system consists of three steps. At the very outset some preprocessing are applied on the input image. Secondly image features are extracted by using PCA, which will be taken as the input to the Back-propagation Neural Network (BPN) in the third step and classification. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular appearance-based methods used mainly for dimensionality reduction in compression and recognition problems, this will reduce
the size of training data which it entered to neural network. In our work, The proposed model is tested on a number of images with different value of learning rate. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed model is better, efficient and it reduces the ratio of the number of iteration training to half comparing with results of the Neural Network

Preparation Of High Efficient (Epoxy/Plants Coal/Alumina) Primers Applied To Concrete Petroleum Tanks

Nagham H.Abood; Alyaa E; Raghad O. Abas; Falak O.Abas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6546-6556

Very little work has been reported on the influence of exposure to
petroleum products on the chemical resistance of concrete. The work presented in this paper deals with the fundamental aspects of this problem. Therefore different chemical solutions are used to study the chemical effect on this type of tanks that used in petroleum storage.
The effect of different additive fillers are used in prepared primer and are studied for different exposure media (moisture, 10% H2SO4, Oil) during 28 day residue time at 50 oc, and measure the penetration and chemical resistance of these samples. Two types of filler are used organic (charcoal 30 m particle size), and in organic (alumina 100 m particle size) to improve the chemical resistance of the prepared epoxy primer at different mixing ratio (st.s, Ch 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, A 1.2, 2.4, 3.6) respectively. A comparative analysis shows that high chemical resistance appeared for alumina samples than charcoal especially for optimum mixing ratio (2.4 Ep. / additives). Less effect of thickness on chemical properties appeared for standard sample and large effect of thickness for charcoal and alumina samples with preference for
alumina especially at optimum thickness ( 2mm ) for alumina and ( 3 mm) for charcoal samples with 2% comparison effect of thickness.
Also less effect of both moisture and oil compared to high effect of acidic solution (10% H2SO4 ) on the prepared samples with clear appearance to charcoal at 3 mm thickness and 1 mm for alumina.

A Proposed Index of Water Quality Assessment for Irrigation

Abdul Jabbar Khalaf Al meini

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6557-6579

A water quality index in a simplified concept is a way for combining the complex water quality data into a single value or single statement. This study comprised the development of a new index called the ‘irrigation water quality index (IWQI)’. This index has advantages by reflecting the suitability of water for specific use,( e.g.
irrigation water supply) and using a combination of many parameters that limits water suitability to soil characteristics or crop yield.. The New proposed index method utilizes five limitation groups that have been mentioned by Ayers and westcot (1985) with few modification in their classification categories for irrigation water quality
assessment . These limitation groups are: (a) salinity limitation, (b) infiltration and permeability limitation, (c) specific ion toxicity, (d) trace element toxicity; and, (e) miscellaneous impacts on sensitive crops . A linear combination of these groups is formulated to form the so-called IWQI, which is a technique that could be used to classify irrigation waters with respect to four suitability categories. The mathematical equations to transform the actual concentration values into rating values (quality sub indices) have been formulated. Weighted minimum operator method was proposed to obtain overall index scores based on individual index (sub-index) values. It is hoped that this proposed method has provided an index (IWQI) used as a simple tool for
analysis that serve decision-makers , non-technicians and/or farmers. This method has not been applied previously weighted and their current results look much better than the results of the un weighted minimum operator method , especially when there are sub indices of low values with low weights, along with indices of low values with high weights .The proposed technique was applied to assess the irrigation water
quality of Tigris , Euphrates and Shatt Al Arab rivers in Iraq based on observed water quality data. Data representing the monthly sampling of the three rivers were collected during 2008 and considered in this study. Results revealed that the overall quality of the surface water in Tigris river falls under the ‘suitable’ class and remain
so until Kut city, and then ranged from moderately suitable to unsuitable until Qurna. In Euphrates river the suitability of water falls under suitable class from Saqlawiya until Kifil and then the quality ranges from moderately suitable to unsuitable until
Qurna area. Water of Shatt Al Arab was not suitable through the year except in Jan, Feb, and Oct where the water was slightly suitable. On the other hand, water quality for Tigris and Euphrates was strongly affected by water returns resulted mostly by agricultural use and to a limited extent by domestic uses inside and outside of Iraqi
territories. This technique is hoped to help decision- makers in reporting the state of the water quality, as well as verification of the spatial and temporal variations.

Behavior of High-Rise Steel Building With The Inclusion of Warping

a H. Shareef; Najla; Haitham H.Muteb; Hisham M. AL-Hassani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6580-6601

The mathematical procedure in this study covers the calculation of sectorial
properties of the equivalent cross-sectional storey for high-rise building frames. The
formulation is efficiently used to obtain the free vibration analysis of high-rise
buildings which are constructed from several columns, beams, shear walls and
bracing etc. the analysis is based on transformation the complex system to a simple
tall column to represent a cantilevered tall building structure. This is partitioned to
nodes one of which indicates a storey with equivalent cross-sectional properties for
all storeys' elements after calculation of these properties with respect to the shear
center of high-rise building. A thin walled bar finite element with seven degrees of
freedom at each node is assumed. A new formulation of the stiffness and consistent
mass matrices of the thin- walled element is presented in this study. The effect of
cross sectional warping and its properties on the flexural, torsional and axial
properties was investigated, using discrete element approach in idealizing the
structure in high rise building. For the purpose of the present study, it is assumed
that the cross-sectional types under condition are only of thin-walled sections.
Algorithm method was developed which covers the calculation of sectorial
properties of the cross section for floor plan in high-rise building, to study the share
of columns for lateral shear force resistance, and investigate the behavior of different
types of high-rise building with inclusion of warping restraint. The effect of natural
frequency with height of tall buildings, and the mode shape for different crosssectional
plans of high-rise building was studied. To check the efficiency and
accuracy, the mathematical procedure is demonstrated for static and dynamic
examples by comparing the results with those obtained by using software ANSYS
program. A difference of 15% is shown. An eigen value problem is analyzed and
numerical examples are discussed.

Conditions on N ForWriting it as A Sum of Four Cubes

Lamia A. Hadi; Muntaha K. Abbas; Shatha A. Salman Al-Najjar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6602-6604

The aim of this paper is to give a conditions on n, so can be written as a sum of four cubes, but this conditions work on another problem that deals with cubic equation and the solution of non-linear system of equation are also required. This work is very important in different branches of applied mathematics especially in number theory and cryptography.

Silica/ Charcoal Addition to the Composite Polyvinyl Fluoride Membranes forWater /Organic Vapor Separation

Nagham H.Abood; Raghad O. Abas; Falak O.Abas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6605-6614

In the present work, Supported polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)/S/Ch membrane
were prepared by wet/dry inversion method where PVF powder was dissolved in a
required suitable solvent at dissolving percent 30% vol PVF/DMF at 50 °C for 15
min and 500 cycle /min stirring velocity then different mixing weight ratio of
organic and inorganic ceramic material (nano charcoal and SiO2 ) are added
(0.5,0.75, 1.0,1.25, and1.5)w/w to this solution with continuous stirring until reach
homogeneity then a suitable membrane were molded in thickness (1 mm) and
thinner then curing this membranes at 170°C for 24 hrs afterward chemical and
physical properties are measured.
The results of (apparent density, porosity, and chemical absorption under
moisture and acidic solution) proved that good chemical and physical properties
were shown for samples supported by organic fillers (charcoal) than inorganic one
of silica, and best samples have high chemical absorption and high permeability of
membranes is PVF m/Ch A5 and PVF m/SiO2 A3 for both organic and inorganic
one.

Effect of Sodium Modifier on the Microstructure and Wear Rate of Al-14 Wt%Si Alloy

Haitham Rzouqi Saleh; Mahdi Muter Hanoon; Adnan Ibrahim Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 6615-6622

In this study, a demonstration of the effect of Na addition to the
microstructure and wear rate of hypereutectic Al-14 wt% Si alloy was carried out. It is
found that the addition of Na has an important effect on shifting the eutectic
composition of Al-Si alloys from approximately 12 wt% to 14 wt% Si; shifting the
unmodified alloy from hypereutectic to eutectic alloys for the modified alloys. The
modified alloys have a eutectic composition with fine needle at lower Na content
(0.05 wt%). Increasing the percentage of Na to 0.12 wt% resulted in producing a
lamellar Si structure compared with acicular structure for unmodified alloy. The wear
rate of modified alloys is lower than the hypereutectic alloy. Wear rates observed
were in the range of 10-9 to 10-11 which is fully identified in the mild wear rate regime.

Using Techniques of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in The Municipality Services of The Kut City

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1049-1056

The role of GIS in the management of solid waste a very big role because
many aspects of operations planning and management of wastes based on the data
and spatial information and thus, the system is to store and manipulate data
quickly and accurately to facilitate the collection and removal of waste and
determine the best sites stations of the assembly and planning methods that would
be taking trucks that transport waste to the assembly stations and then to the
landfill site, and finally select a new landfill sites and appropriate monitoring of
these sites. The system is not a means save time and cost, but also to secure the
Bank of digital information for future monitoring program to the problem of
waste.
Have been identified the city of Kut to the application system (GIS) to facilitate
the provision of services and make the administration of municipal services more
easily in the handling and speed in the application to provide services to the
required level, you can apply the rules in the areas of municipal services (such as
solid waste management, determination of ownership, sort provinces and
distribution of clothing internal roads of the city, the establishment of public
parks, etc.), including the problem of solid waste management of the
environmental problems of hazardous and are difficult challenges at the level of
the country and the world have been selected in this research an essential service provided by the municipality and how to employ the Technology (GIS) to manage
it more flexible and effective traditional methods.

Effect of Some Organic and Chemical Materials on Some Engineering Properties of Soil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1057-1070

In this research the effect of adding the organic material was studied by
using (animal fertilizers) and the chemical material by using (compound of mixed
fertilizer) on the physical properties of the soil by studying ( Atterberk limits,
maximum dry unit weight) and mechanical properties ( unconfined compressive
strength, cohesion force, angle of internal friction and consolidation).
The study includes preparation of a number of disturbed samples, where the
soil was mixed with different percentages of organic and chemical materials
(0,2%,4%,6%) by water content equal to the optimum water content of the origin
soil used in order to study the effect of different percentages of adding materials
on the maximum unit weight . The study also includes the effect of time factor
where the tests are done in ages (0,1,7,30) days for organic and chemical soil samples prepared and covered in nylon pages perfectly closed until time of the
test referring above.
The results obtained from the tests refer to the large effect of organic and
chemical content on the engineering properties of the soil. It was noticed that for
different times of the test (0,1,7,30) days and for different percentage of organic
material (2-6%) increasing in the liquid limit, Plastic limit , angle of internal
friction and compression index(3-25%),(5-47%),(15-75%) ,(38-85%) respectively,
and percentage of increase range from (9-25%),(5-47%),(15-85%), (10-75%) by
adding percentage of chemical materials (2-6%) for testing time (1-30)days
respectively.
By noticing the testing time in ( 30 و 7و 1 ) days and by adding (2-6%) of
organic material were dropping by intense effect in specific gravity , bearing
capacity, cohesion and dry unit weight range from(3-33 ), (7-76%),(7- 0.5- )و(% 72
16%) respectively, while by adding (2-6%) of chemical materials, the dropping
was rang from (4-19% ),(21-61%),(21-62%)and ( 11-22%) for testing time
(1-30)days respectively.

Displacement in Architecture Applicatory study for Displacement in the Contemporary Arabic Architecture

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1071-1087

The architecture development track has been characterized with the carious
concepts and tendencies. Amongst these concepts is displacement, which occupies
its spatial as the day mission in the field of contemporary architecture. It plays a
vital and great roll in changing the architecture facts and keystones, and changes its
aims and characterizes its priorities. It is intensified in our architectural cultural
office, and takes its scope to submit itself as an important intellectual problem
requiring costuming more scientific efforts to identify its contexts, structures and
limits.
With the displacement identification, conceptual connections review, to
understand and analyze it to establish the general vision for displacement concept
in architecture researches and thesis's, which were not sufficient to what can be
taken from certain strategies, which could achieve communication between
contemporary Arabic architecture and displacement investment. Studies were
proposed, which handled different aspects related to the extraction of the research
pivot within various dimensions (international and domestic studies) to reach for
identification of the research problem represented by: ("scientific epistemic
ambiguity about the effect of displacement strategy upon forming the intention and
denotation in the sequence of contemporary Arabic architecture").

Study the Thermal Effect of Twin Spool on the Dynamic Response and Whirl Orbit Using the Combined Finite Element – Transfer Matrix Method

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1088-1120

A study of the thermal effect on the critical speed and on the distribution of both the lateral and axial vibrations along the Dual rotor – system are considered . Differal thermal distributions and their influence on the critical speed and on the distribution of lateral amounts of vibration (eign mode) are adopted .The rotating
system is assummed to be made of two coaxial rotor under the effect of
gyroscopic moments ; The bearings are represented by their linearized dynamic properties known as the stiffness and damping coefficients .The props that support the Dual rotor are modeled with elastic springs and dashpots ; The study is considered the effects of the thermal distribution on the Dual rotor system for constant temperarture of the two rotors linear distribution on the critical speeds of the two shafts , eigen mode (Deflection , Slope , Shear force , Bending moment)
and on the values of whirl orbit (major and minor axis , phase angle) .The combined Finite element – Transfer matrix (F.E.T.M) technique was implemented to idealized the mathematical model of the rotating system .This technique is convenient in computer programming .Another computer programs were developed in Fortran language and a program Matlab 6.5 and Ansys 11 to simplify the work and to embrace the theoretical analysis . From this research it has been found that the temperature affects the critical speeds and the distribution of the lateral amounts of vibration . The eigen mode (Deflection , Slope , Shear force ,
Bending moment) and the value of whirl orbit (major and minor axis , phase angle) depends on the thermal distribution , rank of the critical speed and values of the rotating speed of the dual shafts.

Ethanol Production From Mixed Sugars By Mixed Yeasts

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1121-1141

The study is aimed to improve ethanol production from mixed sugar
dependency on mixed culture of isolated lactose -fermenting yeasts and baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under optimum condition of (sugars concentration,pH. The study was included: Studying the effect of sugar concentration and pH value in working of each yeast through making expirements for Ethanol and Biomass production from different
concentrations of Individual sugars which constituents of Lactose sugar (Glucose and Galactose) by using Individual yeast(isolated from whey and S.cerevisiae) under different pH values and 35 °C for two days.
Studying the working mechanisms of Individual yeast in synthetic media through making expirments by using this yeast for ethanol and biomass production from different concentrations of mixture sugars of (glucose and galactose) in equal ratio to that constituent of lactose sugar and from different concentration of synthetic Lactose under optimum determined pH5,35°C for two days. Studying the working mechanisms of yeasts in mix-culture through making expirments by using these yeasts for ethanol and biomass production from different mixture sugar concentrations, and synthetic Lactose by using mixture of S.cerevisiae and each of isolated yeasts, mixture of S.cerevisiae and all isolated
yeasts, under same condisions. Obtained two Isolated yeast strains C.kyfer-T,and C.kyfer-S from crude whey. The optimum pH was pH5, S.cerevisiae significantly the best Ethanol and Biomass production from glucose, comparing with C.kyfer -T and C.kyfer-S, wich were the best in ethanol and biomass production from galactose, and C.kyfer-T was the best producer than C.kyfer-S. There are significantly increasing in ethanol production and significantly decreasing in biomass production from mixture , and significantly increasing in ethanol and biomass production from synthetic lactose , when using mix-culture of two C.kyfer (T-S) , co-culture of S.cerevisiae and each isolated yeast (C.kyfer )., mix-culture of ( S.cerevisiae, C.kyfer –T) produce(8.7)% ethanol from (10)% mixture, mix-culture of,( C.kyfer-S, C.kyfer –T) produced (4.6)% ethanol from(8)% synthetic lactose. There is significantly decreasing in ethanol and biomass production from mixture
when using mix-culture of (S.cerevisiae + C.kyfer –T + C.kyfer-S) than using mix-culture of(S.cerevisiae + C.kyfer) and mix-culture of (C.kyfer –T + C.kyfer – S).

Some Negative Effects of Wastewater on Clayey Soil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1142-1155

This study deals with the effect of wastewater on some physical, chemical and
consolidation properties of clayey soil and investigates the effect of wastewater flow
beneath buildings’ and structures’ foundations due to; breaking of wastewater pipes,
the permeation of sewage water in to the soil, or its flow on the land that hasn’t been
constructed yet.
Soil samples have been taken from the University of Technology site at a depth (1–
1.5) m and the preparation of samples were in two manners: the first by taking
undisturbed samples which have been flooded with wastewater that allowed to
permeation and flow through soil sample, the second, by taking disturbed samples
saturated with wastewater to ferment.
The soil that used in this study was silty clay with low plasticity (CL-ML) and the
result of this study which lasted for (10) months showed an increase in the chlorides and sulphates ions during the first months and then decreased, it has been noticed an
increase in the concentration of carbonates ions along the period of study and an
increase in organic matter due to wastewater nature.
The results of soil- wastewater interaction showed an increase in liquid limit, plastic
limit and plasticity index for both undisturbed and disturbed samples and the specific
gravity of soil decreased due to wastewater chemical contents. The void ratio has been
increased and preconsolidation pressure decreased which may be attributed to the
dissolution of soluble salts and the influence of carbonate bonding that may be broken
when subjected to load. Also, the results showed an increment in the ability of soil to
be compressed when soil compression index (Cc) increased and soil swelling index (Cr)
increased, too.

Complexity in The fragmental City

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 22, Pages 1156-1171

physically; as well as presenting the relation between physical complexity and
social complexity whether the complexity is declared or hidden.
The relation of complexity and fragmental city becomes clear generally through
dealing in the city meaning and especially in the fragmental city. Fragment
terminology has been shown in lingual manner and architecturally in addition to
the concentration of fragment distance andshowing the previous universal and
local definitions of fragmental city that leads the searcher to the exit point by
defining specifically in chapter one of this search the fragmental city
particularly and stands on the fragmental mechanisms, styles, generation methods,
important properties, and fragmental linear and nonlinear concepts. The search
browses the previous studies that deal with fragmental city concept so that the
problem of search (Absence of obvious and scientific concept about complexity
role in fragmental city as one of fundamental properties configuring the structure
of fragmental cities) has been determined where summary and conclusions are
provided.
as a theoretical and conceptual frame concentrating on the complexity which is
one of the important fundamentals of fragmental cities. The complexity has been
browsed through its role in the fragmental city as a main structure of search where
a browsing for its meaning in lingual manner and architecturally, its important
properties, its role in architectonic generally and urban environment particularly in
order to get the complexity's indications. The indications of complexity will be
adopted in the practical part of search and measured to see the role of complexity
in the fragmental city and to determine the particular problem of search (absence
of obvious concept of the relation of complexity with ingredients for fragmental
city according to its favorite grade and level.then selection and analysis of region
that represents the practical part of search where the particular indications of
complexity for fragmental city have been measured depending on the observation
study on Al-Adamiya city by searcher. This leads to the recommendations and
conclusions that refer to the presence a quantity of complexity presented at a
favorite level in the old structures more than in the modern structures in other
words that refers to the presence of complexity role in the fragmental city.