Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 23,

Issue 23

Optimal Size and Location of Distributed Generators using Intelligent Techniques

Rashid H. Al-Rubayi; AzharM. Alrawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6623-6633

One of the modern and important techniques in electrical distribution
systems is to solve the networks problem of service availability, high loss and low voltage stability by accommodating small scaled de-centralized generating units in these networks, which is known as distributed generation (DG). The Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is dedicated in this work to find the optimal DG locations, and then optimally allocate units in order to maximize the penetration
level, minimize loss, and improve voltage stability

Hydroforming of High Purity Copper Sheet To Produce Different Shapes

Adnan IbrahimMohammed; Mahdi Muter Hanoon; Abbas Abudallah Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6634-6641

The present research is focused on experimental results and theoretical
analysis of sheet hydronning of high purity copper with circular and square shapes under the biaxial stresses. It has been found that the displacement in the circular shape specimens is more than of the square shape specimens at the same area of deformation. However, at the same time. The plastic deformation equivalent at the specimens for the circular shape is more than of the square shape specimens at the same strain equivalent. The thinning of the sheets at the pole for the circular shape specimens is less than that of the square shape
specimens. This will lead to improve the performance of the circular shape product.

Spectral Characteristics of Cholesterol in Blood by Using Simple Semiconductor Laser

Abdul Rahman Rashid Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6642-6648

In the present work, the possibility of using laser to analyze and find the concentration of total cholesterol (TC) in serum. Semiconductor laser diode of 5mW maximum power, 532nm wavelength and 4nm bandwidth is used to accomplish assay measurements. The spectral plot showed that the maximum absorbance of cholesterol is at the range (470-540nm) and the peak of spectral absorbance centers at 500nm.The laser system measurements include the study of absorbance as a function of both laser power and sample thickness, as well as the transmittance as a function of Laser power. To ascertain our calculations, the results have been compared with the results of spectrophotometer. The RSD values between them are about (1.7-9.8).

Reducing Settlement of Soft Soils Using Local Materials

Mohammed A. Mahmoud Al-Neami

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6649-6661

The present work investigates the settlement behaviour of weak soils which cover the middle and southern part of Iraq. Physical and chemical properties were studied for weak soil brought up from Baladroz city, Dyalah Governorate. To decrease the excessive settlement of soft soil under study, reed materials which are widespread at Iraq marshes and geogrid materials were selected as reinforcement materials. For this purpose, steel container with dimensions (500 ×250 ×20 mm)
and square footing (80 × 80 mm) were used.To prepare the soil with same
properties of soft soils, the quantity of water was calculated using the liquidity index formula with LI equal to (0.42) corresponding to undrained shear strength of (10 kPa). This value of liquidity index was chosen according to the previous studies which showed that the liquidity index of such soil is ranging between (0.2 – 0.5).
The results of soil model under the applied stress (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kPa) marked that the maximum settlement reduction (S/B) is get when the reed mat or geogrid mat is used directly under the footing and this value decreases with increase of the distance between the surface layer and position of the reinforcement. Also, the settlement improvement (St/Sunt) can be clearly seemed for all cases of improvement compared with settlement of untreated soil It is worth noting, that to achieve the durability of the reed in the soil, asphalt coating must be used to prevent the reed decay.

Image Watermarking Using DWT_DCT

Bassim Abdulbaki Jumaa; Arwa Aladdin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6662-6675

Digital watermarking has been developed to protect digital images from
illegal manipulation. Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are techniques used for digital watermarking. A combination of DWT and DCT techniques are used in this paper to meet imperceptibility, robustness and security requirements. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Bit Correct Ratio (BCR) measurements are used to study the effect of parameters: gain factor, threshold value, sub band, and image size on the watermark image. Many images are used to
embed the watermark image and the effects of parameters on the extracted
watermark image are studied. Then the optimal parameter values has been

Evaluating Probabilities of Technical And Commercial Success And Using Them In Screening New Product Ideas

Abdulamir Bektash Wali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6676-6687

The screening of new product ideas is perhaps the most critical activity in innovation process and development of new products, the process is associated with uncertainty and complexity.
Probabilities of technical & commercial success which represents uncertainty associated with R & D projects are used in evaluating project index models and some expected benefit/cost ratios. These probabilities were usually subjective expectations
of R & D teams. This paper based on a hypothesis that the success of new products in the market is due to the acceptablevalues of probabilities of technical & commercial success in screening stage.
The purpose of this paper is concerned with introducing a modified method for evaluating probabilities of technical & commercial success of new product ideas, using average weighted scoring method instead of inaccurate subjective expectations, after developing a set of suitable criteria for evaluation of each probability as an effort
for getting unique estimations of probabilities of success, then using them in screening of new product ideas, and also can be used in project index models and other expected benefit/cost ratios. The utility of the approach in screening of new product ideas in an industrial organization was illustrated in a hypothetical example.

Effect of Addition Of Copper and Copper –Nickel Elements on Structure and Properties of Low Carbon Steels

Munthir Mohammed Radhy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6688-6702

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of adding different amounts
(2, 4, 6% of Cu) on properties and microstructure of low carbon steel .Also study
the effect of the same amounts of Cu with half amount of Ni(1,2,3%Ni) are added
on properties of low carbon steels. All these alloys(Fe-Cu,Fe-Cu-Ni) appear an
increase of hardness and strength with increase of the amount of Cu or Cu-Ni. The
microstructure obtained after heat treated(quenched and aging) of Fe-Cu and Fe-
Cu-Ni alloys has been studied by optical microscopy, investigated by X-ray
diffraction and hardness measurement. The microstructures obtained after
quenching depending on composition and cooling rate, the massive ferrite and
massive martensite appears on most of structures in above alloys. The
microstructure after aging of above alloys shown some of precipitates appear as
dash plates, rod and spheres in ferrite or martensite structure and this precipitates
appear as X-ray diffraction were identified the copper rich phase €.

Role of Testosteronthiosemicarbazone as an Antibacterial Agent

Abbas A. Al-Janabi; Suhad A. Ahmed; Huda A. Hussein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6703-6708

A ligand of testosteronthiosemicarbazone was prepared, the chemical
characteristics of this ligand are: yellow powder, soluble in alcohol and its melting point is 100 – 102 °C. The sensitivity of some species of pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus feacalis to different concentrations of prepared
testosteronthiosemicarbazone (0.05 g/ml, 0.1 g/ml, 0.25 g/ml, 0.5 g/ml, and 1 g/ml) was tested to find out the role of testosteronthiosemicarbazone as an antibacterial agent.
The experimental results of bacterial sensitivity to different concentrations of testosteronthiosemicarbazone, showed a significant sensitivity of all tested bacteria to this ligand at concentration starting from 0.5 g/ml, to 1 g/ml except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus feacalis which they exhibited their significant sensitivity to the ligand at concentration starting from 0.25 g/ml, and 1 g/ml respectively.

Effect of Diffusion Bonding on Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Alloy AA 7020-O

Adnan N. Abood; Moneer H. Tolephih; Esam J. Ebraheam

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6709-6717

The aim of this research is to study the fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy
AA7020-O joining by diffusion welding with simple self pressurizing fixture in
muffle furnace. This alloy was bonded by using different variables; pressure,
temperature and time. The maximum shear strength of diffusion bonded was 76
MPa at pressure 15 MPa, 500 ºC and 20 min. The moderate shear strength was due
to the presence of small amount of Mg (1%) which acts as deoxidizer element and
allows the atoms to cross the interface. New intermetallic compounds;
All3Mg3Zn3, Al18Mg3Cr2 were formed during diffusion and Al3Zr was
disappeared. Diffusivity (D), average depth of diffusion and activation energy (Q)
was calculated from the depletion area and they were 3.1 × 10 -9 cm2 / sec, 19.3μm
and 2062 KJ/Kg respectively. From the S/N curve of fatigue test, the life of the
bonded specimens were less about 60 to 70% comparing with unbounded
specimens. The fatigue strength for AA7020-O is equal to 77 MPa at 107 cycles,
while the fatigue strength reduces to 29 MPa at 107 cycles for diffusion specimens.
So, diffusion interface can be considered asa notch and the crack initiation stage
has been achieved and the failure of the diffusion specimens started from the
propagation stage.

Limitation of Laser Satellite Communication Due To Vibrations and Atmospheric Turbulences

Tarq A.Mohhmad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6718-6731

In this research, we analyze the effects of vibrations and the atmospheric on
turbulence for a broadband laser satellite down link (BLSDL). The use of optical
radiation as a carrier between satellites and in satellite-to-ground links enables
transmission using very narrow beam divergence angles. Due to the narrow beam
divergence angle and the large distance between the satellite and the ground
station or any object the pointing is a complicated process. Further complication
results from vibration of the pointing system caused by fundamental mezchanisms
: tracking noise created by the electro-optic tracker and vibrations caused by
internal satellite mechanical mechanisms. Additionally an in homogeneity in the
temperature and pressure of the atmosphere leads to variations of the refractive
index along the transmission path. These variations of refractive index as well as
introducing other external noise, pointing vibrations, can cause fluctuations in the
intensity and the phase of the received signal leading to an increase in link error
probability. In this research, we develop a bit error probability (BEP) model that
takes into account both pointing vibrations and turbulence-induced high amplitude
fluctuations (i.e., signal intensity fading) in a regime in which the receiver
aperture antenna (Do) is smaller than the turbulence coherence diameter (do), the
results indicate that the satellite broad band laser down link with the receiver can
achieve a BEP of 10-9 and data rate of lGbps with normalized pointing vibration of
and turbulence with
After reducing these limitation of laser satellites and compensates
relatively most atmospheric error probabilities due to atmospheric turbaulences
(BEPS) or variation of refractive index by using for ward feeding under fine
tracking which designed to decrease the residual jitter influencies or by using
directional laser beam or introducing feeding forward compensation method and
adaptive techniques to reduce the effect of system vibrations [12].

The Effect of Solid on the Homogenous- Heterogeneous Transition Region in Baffled and Unbaffled Bubble Column with Non-Newtonian Liquid

Asawer A. Alwasiti; Farah T. Alsudany; Shrooq T. Alhemeri

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6732-6749

This research shows a comprehensive study on the effect of solid loading
and non-Newtonian liquid on the hydrodynamic parameter of gas holdup as well
as the critical values of gas holdup and gas velocity of transition zone from
homogenous to heterogeneous region in both baffled and unbaffled babble
The experiments were carried out using column of 15cm inside diameter and 2m
height with aspect ratio (L/D=4.5) using perforated plate gas sparger 54 holes with
size equal to 1mm diameter and with free area of holes to cross sectional area of
column 0.24.
The three phase system consists of air-non Newtonian liquid of polyacrilamined
(PAA) –solid of alumina particles. The measured values of gas holdup and
transition points of gas holdup and gas velocity were compared with different
values of PAA concentration (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1)wt% and four values of solid
loading (0, 3, 5 and 11)wt% in baffled and unbaffled column.
The results show that the transition values of gas holdup and gas velocity
decreased with increasing of PAA concentration under constant values of
Newtonian liquid while they dis approved with non-Newtonian liquid.
The solid loading shows an unstable influence of decreasing and increasing of the
critical values in all PAA concentration and in both baffled and unbaffled column.
First, these values decreased when solid loading in the range (0-3)wt% then they
increased with increasing of solid loading from 3wt% to 11wt%.

Design and Implementation of A Fpga Based Software Defined Radio Using Simulink HDL Coder

Hikmat N. Abdullah; Hussein A. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6750-6768

This paper presents the design procedure and implementation results of a
proposed software defined radio (SDR) using Altera Cyclone II family board. The
implementation uses Matlab/SimulinkTM, Embedded MatlabTM blocks, and Cyclone II
development and educational board. The design is first implemented in
Matlab/SimulinkTM environment. It is then converted to VHDL level using Simulink
HDL coder. The design is synthesized and fitted with Quartus II 9.0 Web Edition®
software, and downloaded to Altera Cyclone II board. The results show that it is easy
to develop and understand the implementation of SDR using programmable logic
tools. The paper also presents an efficient design flow of the procedure followed to
obtain VHDL netlists that can be downloaded to FPGA boards

Effect of the Composite Material of the Car's Bumper on its Fundamental Natural Frequency and Response As A Result of Car Vibration

Ruaa Yaseen Hammoudi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6768-6784

Effect of vibration on the car's bumper was studied in this paper.
Composite materials are used in manufacturing the car's bumper. The methods that
used in this investigation are Rayleigh's formula for lumped masses in addition to
super position method and the mixture rule. By using these techniques it can be
found the natural frequencies, mode shapes and deflection for the car's bumper.
Different matrix material (resin), fibers and volume fraction are used in this
investigation. MATLAB program are built in this study. The results of this
program are compared with the results of the ANSYS 11 program. The
comparisons show good agreement.

Comparison Between Adaptive Fuzzy and PID Fuzzy Automotive Engine Controllers in Idle Speed Mode

Mohammed Y. Hassan; Saba T. Al -Wais

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6785-6800

Automatic control of automotive engines provides benefits in the engines
performance like emission reduction, fuel economy and drivability. To ensure better
achievement of these requirements the engine is equipped with an electronic control
unit (ECU) that is a microprocessor based system. This control unit continually
monitors the engine state using several sensors and selects better control actions to
achieve what is demanded from an engine under different defined operating modes.
One of the most important modes in automotive engines is the idle speed mode. Due
to high dropping in the rotational speed in the presence of load torque and disturbance,
which may lead to engine stalling, the ECU has to keep the engine speed at the
reference idling speed.
In this paper, The problem of maintaining the engine idle speed at a reference
value with minimum overshoot, minimum undershoot, minimum settling time and
minimum steady state error with the presence of load is studied. A Self Tuning
adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller (ST-FLC) is designed to solve this problem.
Comparisons between fuzzy controller and adaptive fuzzy controller are made.
Simulation results of this adaptive fuzzy controller show good improvement over the
PID fuzzy controller in the idle speed response.
All simulations are carried out using MATLAB software. Simulink is used in
the simulation, which comprises system model, controllers design and

B-Spline Functions for Solving nth Order Linear Delay Integro- Differential Equations of Convolution Type

Raghad Kadhim Salih; Atheer Jawad Kadhim; Fuad A. Al-Heety

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6801-6813

The paper is devoted to solve nth order linear delay integro-differential
equations of convolution type (DIDE's-CT) using Galerkin's method with B-spline
functions. A new algorithm with the aid of Matlab language is derived to treat
three types (retarded, neutral and mixed) of nth order linear DIDE's-CT using
Galerkin's method with the aid of B-spline functions and Bool rule for calculating
the required integrals for the proposed method where the procedure can be used
comparatively greater computational efficiency. Comparison between approximate
and exact results has been given in test examples for solving three types of linear
DIDE's-CT of different orders for conciliated the accuracy of the approximate
results. Finally, the results are arranged in tabulated form and suitable graphing is
given for every example.

Damping of Power System Oscillations by Using Coordinated Control of PSS and STATCOM Devices

Rashid H. Al- Rubayi; Inaam Ibrahim Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 6814-6830

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the power system stability enhancement via coordinated control of PSS and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based controllers. Also, investigate the effectiveness and dynamic interaction of STATCOM controllers in damping system oscillation. Proposed optimal pole shifting technique to design damping controller of excitation system (PSS) and STATCOM based
controller. The method is based on modern control theory for multi-input and multi-output system. Several control schemes are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes in improving the power system is verified through eigenvalues and time domain simulations under nominal loading conditions. The analysis of cases under study show that, the STATCOM – based controller has good effect on improving system damping and the coordinated control of PSS and STATCOM – based controller provide the best means for
stabilizing power system, more damping with less control effort than individual control

Study the Effect of Welding on Tensile and Hardness Properties for Carbon- Steel by Using Arc Welding &Tig Welding

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 1171-1183

Welding is one of important industrial processes, Therefore many techniques are development to get an efficient and low cost welding for different kind of materials. This research is compared between two technique procedures of welding , (Arc welding ) & (Tig welding )for a specimen from low carbon steel, The mechanical tests like tensile and hardness are measured and taking a microstructure pictures ,We found that for the max strength in (Arc welding) is greater than unwelded specimen by (22.5%) , and for (Tig welding) it is smaller
by (7.5%),The high value of hardness in (Arc welding) is (200 HV) and high value in (Tig welding) is (255 HV) .

Microstructure and Wear Rate of Yttria Reinforced Aluminum – Silicon Matrix Composites

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 1184-1195

In this research, composite materials of hypereutectic aluminum – silicon as a matrix reinforced with different volume fractions (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) of Yttria particles with grain size between (50 - 75 μm) are prepared. The composites are prepared by vortex technique in which the particles were added to the melt then mixing it by mechanical stirrer then the mixture is poured in a metallic cylindrical molds. After that, the microstructure, Vickers hardness and wear rate were conducted. The results showed the existence of the reinforcement particles in
different amounts in the microstructure and an increase in the hardness for the prepared composites when compared with the unreinforced alloy. The results also showed a better particles distribution and higher hardness with increasing yttria volume fraction. The wear rate of the composites is reduced when compared with the unreinforced alloy due to the hardness increase. More reduction in wear rate was noticed with increasing the Yttria volume fraction, and the better added percent was (8%Y2O3).

Study of the Factors Affecting the Properties of the Tin Powder Produced by the Method of Centrifugal Atomization

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 1196-1210

The research includes a study for the variables of the process of centrifugal
atomization for the purpose of producing pure tin metal powder and the effect of
these variables in the properties of the resulting powder. These variables are:
1. The speed of rotation in the rotating part.
2. The medium of cooling.
3. The temperature of medium of cooling.
The affect of these above variables were observed on the size and the shape of
particles resulting and the particle distribution, the apparent density, tap density and
the angle of repose.
Upon the use of three different speeds (2000, 6000, 10000) (rpm) on the each at a
time for the rotating of the hollow bowl and the use of water at the room temperature.
It was noticed that when increasing of revolution speed, there is no change in the
shapes of particles i.e. the wide extent of shapes remain irregular, acicular and
semispherical, and that the weight percentage of the small particles increases. Also,
the value of the apparent density and the tap density increases while the angle of
repose decreases.
It was also observed that at the use of air and water separately at the room
temperature as cooling media and disintegration the fused droplets of tin metal out of
the hollow bowl at rotation speed of (10000) rpm. Moreover, we can notice that the
weight percentage of the small particles increases as well as the value of the apparent
density and tap density, while the value of the repose angle decreases , and the
absence of any change in the shape of the particles when using water as a medium of
cooling , compare with air . A great range of irregular, acicular and semispherical
shapes are also obtained.
Water of different temperatures
({40-50}, {60-70}, {80-90})◦ C were was used as a cooling medium and for the
disintegrating of the droplets of the tin metal from the hollow bowl at rotation speed
of (10000) rpm, and the formation of powder of different sizes and shapes. Also, the
tendency of the particles towards regularity of shape and the spherical shape clearly
with the decrease of the weight percentage of the small particles , and the value of
apparent density and the tap density increase and the value of the angle of repose
decreases at the increase of the temperature of water cooling medium.

Effect of Initial Pressure upon Laminar Burning Velocity of Propane -Air Mixture

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 23, Pages 1211-1220

The effect of the initial pressure upon the laminar flame speed, for a
Propane-air mixture, has been detected practically, for a wide range of
equivalence ratio. Measurement system is designed in order to measure the laminar flame speed using a constant volume method with thermocouples technique. The laminar burning velocity is measured, by using the density ratio method. The comparison of the present work results with a previous ones show good agreement between them, which indicates that the measurements and the calculations employed in the present work are successful and precise.