Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 28, Issue 24

Volume 28, Issue 24, December 2010, Page 1221-7068

Calibrating the Discharge Coefficient of Semicircular Crested Weir

Mohammed Sharif Abdul-Mohsen; Thabet M. Abdul-latif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6831-6844

This study deals with the evaluation of discharge coefficient of semicircle crested weir extending across the full width of the channel (suppressed).It is stable over flow pattern, easy to pass floating debris, and has large coefficient of discharge. Data obtained from laboratory experiments provide information on head – discharge relationship for three models with different radius of curvature.
Each model has an empirical head- discharge equation. The momentum equation is applied to derive discharge per unit width. The predicted values of discharge coefficient for the proposed models based on direct discharge measurement & the derived discharge equation. The proper application of this study is an equation show that the discharge coefficient is proportional with upstream head above weir crest & inversely with the radius of curvature.

MIMO Antenna System Using Orthogonally Polarized Ultra Wide Band Antennas With Metamaterial

Jamal M.Rasool

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6845-6853

Modern wireless communications require wide band width resulting in an
increased demand for Ultra-Wide Bandwidth antennas. This paper proposes a design for a compact, ultra wide bandwidth antenna with metamaterial. It will be small in size and utilize the best performance of spaced array with a good correlation between the antennas. The antennas are designed with metamaterial structures embedded in substrate. Using the size reduction of double the existing type of antennas, the proposed
model exhibits the best in radiation bandwidth, mutual coupling, radiation pattern, return losses, cover UWB frequency range very well in (3.1-10.6)GHz and polarization with a good Isolation of more than 22dB .

Solving Linear and Non-Linear Eight Order Boundary Value Problems by Three Numerical Methods

Anwar Ja; afar Mohammad-Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6854-6871

Three numerical methods were implemented for solving the eight-order
boundary value problems. These methods are Differential transformation method, Homotopy perturbation method, and Rung-Kutta of 4th Order method. Two physical problems from the literature were solved by these methods for comparing results. Solutions were presented in Tables and figures. The differential transformation method shows an effective numerical solution to linear boundary value problems. This considers an important contribution in solving boundary value problems by the differential transformation method.

Influence of Cutter Width on Surface Roughness and Cutter Run Out During Horizontal Milling Operation

Saad Kareem Sather; Mohammad Naeem Houshi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6872-6887

This work focuses on studying the effect of cutter width on the surface roughness and cutter run out during horizontal milling operation, since the contact width in milling operations depends on the cutter geometry, especially (cutter diameter and width). So, three types of helical plain cutters with different widths are taken, (40,63,80mm), used in horizontal milling , when other cutter geometry parameters are
constant. As for workpiece material, it was from (structural steel (1.0402)) according to (DIN:C22) specifications, with different cutting conditions (spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) for each cutter, results show that milling cutter, which has larger width (80mm), gives large surface roughness and cutter runout compared with
other two types. The results show that the surface roughness and cutter runout decrease with the increase of spindle speed under constant feed rate and depth of cut. While surface roughness and cutter runout increase with increase of feed rate for constant spindle speed and depth of cut .Both the results of fixing spindle speed and
feed rate with changing depth of cut show that surface roughness and cutter runout increase with the increase of depth of cut .In addition, cutter runout has a large effect on the surface roughness because it causes an increase in surface roughness of workpiece. Also surface roughness decreases at cutter (80mm width) which causes larger surface roughness than cutters (63mm and 40mm width),. For certain machining parameter as the spindle speed increases from (100 to 210 rpm), feed rate (35 mm/min) and depth of cut (0.1mm), the surface roughness value decreases from (1.61333 to 1.418333) μm at cutter (80mm width.) .When the cutter (63mm width) is used, the surface roughness decreases from (1.5222 to 1.3182) μm , and at cutter (40mm width) the surface roughness decreases from (1.4111 to 1.212) μm. Also in this study, multiple linear regression model is used within (SPSS) software to predict the experimental data for each surface roughness and cutter runout for different three cutters and results show from comparing between predicted and measured values that (SPSS) software gives high prediction accurate .

The Effect of Iron Addition on the Dry Sliding Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Cu Al Ni Shape Memory Alloy

Abdul Raheem . K. Abid Ali; Zuheir T. Khulief.Al-Tai

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6888-6902

In this paper, dry sliding wear and corrosion behavior of Cu + 13wt% Al + 3.8 wt% Ni was prepared by powder metallurgy. Dry sliding wear has been studied based on pin on disk at constant velocity and constant sliding distance .Corrosion behavior in 5 wt% NaOH solution based up on potentiostatic ( Tafel ) has been presented for base shape memory alloy ( Cu + 13% Al + 3.8 % Ni ) in two cases austenitic and martensitic phase state . Further more , the effect of Fe additions as ( 0.4 , 0.8 and 1.2 wt% ) on the sliding wear and corrosion behavior of
base alloy has also been studied .It is clear that Cu Al Ni shape memory alloy in martensitic state has more wear resistance than in austenitic structure . Also , corrosion resistances are better than in martensitic structure because the alloy has corrosion current density as 336.45 μA/cm2 in martansitic where as the corrosion current density is 633.62 μA/cm2 in austenitic structure . Further more , when the
iron content increases , wear and corrosion rate increase too .

Enameling And Study Corrosion Behavior To Low Carbon Steel

Ali Mezher Resen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6903-6914

This study includes enameling and study corrosion behavior of low carbon steel
(carbon continent =0.11%) in different types of corrosive media like the H2SO4, HCL
and NaOH both acidic solution (H2SO4, HCL) has PH= 2 with resistance acid solution
enameling and alkaline solution (NaOH) have PH= 12 with resistance alkaline
solution enameling. enameling process includes preparing and applying of frit by
ground coat method.
The corrosion rate calculated using weight loss method at temperature range (30, 40,
60, 90)oC for acidic and (30, 40, 50, 60) oC for alkaline solution. The results indicate
that corrosion rate increase with time and temperature for both H2SO4 and HCL
solution, while corrosion rate for NaOH solution decreases with time due to the
formation of unsolvable compounds on sample surface. These compounds may caused
insulation laminar reduced corrosion rate, while corrosion rate increases with
temperature because distortion of this layer.

Accuracy Assessment of Srtm-Dem Using GpsMeasurments and Gis Techniques

Ahmed Dhahir Athab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6915-6928

Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has created datasets of global
elevations that is freely available for modeling and environmental applications. The
global availability (almost 80% of the Earth surface) of SRTM data provides
baseline information for geospatial applications such as mapping, hydrology,
navigation, GIS applications, and reconnaissance. Assessment of the accuracy of
SRTM requires regional studies involving points with known elevations at higher
level of precision than the SRTM, usually measured with Global Positioning
System (GPS).
This study based on datasets collected with a differential GPS system in different
locations in Iraq. These measurements were corrected with differential methods to
reach to sub – centimeter accuracy. Statistical analysis included estimation of
absolute errors by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Standard Deviation (SD).
RMSE was found as (5.15m) for Iraq and the SD was (3.93). This is higher than
the standard SRTM-DEM accuracy which is (16m)

Single Link Robot Arm Trajectory Following Using Model Reference Adaptive Control Algorithm

Nihad Mohammed Ameen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6929-6936

Robust adaptive tracking control algorithm is proposed in this paper for single link robot arm position control. A model reference adaptive control algorithm is applied to control the angular position of the robot arm by tuning the parameters of the controller. Each parameter of the adaptive controller tuned separately then the controller will reflect the parameters to follow the reference model. The control algorithm was thoroughly tested using the dynamic system modeling
package MatlabSimulink. Comparing with adaptive neural network controller, this technique can provide better angular position control for variable load applications.

Electromagnetic Interference Caused by Iraqi 400kV Transmission Lines on Buried Oil Pipelines

Suad I. Shahl

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6937-6953

The electromagnetic interference caused by power transmission lines to oil and gas buried pipelines is under investigation for many years. Especially during fault conditions, large currents and voltages are induced on the pipelines that may pose danger to working personnel or may accelerate the corrosion of the pipelin’es metal. In this research, the Joule effect of eddy currents induced in the oil buried
pipelines due to the magnetic fields produced by nearby 400kV transmission lines in the South of Iraq have been computed. A computational model based on 2D finite element approach to calculate the heat generation rate. The influence of different earth resistivities for homogeneous earth model during steady state and
fault conditions is analyzed. A mitigation system using mitigation wires has been simulated to reduce induced eddy current heating effects to the safety limit.

Effect of Baffles on Homogenous-Heterogeneous Regime In Two Phase Bubble Column With Non-Newtonian Liquid

Asawer A. Alwasiti; Farah T. Alsudany; Ali Raad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6954-6969

This work presents a comparison of the flow region in baffled and unbaffled bubble columns with Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The experiments were carried out in column of 15 cm inside diameter and 2m height with aspect ratio (L/D=4.5), using perforated plate gas sparger, 54 holes of 1mm diameter, and with free area of holes to cross sectional diameter of vessel 0.24. The two phase system consists of air and non Newtonian liquid of polyacrylamide (PAA). The gas holdup was measured and the transition point from homogenous to heterogeneous region was calculated under different concentrations of PAA (0,
0.01, 0.05, and 0.1)wt% in baffled and unbaffled columns. The results show that the measured values of gas holdup are increased in the presences of baffles in homogenous region, while, they decrease in heterogeneous region. The transition points of gas holdup and superficial gas velocity were estimated from drift flux plot. It was concluded that they were decreased with increasing viscosity and increased in the presence of baffles.

Development of Three - Layer Composite Steel - Concrete - Steel Beam Element with Applications

Jamal A. Farhan; Hussain M. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6970-6985

In this study, a general linear one-dimensional finite element beam model is developed for the analysis of the three layer composite steel- concrete- steel beams which are a special case of the multi-layer
Connectors, concrete layer thickness, plate thickness, type of loading and concrete compressive strength composite beams. The model is based on partial interaction theory of composite beams where the flexibility of shear connectors is allowed. A program is constructed using VISUAL BASIC language to analyze this type of beams. Numerical applications are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the present method. A parametric study is carried out to demonstrate the effect of some parameters including the variation of shear stiffness of shear on the behaviour of three-layer composite beams. The results of
the proposed programmed model shows a good agreement with those obtained by finite elements method using ANSYS program (Release 11, 2007. The models used in ANSYS program are shell element, brick element and combine element to simulate the behaviour of steel plates, concrete part and shear connectors respectively

Design Aspects in Photonic Crystal –Vertical Cavity Surface- Emitting Lasers Diode

Thaira Zakaria Al-Tayyar; Raad Sami Fyath

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6986-6994

The design issues for a current injection vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) operating at 1550 nm is presented using photonic crystal (PC) technology. The design is based on PC slab containing multihole rings with a single defect is introduced at the center which acts as a waveguiding core.

Developing Backtracking Algorithm to Find the Optimal Solution Path

Suhad M. Kadhum; a A. Abdul-Jabbar; Isra

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 6995-7003

There are numerous search methods in A.I used to find the solution path to a subjected problem, but many of them return one solution path with no consider it is the optimal or not. The aim of this work is to find a direct path from the start state to the goal state such that it is the shortest path with minimum cost (the optimal solution path). We develop the backtracking algorithm in order to find the optimal solution
path, such that all possible paths of the problem that expected to contain the optimal solution path can be checked, also we use a heuristic function depends on the actual cost of transition from one state to another. And in order to reduce the search time we discard any path that it is not useful in finding the optimal solution path.
The proposed algorithm was implemented using visual prolog 5.1 and tested on tree diagram and the result was good in finding the optimal solution path (with efficient search time equivalent to O(bd/2) and space complexity O(bd) in worst cases).

Breit Interaction And Radiative QED Corrections In Carbon Isoelectronic Sequence and in The Atoms 1 <= Z <= 104

Adnan Yousif Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7004-7010

The multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock MCDF wavefunctions has been employed to calculate the energy contributions of the Breit interaction and radiative quantum electrodynamics QED corrections to the ground state energy level for the carbon isoelectronic sequence and for elements 1 <= Z <= 104 in the periodic table. These corrections are treated pertubatively.

Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Vibration Characteristics of a Combined Composite Cylindrical-Conical Shell Structure

Muhsin J. Jweeg; Adnan D. Mohammed; Mohsin A.Alshamari

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7011-7026

In this work, the effect of variation of several variables on linear free and transient vibration response of combined cylindrical-conical shell is presented. The shell is made of polyester resin reinforced by a continuous type E-glass. The problem is solved experimentally and numerically for both orthotropic and isotropic shell structures. Clamped – free boundary conditions is used for the analyzed structure. The experimental program is conducted using digital oscilloscope with built-in FFT analyzer with aid of hammer transducer. Software named SIGVIEW was used to calculate the natural frequencies experimentally for
each specimen. The numerical investigation is adopted using ANSYS Finite
Element software to verify the experimental results which show how the natural frequencies and mode shapes are affected by changing these variables. The results show that this investigation will assist the study for the advanced development of the cross-ply laminated composite coupled shell structures

Proposed Hybrid-Encryption System for Multicast Network

Mohammad Natiq Fadhil Ibraheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7027-7036

In this paper the proposed method based on two encrypted algorithms (Public key, and Block cipher) at the same time, it allowed a sender to encrypt the multicast packet and forward it into the packet network on the optimal distribution tree. The packet may be replicated at the optimal locations in the network and delivered to all the receivers. The receivers are capable of decrypting the packet and forwarding the
packet in the secure network environment. The sender must encrypt packets using a shared key that all the legitimate receivers use to decrypt thepackets. The security of the system is based on the ability to control the distribution of the keys only to those legitimate receivers.

Household Behavior on Solid Waste Management A Case of Al-Kut City

Abbas H. Sulaymon; Jathwa A. Ibraheem; Bassim H. Graimed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7037-7046

This paper investigates the household behavior of Al-Kut City residents
towards solid waste management. The paper is the outcome of a house to house survey of 560 households per week; the sampling program was based on Random Uniform Sampling for seven months period (January to July 2009), covering different parts of the city. Samples were collected and analyzed periodically. Solid waste generation and composition in Al-Kut City (like other countries) is typically affected by population growth, urbanization, and improved economic conditions. The daily per capita waste generation in Al-Kut is 0.53 kg which is lower in the low- economic level zone in the city than in other zones. Among the total waste generated in Al-Kut City, 70.38% is food waste, 4.19% plastic waste, 2.44% metal waste, 2.32% glass waste, 3.36% paper waste, 6.75% textile waste, while the remaining percentages represents miscellaneous combustible and non combustible materials. Quantity and composition were measured in order to be used in a new MSW management plan.

Solving the Boundary Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equation 4th order using RK4 and RK-Butcher Techniques

afar Mohamed; Jawad; Anwar Ja

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7047-7057

The two-point boundary value problems for the 4th order ordinary
differential equations with a positive coefficient multiplying at least one of derivative terms are solved with two numerical methods. These numerical methods are the (Rung- Kutta of 4th Order) and (Rung –Kutta Butcher of 6th Order). The 4th order ordinary differential Equations problem had been transformed to pair of second Order differential equations, which were solved together by the suggested methods. An initial value of the dependent variable had been predicted and corrected to some error. The two studied methods were tested on a physical model problem from the literature for comparing results.
Solutions were presented in Tables and figures. good agreements were appeared in applying the studied methods

Optimum Operation of Haditha Dam

Ruqaya Kadhum Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 7058-7068

Limited water resources formed a great challenge for the specialists in
water resources engineering. This challenge is represented by “ design and manage the projects” connected with water resources in such a way that insure providing suitable quantity and quality of water. In this research, the discrete differential dynamic programming approach
is used to find the optimal monthly operation of Haditha Dam by adopting an objective function to minimize the release and storage penalty. The historical inflow data of 240 months, from Oct. 1987 to Sep. 2007, formed the input data to the optimization model to find the (upper and lower) rule curves. Preserved the logical state of reserve storage, i.e., save minimum operation storage just before the expected start of the effective flood and maximum operation storage at the end of the flood season. The optimum operation policy showed that Haditha reservoir can contain the probable maximum flood of Euphrates flood during the considered operation period, 240 months, and the water level in the reservoir above the operation level of the reservoir during the same period, while this policy gave deficit in satisfying the demands downstream Haditha Dam The deficiency was noticed during ( 152 )

The Evaluation of Noise Pollution in Some Schools in Baghdad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2010, Volume 28, Issue 24, Pages 1221-1230

Recently noise become the most environmental pollutants in almost of
society establishments specially in schools .This research was done to evaluate noise level in some primary schools in Baghdad and to study the sources of this noise as well as the factors which effect on its level .Results show that noise levels in all of these schools were higher than international limits due to unsuitable location for these schools, missing for acoustical treatment in their classrooms and
number of pupils with unsuitable area of classrooms, in addition this research related noise level to the experience of teachers and found that lower levels were measured in classes with an experienced teacher and the higher level when trainee teacher was taking the class.