Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 1,

Issue 1

Effect of Steel Fiber on The Behavior of Deep Beams With and Without Web Opening

Ahmed S. Diab; Ihsan A. S. Al-Shaarbaf; Sabih Z.Al-Sarraf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-19

This study investigates experimentally the strengthening of reinforced concrete deep
beams using steel fibers. The experimental work could be divided in two parts, the
first part consists of casting and testing six deep beams without web opening and the
second part consists of casting and testing six deep beams with web openings to show
the effect of volume of steel fibers on the behavior of the deep beams with and
without web opening on ultimate load, deflection, with various shear span to depth
(a/d) ratios [variable of clear shear span].On the other hand, the effects of these
parameters on the behavior and capability of deep beams with constant steel fiber –
volume fraction are obtained by using three groups of beams having steel fiber–
volume fractions of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and studying the effect of the presence of steel
fibers in deep beams with web openings.
The results obtained from the experimental work [solid deep beams and deep beams
with web openings], demonstrate that when the steel fiber volume- fraction is
increased, the ultimate loads are also increased. The effect of steel fibers increases as
the (a/d) ratio is decreased. In addition, the experimental work on deep beams without
web opening showed that when the steel fiber volume-fraction is kept constant, the
ultimate loads are increased as the (a/d) ratio is decreased. On the other hand, the
percentages of increase in ultimate loads become higher as the steel fiber volumefraction
is increased from 0.0% to 0.5% and 1.0%. However, the effect of decreasing
the (a/d) ratio on the ultimate and cracking loads of the deep beams with web
openings was not significant.

Study of Degradation Effect on Physical Properties of Methyl Orange Doped PMMA

Mohamad S; Nahida J.Hameed Al-Mashhadan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 20-32

The samples were cast as thin film from homopolymer (PMMA) before
and after doping with methyl orange at different concentration. The samples were
exposed to UV-radiation for exposure time within (10-50hr) range. These polymer
systems were evaluated spectrophotometrically for using the UV-detector. The
absorption spectra of UV-irradiated samples showed radiation induced absorption
changes in the wavelength range, which depends on the polymer type and polymer
composites. The increment depends dopant concentration, especially in ultra violet
region in exposed PMMA doped with methyl orange at 6.7×10-2wt/wt
concentration. Decreasing in absorption was found for the cases in which, photo
degradation caused surface damage, i.e. crazes or cracks formation, especially at
ultraviolet region. Calibration curves were drawn at peaks, selected wavelength in
the absorption spectra. The linear regions from the calibration curves were selected,
and dosimeter range was determined from the UV-irradiation sample response. It
was found that PMMA doped with methyl orange at 6.7×10 -2wt/wt concentration
can be use the UV-detector within range (10-40hr) at the wavelength of (300nm)
for its linear response at this range of irradiation.
Morphological investigations for the surface damages caused by thermal and photo
degradation are detected by optical microscope. It is found that the photo
degradation could easily lead to some mechanical surface degradation i. e (crazes
and cracks) formation.

Watermarking for Relational Database by using Threshold Generator

Bashar Saadoon Mahdi; Yossra H. Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 33-43

Providing ownership on relational database is a crucial issue in today
internet-based application environments and in many content distribution
applications.This paper provides the effective watermarking technique to protect
valuable numeric relational data from illegal duplications and redistributions as
well as to claim ownership,the robustness of proposed system depending on using
new hybrid techniques ,first technique MAC(Message Authentication Code) that
used one way hash function SHA1 ,second technique is threshold generator base
on simple combination of odd number of register and by using secret key in
proposed system. Detecting the watermark neither requires access to neither the
original data nor the watermark. The watermark can be detected even in a small
subset of a watermarked relation as long as the sample contains some of the marks.
The finally stage is the analysis of technique that used, our extensive analysis
shows that the proposed technique is robust against various forms of malicious
attacks and updates to the data

The Effect of Using Glass Powder Filler on Hot Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Properties

Hassan H. Jony; Israa Y. Jahad; Mays F. Al-Rubaie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 44-57

The early use of asphalt for road and street construction began in the
late 1800s, and grew rapidly with the emerging automobile industry. Since
that time, asphalt technology has made strides such that today the equipment,
techniques and materials used to build asphalt pavement structures are highly
Waste glass has been used in highway construction as an aggregate
substitute in hot mix asphalt paving. Many countries have recently
incorporated glass into their roadway specifications, which had encouraged
greater use of the material. While the use of waste glass as filler in hot mix
asphalt is still not widely experimented.
In this research glass powder is proposed as an alternative to traditional lime
stone powder (Gubraa) and ordinary Portland cement fillers in hot asphalt mixtures.
Where, the effect of using waste glass powder as mineral filler on Marshall Properties
of hot asphalt concrete mixtures is investigated. Nine mixtures with three types of
fillers (lime stone powder, ordinary Portland cement and glass powder) and three filler
contents (4%, 7% and 10% by weight of total aggregate) are investigated.
The main outcome of this research is the possibility of using glass powder as
filler in hot asphalt concrete mixtures. The optimum glass powder content is 7%.
Where it is found that using of glass powder as filler with such replacement leading to
produce asphalt mixture with higher stability (% of increase up to 13%), lower flow
(% of decrease up to 39%) and lower density (% of decrease up to 10%) comparing to
corresponding ordinary Portland cement or lime stone powder mixtures.

Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural and Morphological Properties of Nano-structure ZnO films by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Adawiya J. Haider; Afnan k. yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 58-64

In this work, ZnO thin films were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by
Pulsed Laser Deposition using SHG with Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser operation
at 532nm in O2 gas ambient 5×10-2 mbar at different substrate temperatures varying
from room temperature to 500°C. The influence of the substrate temperature on the
structural and morphological properties of the films were investigated using XRD and
SEM. As result, at substrate 400°C, a good quality and crystalline films were deposited
that exhibits an average grain size (XRD) of 22.42nm with an average grain size
(SEM) of 21.31nm.

Speed Control of Wind Turbine by Using PID Controller

Fathi R. Abusief; Mohammed Abdulla Abdulsada; Furat A. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 65-71

In this paper, the output frequency of a self excited induction generator (SEIG)
driven by wind turbine and supplies static load are controlled. The principle connections
of wind energy conversion are presented. The dynamic modeling of the wind turbine
and its linearization are derived. The PID controller which employed for turbine rotor
speed control and hence the frequency regulation is proposed. The block diagram of the
proposed speed control system which consists of speed controller, actuator model and
the turbine linearized model is simulated by Matlab-Simulink software package

Calculations of Long Pulsed Lasers for Lithotripsy

Murooj N. Mohammad Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 72-81

Urinary stone fragmentation with long pulsed Ho:YAG laser (wave length
equal 2.1 μm) and Er:YAG laser (wave length equal 2.94 μm) investigated in this
Fragmentation efficiency of these two lasers is measured by using various energy
settings. Laser induced crater depth and ablation volume for both lasers were
examined and compared using mathematical model. Theoretical results were
compared with experimental results obtained by Hyun Wook Kang.
The study shows that the theoretical results and experimental results are
comparable, and the crater depth when using Er:YAG laser was more than that on
Ho:YAG laser.

Materials Selection in Conceptual Design using Weighting Property Method

Suad Hamzah Abdas; Mithal A. Al-Bassam; Mohammed Jasim Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 82-95

The needs to combine selection of materials (SM) processes
during the early stages of design have previously been realized. In this
work, an attempt is made to ensure that there is no gap between function
oriented design and the material. A methodology is being developed, for a
concurrent qualitative selection of materials method (CQSM) that takes into
consideration the importance of materials properties in the early design
stages. The method is modified from quantitative method called weighting
property method used for selecting materials in the detailed design stage.
The method was modified to qualitative method; it means that the input data
for materials property of the design must be qualitative data which
consisting of groups or sub-groups of materials, range value properties and
approximate values. By giving weight to the degree of importance of the
properties, a developed database is search for the best group that can satisfy
the CQSM. In the present investigation, a new numerical method has been
build by using visual basic developed select materials for mechanical design
in conceptual stage. This method, which is based on weighting property
method (WPM) uses a new digital logic (DL) comparison with the
traditional (DL) makes the result more accurate because it does not
elimination problem of the least important criterion.

Theoretical Investigation of Pneumatic Soil Vapor Extraction

Inmar N.Ghazi; Muhammad A. Abdul-Majeed; Talib R. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 96-109

Pneumatic Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) is a new remediation technique
targeting to improve removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from low permeable
areas in heterogeneous soil settings in unsaturated zone. In contrast to traditional SVE,
in which soil vapor is extracted continuously by a vacuum pump, pneumatic SVE is
based on enforcing a sequence of large pressure drops on the system to enhance the
recovery from the low-permeable areas to enhance removal from areas subject to
diffusion limitation. This technique has been shown to be promising at laboratory
A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to study governing factors
and to clarify and quantify the mechanisms responsible for enhanced contaminant
removal during this process. From analytical solution it is clear that the gas phase
inside low permeable area moves with sinusoidal velocity whose amplitude decreases
with depth. Two zones can be distinguished. First in which the gas phase can reach the
high permeability area and continuously mixed with clean air, the enhanced removal
mechanism is advection. The depth of this zone may range from .05m to .6m. Second
is in which there is no net contaminant advection, the enhanced removal mechanism is
hydrodynamic dispersion. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient may reach a value
range from 7 to 700 times the effective molecular diffusion coefficient. In the absence
of non-aqueous phase liquid in the first zone, it can be considered a clean conductive
zone and impose no transport resistance on the second zone (i.e. mathematically, the
upper boundary can be lowered just below the first zone).
The model was tested by comparing its results with experimental results
published by a previous study. Overall, comparisons appear to be reasonably good.
Investigation shows that pneumatic SVE is promising at field setting. In order for this
technique has significant removal enhancement the gas phase permeability in the low
permeability region should be at least on order of 1*10-12 m2 (1 darcy).

Use of Bernstein Polynomial in Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fred Holm Integral Equation

Khawla A .AL-Zubaidy; Muna M. Mustafa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 110-115

In this paper, Bernstein polynomials with different degree has been used
to approximate the solution of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations. A
comparison between the different degree of Bernstein polynomials has been made
depending on absolute error and least squares errors.
keywords: Nonlinear Fredholm Integral equation, Bernstein polynomial

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Tool Inclination Angle in Turning Operation

Ali Abbar Khleif; Farhad Mohammad Kushnaw

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 116-128

This paper introduces a mathematical model to calculate the amount of tool
inclination angle in turning operation depending on controlling the chip flow along the
cutting edge, and to simplify the setting of this angle and the direct relation with nose
setting distance, a model is achieved to calculate the setting nose distance instead of
changing the inclination angle. Results conducted on a series of experiments by
changing tool nose setting distance where most of the cutting conditions kept constant,
except tool nose setting below and above the workpiece centre, and its effect of
obtained surface roughness was measured at each step.
Theoretical results for finishing turning operation, for depth of cut less than 1
mm, show that setting tool nose below the workpiece centre will be similar to that of
setting positive angle of inclination.
The main function of the derived model of the inclination angle is to make
equal chip flow along the cutting edge and the chip will be cured far enough from the
machined surface and therefore eliminate the chip and hence improve the workpiece
surface roughness.
The proposed theoretical model proved that in external turning with finishing
operation the suggested inclination angle (λ) must have positive values, and the setting
distance has a negative value. While in the experimental work, the workpiece surface
finish has been improved when setting distance has negative value below the
workpiece centre.

Tensile and Buckling Analysis of the Polymer Composite Beam Reinforced by Natural Jute Fiber

Mohamad Ali Tariq; Qahtan Adnan Hamad; Mohamad K. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 129-140

This research focuses on the preparation of polymer matrix composite
material by (hand lay – UP) method, where the material was prepared from
unsaturated polyester resin (up) as a matrix reinforced by natural jute fiber with
different volume fractions (3%, 4%, 5%, 6%).The experimental work and finite
element techniques were used to analysis the tensile and the buckling analysis of
the composite beam reinforced by natural jute fiber at different volume fraction.
The results of experimental work of the modulus of elasticity were in the
range of the theoretical results. The critical load increased with increase the fiber
volume fraction that ( cr P =610N) at ( f V = 3%) and ( cr P =830N) at ( f V =6 %) for
the experimental results.While ( cr P =619N) at ( f V = 3%) and ( cr P =877N) at
( f V =6 %) for the finite element results.

Modeling, Analysis and Speed Control Design Methods of a DC Motor

Jamal A. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 141-155

Modern manufacturing systems are automated machines that perform the
required tasks. The electric motors are perhaps the most widely used energy
converters in the modern machine-tools and robots. These motors require
automatic control of their main parameters (position, speed, acceleration,
With the help of an example, a DC motor system, the use of
MATLAB/Simulink for comprehensive study of modeling, analysis and speed
control design methods has been demonstrated.

The Cytogenetic Effects of Crude Ethanol Extracts of Petroselium Crspum Leaves on Bone Marrow In Mice (Mus Musculus)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

This study aimed to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ethanol extract
of Petroselium crispum leaves on somatic cells of albino mice Mus musculus.Four
doses (250,500,1000,2000)mgkg were used.Three tests,mitotic
index,micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberration.
Results indicated that the extracts have significant effects p<0.05 were
used. which inhibit somatic division in 250 and 500mgkg doses after 21 and 28
days (P<0.05) of treatment by comparison with the control. Ethanolic leaves
extract showed little effect on micronucleus formation and chromosomal
It can be concluded that the crude extract of leaves for the above plant can
be used in cancer treatment of cancer since it has the ability in inhibition of
somatic division which has.

Improving erosion corrosion resistance of medium carbon steel using electro less nickel plating

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 31-44

This research devoted to studying improvement resistance for the medium
carbon steel to erosion corrosion by coated with electro less nickel plating and
used in this coated acid bath (Hydrogen number Ph = 4.5) at deferent
temperature (70,75,80,85,90°C) to obtained deferent deposition rate of coating.
The experimental work test were done using special device which was designed
and manufactured according to [ASTM (G73)] with certain modifications.
Tests were made on corrosion (3.5wt ℅) sodium chloride Nacl solution as sea
water purged with CO2 gas as the corrosive media and 1wt ℅ silica sand was
added as slurry to that media.
After traditional weight losses technique was achieved, it was found that corrosion
rate decrease with increase value of hardness which increase at increase
temperature of coating solution. This indicate improvement corrosion resistance of
metal. Heat treatment were done to coated specimens at deferent temperature
(300,400,500,700,800°C). It was found that corrosion rate decrease at increase heat treatment temperature. This indicate improvement corrosion resistance but at
higher ratio to that before made heat treatment. Smallest corrosion rate was
obtained at temperature 800C°.

Study the Effect of Spheroidizing Annealing on Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 45-54

The aim of present research is to study the effect of spheroidizing annealing
for steel that contains (0.51% Ċ) on the hardness, wear rate, ultimate tensile
strength, and ductility. The effect of heat treatment that prier the spheroidizing
annealing treatment is studied as well , that the specimens firstly is heated to the
temperature equal to ( 860 Ċ) , then cooled in furnace and in air ,and then carried
out spheroidizing annealing treatment at the temperature equal to
( 860 Ċ ) for ( 6 h ) , it is show that the process of spheroidizing annealing
decrease hardness, wear strength , and ultimate tensile strength , and increase
ductility that improve of machining properties of steel .

Influence of the Polymer Styrene Butadiene Rubber on Some of Clay Brick Properties

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 55-65

This research studied the improvement of clay brick durability by using two
methods of treatment, the first one by coating with Styrene Butadiene Rubber
(Polymer) solution and the other by submerging bricks in polymer solution for
various periods.
The results showed that using coating method causes a slight increase in the
compressive strength with a maximum percentage of 3.8% for both yellow and
green brick in comparison with untreated bricks, while the compressive strength
for the two types of the brick reduced when they treated using submerging
method, the percentage of reduction increases by about 26% and 7% for yellow
and green brick respectively at submerged period of 24 hours.
The results also indicated that no efflorescence appears for all treated bricks
(treated by coating and submerging methods for all periods) and a decrease in
absorption with maximum percentages of 26.8% and 14.5% for yellow and green
bricks respectively when the specimens submerged in polymer solution for 24
hours. All the results were compared with tested samples untreated with polymer

Increased Porosity and Their Effect on The Density and Hardness Value of (Ni—Cu) Alloy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 66-74

This research is aimed to produce Ni-Cu alloys by powder metallurgy method
because its commercial and technological importance. Nickel and Copper powders
were tacked then their powders mixed and blended together and classified to four
parts, Sodium Chloride powder added (as a space holder) to three parts and the
last remain as it is then these powders mixed and then compacted in hydrostatic
pressure at 7ton, then this compact samples were sintered in furnace under argon
gas at 950°C for one hour, latest these samples are grinded and polished to
examine the microstructure, density, porosity, microhardness, X-ray diffraction
and corrosion resistance.