Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 2,

Issue 2

Induced Buoyancy In Inclined Solar Chimney For Natural Ventilation

Zinah Jaber Khalaf; Jalal M. Jalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 183-194

A 2-D plane, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow field developed by natural
convection inside inclined solar chimney at different inclination angles ranging
from (30o to 90o), heat fluxes from (100 W/m² to 500 W/m²) and chimney
thickness(0.1, 0.2 m) chimney is investigated numerically. It is found that
maximum air temperature and maximum volume flow rate was 101.7oC, 306.3
m³/h respectively at heat flux,500 W/m2; inclination angle; 90o and chimney
thickness; 0.2m. Maximum outlet air velocity was 0.488 m/s at chimney
thickness; 0.1m, heat flux; 500 W/m2; and inclination angle; 90o. Increase in heat
flux, inclination angle and chimney thickness leads to increasing of volume flow
rate. Increase in chimney cross-sectional area leads to decrease in air velocity and
increase in volume flow rate

Different Software Components Integration using C# and Matlab Platforms

Rabab Jassim Mohsun; Hassan Awheed Jeiad; Mohammed Najm Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 195-211

The distributed computations can produce significant performance gains,
yet the time and expertise needed for the low-level details of distribution is often
prohibitive. Additionally, many applications rely heavily on domain-specific
libraries, while it is not practicable to write an optimizing compiler each time a
domain-specific library is developed. The purpose of this paper is to solve this
problem by proposing a distribution system which distributes job execution over
several computers using a distribution Matlab compiler, called the Matlab grid
compiler.The implementation concentrates on connecting several computers
known as clients to a main computer known as the administrator. A software
application is built using Microsoft visual studio, then executed on a server-client
network, and the results showed that integrating the components of C# and Matlab
gives a valuable worth performance for the distributed computation techniques.

The Estimation of Random Response of a Coupled Cylindrical-Conical Shell System Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Adnan Dawood Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 212-225

A composite, coupled, thin cylindrical-conical shell system made of polyester
resin reinforced by uniformly distributed, chopped, E-glass is analyzed using
Statistical Energy Analysis. Response displacement estimate of the two
subsystems are obtained due the excitation of the cylinder by a broadband white
noise of constant spectral density function. The paper is an attempt to study the
validity of the SEA hypothesis as applied to coupled built-up structures. This is
carried out by the comparison of response estimates of the coupled system in
different 1/3rd octave frequency bands with those obtained from Finite Element
method. The outcome of this work shows that SEA is a powerful tool for the
vibration analysis of coupled systems at high frequencies when the number of
interacting coupled resonant modes is high. Percentage error obtained from the
comparison of results drops sharply as one goes further in frequency. This paper
recommends that the user of SEA must always be aware of the uncertainty of the
results obtained. The uncertainty may arise from the improper selection of
subsystems, coupling loss factors, and the number of interacting resonant modes
of the coupled system.

Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Turbulent Flow In a Tube Fitted With Conical Ring and Twisted Tape Inserts

Akeel Abdullah Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 226-239

The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of
the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube fitted with
combined conical-ring turbulators and a twisted-tape swirl generator. The air is the
working fluid for Reynolds number range of 5000-23000 under constant wall heat
flux thermal boundary condition. In this study, two enhancement heat transfer
devices are used. One is the conical-ring used as a turbulator and placed in the
tested tube with constant diameter ratio (d/D=0.538) and the other is the twistedtape
swirl generator placed at the core of the conical-rings. Three twisted-tapes of
different twist ratios, Y=2, 3, and 6, are introduced in each run. The experimental
data obtained are compared with those obtained from the plain tube and from the
literature to ensure the validation of experimental results. Correlations for Nusselt
number, friction factor, and enhancement efficiency are developed. It is observed
that the heat transfer process enhances by using combined conical-ring and
twisted-tape inserts or each one alone when compared to plain tube at the same
mass flow rate, and this enhancement increases as twist ratio decreases for the
case of combined insertion.

Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials in Deionized Water with and without Catalyst Using Arc Discharge Technique

Abdul Qader D. Faisal; Mufeed A. Jaleel; Aysar S. Keiteb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 240-252

Simple and economical technique was used for synthesis of carbon
nanomaterials without using vacuum equipment. The used technique implied an
arc discharge between two pure graphite rods with different diameters submerged
in deionized water at room temperature. These were also investigated with a new
type of metal catalyst process for the first time. Plasma arc discharge was
produced using D.C power supply with current (30-90 amp.) and voltage (30-
50volt). The nanomaterials were produced in the form of nanoparticles (floated),
nanotubes and nanofibers (sank), and carbon nanocolloidal (dispersed) through the
water. The results of these experiments were examined by high resolution optical
microscope, scanning electron microscope SEM and transmission electron
microscope TEM. The results revealed different types of carbon nanomaterials.

Preparation, Characterization and Structural Studies of Some Phenyl Isothiocynate Metal Complexes

Asmaa K. Ayal; Shatha F. Nareen; Abbas Ali Salih Al-Hamdani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 253-260

Phenyl isothiocynate complexes of Cu (I), Cu(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe (III),
Cr(III) and Ce(III) have been prepared and analyzed spectroscopicaly by Elemental
analyses and atomic absorption technique; the magnetic susceptibility and the
conductivity have also been measured and molar ratio of Ligand: Matale with mole
ratio method and Job Method. From these measurement it is concluded that Cu(I),
Fe(III) and Mn(II) form tetrahedral complexes, while Cu (II) Forms square planner
complexes, and Cr (III) and Ce(III) forms octahedral complexes.

The Phase Transition of the 2D-Ising Model By Using Monte Carlo Method

ad. N. Abood; a Khalid Kudeer; Dhia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 261-277

In this project, the location of the phase transition in the two dimensional Ising
model will be determined using Monte Carlo simulation with importance sampling.
the magnetization per site [m ], energy per site [J ], magnetic susceptibility, specific
heat of a Ferromagnetic materials are Calculated as a function of temperature T for
10´10, 20´ 20, 40´ 40 , 50´50 spin lattice interaction by using Monte Carlo
Simulation of the 2D Ising Model for some experimental values of ferromagnetic
materials such as Gadolinium Chloride ( ) 3 GdCl at Curie temperature
c T B = 2.2 J k , and ferromagnetic thin film from Nickel ( ) i N growth on
cooper (Cu)at Curie temperature c B T = 2.772 J k , in zero and nonzero magnetic
field. It was noticed that above a certain temperature ( ) c T the material will be in a
paramagnetic state, this will lead to that the average magnetization will be decrease
and the average energy increase, while below that temperature ,it will be in a
ferromagnetic state, and the average magnetization will increase and the average
energy decrease. Moreover, above a certain temperature spontaneous magnetization
will be zero

Mechanical Properties Comparison of Four Models, Failure Theories Study and Estimation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients for Artificial E-glass Polyester Composite

Hayder M. Al-Shukri; Mustafa S. Abdullateef; Muhannad Z. Khelifa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 278-294

In this paper, the mechanical properties of artificial E-glass reinforced
polyester composite were evaluated; the elastic properties and the strength of the
composite were measured experimentally by tensile tests and then compared with
the predicted values by theoretical four micromechanical constitutive models. The
strength of the composite lamina and laminates were also determined
experimentally and compared with five widely used theoretical failure theories.
The lamination theory was also used to determine the strength of laminates by
applying Hill- Tsai failure criterion. The theoretical models showed that the
composite stiffness increases with increasing the fibre volume fraction and the
volume fraction which gave the best fit to the experimental results of elastic
modulus (E1) corresponds to volume fraction (Vf) equal 0.37. The stiffness of a
unidirectional lamina depends on the fiber orientation relative to the off-axis load
direction, and it drops sharply as the fiber alignment angle increases. In addition,
the prediction of thermal expansion coefficients of composite is carried out in the
present analysis, whereas the values of the coefficient that estimated to be based on
the mechanical properties of the certain composite theoretically and

Information Hiding Based on Discrete Time Wavelet Transform and Huffman Coding

Ammar Abdul-Amer Rashed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 295-304

The approach of This paper presentation a companied technique for hiding
secret messages (text) based on wavelet transform applying in cover image (a gray
level image 8bit) then Huffman encoding is also executed on the secret
messages,to increase the robustness of hiding system by inserting the embedded
secret messages in the low frequency components of the cover image after
applying wavelet transform followed by a sorting process and the coefficients of
secret messages after applying Huffman encoding and using binary to multilevel
to reading the string of message reducing by multiplying in attenuation factor
before adding them with those of the cover image.
The experimental results show that the algorithm has a high capacity and a good
invisibility, Moreover PSNR of stego image shows the better results the PSNR
above 40 dB, the proposal system was activated according to attacker noise is
addition and JPEG compression application are used with out detection the secret

Strength Prediction of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Najaat H. Ne; Abdulnasser M. Abbas; Rana A. Mtasher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 305-311

The main purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of
polypropylene fiber on the compressive and flexural strength of normal weight
concrete. Four mixes used polypropylene fiber weight with 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5%
of cement content. To provide a basis for comparison, reference specimens were
cast without polypropylene fiber. The test results showed that the increase of
mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) resulting from added of
polypropylene fiber was relatively high. The increase was about 64 percent for
compressive strength, while, in flexural strength was about 55.5 percent.

Shirkat Town Monitoring Using Digital Elevation Model

Iman A. Shawkat; Mothana M. Al-Hadithy; Abdul-Razzak T. Ziboon

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 312-321

In this search, a colored image of French satellite SPOT, of Shirkat country in
Salahadeen was used with resolution about (5m) for an area with dimensions
(4km×8km), and a digital elevation model (DEM) with grids (20m×20m) and
levels reach to (1m) resolution from the same satellite for the same country, with
an image taken from the IKONOS satellite with (1m) resolution, in addition to
master plan and administrative map for the same area.
The IKONOS satellite image processed digitally, and intersected with the
DEM, to create a three dimensional model for the area under study, with
resolution about (1mm), by the use of AutoCAD and GIS programs, and making a
comparison between the field survey and the images information, resulting
extensive information about the levels in shirkat country streets and the
surrounding buildings, and an attributive results about the agricultural or desert
spaces around the country.

Thermal Radiation Detector (TRD) Modeling

Mehdi Munshid Shellal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 322-335

This paper describes the theoretical principles of TRD operation based on
thermal absorption of incident power of radiation. In the modelling procedures,
the main parameters influencing on the detector features have been introduced. So
the this model allow us to predict the behaviour of different types of thermal
detectors. It is found that the temperature response of the detector against the
frequency of incident radiation in logarithmic scale describes the TRD as a typical
low pass filter characteristics. The cut off corner frequency is found to be at 1 Hz
under which the temperature change attains a saturation value. In the sense that the
thermal detector will detect all the incoming radiations of higher frequency.

Role of Omeprazole as An Antifungal Agent

Omar A. Al-Mukhtar; Suhad A. Ahmad; Raya R. Jabri; Ali A. Juwaied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 336-340

The antifungal activity of various concentrations of omeprazole (0.1mg/ml,
0.25mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1mg/ml, 2.5mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, and 20mg/ml) were
studied in different pH media (5 and 7) against Aspergillus niger, and
Trichophyton urbrum.The laboratory results showed the inhibitory effect of
omeprazole against Aspergillus niger at pH 7 and starting from concentration
10mg/ml, and against Trichophyton urbrum starting from 1mg/ml. While its
antifungal activity in a medium with pH 5 was extended to reach the lower
concentrations 0.25mg/ml against selected fungi. Accordingly, omeprazole is pH
dependent.It seems that omeprazole changed cell membrane potential of selected
fungal species which led to depolarization of cell membrane as a result of
inhibition of the proton pump mechanism. This made the fungal cell not willing to
uptake chemicals needed for living.Keywords: omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor,
antifungal agent, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton urbrum.

A Manual Kinetic Study for Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires by Use of TG Technique

Mohammed A.Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 341-358

The kinetic study of pyrolysis involved the use of a homemade
thermogravimertic analysis (TG) system and showed that the reaction is
first order at high temperature range (390- 450) ºc.
The reaction rate constant has been increased with temperature
(0.15903- 0.9183) min-1 at the same range of temperature above according
to Arrhenius model equation modeled Bovier and Gelus, which can be
used to estimate the kinetic parameters .the activation energy of reaction
is found to be 1.33 kcal/mol. , whereas the frequency factor is equal to 1x
10-8 l/mol. sec.
From comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion due to
the same model above it could be seen that there is a good agreement
between theoretical and experimental results and higher temperatures
(390-450) ºc but become worse of low temperatures (200-350) ºc.

Developed Method of Information Hiding in Video AVI File Based on Hybrid Encryption and Steganography

Susan S. Ghazoul; Yossra H. Ali; Ashawq T. Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 359-373

This paper produces a development of an AVI Hiding Information System
(HIS) based on steganography techniques to prevent intruders to obtain the
transmitted information. This work is based on a combination of steganography
and cryptography techniques to increase the level of security and to make the
system more complex to be defeated by attackers. In this work AVI file is
separated into two parts, video and audio. The video is a stream of frames; each
frame is stored as a bmp file image and a number of frames required or needed to
be used as a cover are chosen.
The algorithm that is used for encryption is the Type-3 Feistel Network of The
128-bits block size improved Blowfish encryption it is a symmetric uses a
variable-length up to 129 bytes, making it useful for both domestic and exportable
use and a variable-length key would make cryptoanalysis more difficult for
potential attackers.
Two methods of hiding are used in this work, the first method is the Least
Significant Bit (LSB) and the second is the Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT). The
proposed HIS system was tested using standard subjective measures such as Mean
Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). All of the measures
obtained as the test results indicate good results for PSNR (above 50db) and they
increase when the number of frames used as a cover increases.

Detection of Hidden Object In Speech Based on Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm

Mahmud k. Kadum

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 374-385

In this paper steganalysis technique is proposed on the basis of spectral
domain analysis using Discrete Fourier Transform, Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm
(DFT_FFTA). The aim from using this algorithm is to provide robust evidence for
presence of hidden object in speech segment. The Discrete Wavelet Transform
(DWT) is used to decompose the speech segment, 20 seconds in length. The speech is
decomposed to the third level. An image of 512x512 pixels embedded in the third
level of the speech coefficients. Reverse Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) is
applied to get a speech with hidden object (image) called stego-speech. DFT_FFTA is
used to analyze the stego-speech to discover an evidence of hidden object in the stegospeech
.Experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm is comparable to
previously existing techniques and give very clear and strong indication for the
existence of stego-object

Intrusion Detection and Attack Classifier Based on Three Techniques: A Comparative Study

Adel Sabry Issa; Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 386-412

Different soft-computing based methods have been proposed in recent years
for the development of intrusion detection systems. The purpose of this work is to
development, implement and evaluate an anomaly off-line based intrusion
detection system using three techniques; data mining association rules, decision
trees, and artificial neural network, then comparing among them to decide which
technique is better in its performance for intrusion detection system. Several
methods have been proposed to modify these techniques to improve the
classification process. For association rules, the majority vote classifier was
modified to build a new classifier that can recognize anomalies. With decision
trees, ID3 algorithm was modified to deal not only with discreet values, but also
to deal with numerical values. For neural networks, a back-propagation algorithm
has been used as the learning algorithm with different number of input patterns
(118, 51, and 41) to introduce the important knowledge about the intruder to the
neural networks. Different types of normalization methods were applied on the
input patterns to speed up the learning process. The full 10% KDD Cup 99 train
dataset and the full correct test dataset are used in this work. The results of the
proposed techniques show that there is an improvement in the performance
comparing to the standard techniques, furthermore the Percentage of Successful
Prediction (PSP) and Cost Per Test (CPT) of neural networks and decision trees
are better than association rules. On the other hand, the training time for neural
network takes longer time than the decision trees.

Anti-Hepatotoxic Effect of the Methanolic Anstatica Hierochuntica Extract In Ccl 4- Treated Rats

Hasan F.Al-Azzawie

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 413-423

The study was investigated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic
extract of Anastatica hierochuntica using carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced
hepatotoxicity in rats. The levels of liver enzymes glutamate oxaloacetate
transminase , glutamate pyruvate transminase ,alkaline phosphatase ,total Protein,
total and direct bilirubin, in addition to Superoxide dismutase, glutathione
peroxidase activities ,glutathione malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status
levels were evaluated in experimental rats (with or without CCl4-
inducedhepatotoxicity)following intake of 100 mg/kg p.o alcoholic Anastatica
hierochuntica extract by using standard procedures compared with standard
silymarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. Results showed that methanolic extract at a
dose level of 100 mg/kg had a significant decrease(p<0.05) in activities of serum
liver enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transminase , glutamate pyruvate
transminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and protein were significantly
decreased in rats treated with CCl4 after 4 weeks compared to that of silymarin
group in addition to the methanolic extract had antioxidant activity through
decreasing activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase to levels
in control rats group. Histopathology of a liver tissue of the animals treated with
the extract was also studied to monitor the liver status. The liver biopsy of all
experimental rat groups treated with the methanolic Anastatica hierochuntica
extract showed significant restoration of the normal histomorphologic pattern of
liver cells. From the above results, it is concluded for the first time that methanolic
Anastatica hierochuntica extract offers protective effect against CCl4-induced
hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.

Study of The Mechanical Properties For Particulate Polymer Blend Composite

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 76-85

This research involves using epoxy resin and (Nitride Butadiene Rubber
NBR) to form a blend with different resin ratios (90 – 10)%, (80 – 20)%,
(70 – 30)%, and (60 – 40)% to achieve better ratio for impact strength as a
function of better toughness; then reinforced with SiO2 and Al2O3 powders with
(20%) volume fraction. Mechanical properties were studied including impact
strength, wear resistance, and hardness before and after immersion in water and
HCl (0.5N).
Results showed that the composite (epoxy+NBR+SiO2) had better
properties compared with blend and Al2O3 composite. Also the acid solution had
affected then properties more than water. All impact and wear and hardness
decreased after immersing in solution.

Improvement The Durability of Concretefloors (A Lkalis Actions ) By Using Carbon Fibers Mortars

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 86-102

The main purpose of this research is to repair the concrete floors in contact
with alkalis action especially sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) in the floors of
factories of Vegetable Oils by using cement and sand mortars incorporated with
carbon fiber chips in proportions (0.5 – 1)% by volume was used ,superplasticizer
with a dosage of (2 -2.6) L/100 kg cement was added, thickness of cement and
sand mortars depend on damage concrete . Mechanical tests such as compressive
strength test and physical tests such as ultrasonic pulse velocity , bulk density ,
apparent porosity and water absorption tests were done to samples after curing in
normal water for ( 7 , 28 , 60 , 90 , 180 ) days and then they were exposed to
caustic soda solution (37% concentration) up to six months. Test results showed a
noticeable improvement in durability of suggested mortar mixes against such type
of aggressive alkalis solutions.