Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 4,

Issue 4

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Extrusion in Complex Die by Using Upper Bound Theory

Hatam Karim Kadhim; Raed Naeem Hwyyin; Azhar Sabah Ameed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 639-650

This paper depends on a new analytical method to calculate relative
deformation energies for complex die shape by using upper bound theory which is
an important method to solve technical problem in the field of metal
deformation .This study divides the complex shape to a number of sectors for
counting the deformation energies and then to find the total energy requirement
for extrusion process in die with arbitrary linear function. This study uses (H)
section which represents one of complex shapes to calculate the relative
deformation energies for it, taking into account the effects of friction factor ,
relative die length and reduction of area .
The results of the present study are compared with M.KIUCHI study and found it
in a very good agreement.

Sensitivity of Serum Acetylcholine Esterase Toward Derivatives of Oxadiazole

Zyzaffon N; Rehab A. M. Al-Hasani; Fatin F. Al-Kazzaz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 651-664

This work addresses the kinetic analysis of the interaction of some
oxadiazoles (L1 , L2, L3 & L4) in ethanol with serum acetylcholinesterase. It was
found that ethanol have inhibitory effect (25.18%) on AChE enzyme for this
reason niglicable it as solvent and instead of it use dimethyl sulfoxide which had
no effect. The % inhibition of L1 , L2, L3 & L4 at 10-7 M was
45.42,71.51,54.67&74.27 respectively and it elevated with increasing the
concentration till at 10-1 M it reached 53.62,99.08,56.22&99.43 respectively. The
effect of both L2 & L4 was reversible in nature. Michaelis – Menten constant and
maximum velocity for the hydrolysis of acetyl thiocholine iodide by AChE were
determined in control and treated systems. Line weaver – Burk plot and
their secondary replots indicated that the nature of inhibition in both compounds
was noncompetitive inhibition. The value of Ki was estimated also. The
mechanism of action of these types of compounds acting as inhibitors to the AChE
is suggested.

Mechanical Strength of Silicon Carbide Bonded with Iraqi Clays

Abdul Mutalb Al Sheikh; Shihab Ahmed Zaidan Al- Juboori; Kassim S. Kassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 665-676

Two types of Iraqi clays (Kaolin and Bentonite) were used in bonding process
with different weight percentage (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) and with
different particle size from clays and silicon carbide.
The specimens were formed by using low biaxial pressing and two types of
internal lubricants (sodium silicate and the carbon paste) to increase the
specimen's cohesion. These specimens were sintered at various temperatures of
(1100°C, 1200°C, 1300°C, and 1400°C).
Increasing of clay percentage leads to decreasing the porosity. But it leads to
increase mechanical properties (compressive strength, diametrical strength and
bending strength ). Also, the effect of particle size on all properties is studied
together with sintering temperature. All mechanical properties (when bonded SiC
with bentonite) are higher than kaolin bonded SiC.

Study of Transient Simulation for Solar Heating System

Laith Abdulmonem. Ismael; Qussai Jihad Abdul-Ghafour; Sabah Tarik Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 677-697

In the current study simulation method was used for design of solar water
heating system. An integrated transient simulation program was built up for
simulating the Iraqi solar house heating system using TRNSYS as a design tool.
The modeling was carried out is modeled for other virtual solar heating systems
similar to the Iraqi solar house. The results obtained were used to develop a
general design procedure for solar heating systems in Baghdad.
Using the design charts and TRNSYS as a design tool simplifies the designer’s
task for predicting the long - term heating energy supplied from a solar collector
The above simulation was applied for Iraqi solar house and the results gave the
increasing in storage volume caused increase the auxiliary energy supplied to the
system. So, the best practical storage volume is 20m3 and increasing the collector
area to optimum value results in increasing the solar fraction (f). The solar fraction
may reach 0.97 when the collector area becomes as 400m2 at storage volume of

Study of the Optical Constants of the PMMA/PC Blends

Marwa. R. F; Nahida. J. H

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 698-708

The aim of the present work is concerned with the study of the optical
constants of the PMMA/PC blend at different concentrations.
The samples are casted as films from the PMMA and PC homopolymers and
blend. These polymer systems are evaluated spectrophotometically. The
absorption spectra of homopolymers and PMMA/PC blends at different
concertation showed absorption changes in the wavelength range, which depends
on the polymer type, and the concentration of the polymer blends. It was found
that 50% ratio from these polymers showed higher absorption values in
comparison with the homopolymers, besides, the absorption spectroscopy of the
polymer blends did not always effect the similar information obtained from the
spectroscopy of the homopolymers .A phenomenon was attributed to immiscibility
or phase separation as associated with the blends formation. The results of the
optical constant proved that 50%ratio was the best, which was attributed to the
lowest energy gap (2.5 eV). Morphological investigations for the
casted polymer systems were introduced.

Numerical Methods for Fractional Reaction-Dispersion Equation with Riesz Space Fractional Derivative

I. I. Gorial

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 709-715

In this paper, a numerical solution of fractional reaction-dispersion equation with
Riesz space fractional derivative has been presented. The algorithm for the numerical
solution for this equation is based on two finite difference methods. The consistency,
stability, and convergence of the fractional order numerical method are described.
The numerical methods have been applied to solve a practical numerical example
and comparing results with the exact solution. The results were presented in tables
using the MathCAD 12 software package when it is needed. The two finite difference
methods appeared to be effective and reliable in solving fractional reaction-dispersion
equation with Riesz space fractional derivative.

Texture Analysis of Brodatz Images Using Statistical Methods

Alyaa Hussain Ali; Alaa Noori Mazher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 716-724

Textures are one of the important features in computer vision for many
applications. Most of attention has been focused on the texture features. An
important approach to region description is to quantify its texture content.
Although no formal definition of texture exists, intuitively this descriptor provides
measures of properties such as smoothing and regularity. The principal approaches
used in image processing to describe the texture of an image region are statistical,
structural, and spectral. In this paper the features were constructed using different
statistical methods. These are auto-correlation, edge frequency, primitive-length
and law’s method; all these methods were used for texture analysis of Brodatz
images. The result showed that the law’s autocorrelation method yields the best

Long Term Strength and Durability of Clayey Soil Stabilized With Lime

Abdulrahman H. Al-Zubaydi; Moafaq A. Al-Atalla; Ibrahaim M. Al-Kiki

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 725-735

This study deals with durability characteristics and unconfined compressive
strength of clayey soil stabilized with lime. The tests comprises of unconfined
compressive strength for samples stabilized with the optimum lime percent (4%),
and subjected to cycles of the wet-dry, dry-wet and freeze-thaw durability tests as
well as, long-term soaking and slake tests.
The results indicated that, the efficiency of the lime in the improvement of
unconfined compressive strength of clayey soil is of negative effect in the long
term durability periods The wetting-drying cycles showed greater reduction in
unconfined compressive strength than drying-wetting cycles, while the volume
change of samples which subjected to drying at first, was greater than those
conducted with wetting. On the other hand, freezing-thawing cycles causes a
decreasing in the unconfined compressive strength values, and the reduction ratio
was greater than wetting and drying cases. But, during soaking tests it was found
that at early soaking periods, the lime stabilized samples continuously gaining
strength, but beyond this the strength decreased with increasing soaking period.
Finally, the stabilized samples with (4 and 6%) lime becomes more durable
against the cycles of wetting and drying.

Study of Signal Estimation Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique by Using Ants Colony Optimization Algorithm

Ali Abdul-Elah Noori; Sadiq Kamel Gharghan; Ali Jaber Abdul Wahhab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 736-749

In this paper, an algorithm based on Ants Colony Optimization (ACO) is
proposed for extraction of the Directions of Arrival (DOA) of several signals
impinging on uniform linear arrays. This algorithm is used to reduce the
computation time and complexity that occur in Estimation of Signal Parameters
via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT). In order to illustrate the accuracy
and flexibility of the proposed algorithm, several simulation cases introduce of
ESPRIT-DOA estimation by using ACO algorithm in environment of Matlab 7.8
program. Results are statistically analyzed in order to conclude from it the
algorithm's accuracy and reliability

Cryogenic Treatments of Hot Work Tool Steel (56NiCrMoV7)

Amin.D.Thamir; Ibrahim.K.Ahamed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 750-769

The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of Cryogenic
treatment of hot work tool steel type (56NiCrMoV7) on the microstructure and
mechanical properties. Three different temperature (-50°C,-100°C & -150°C)
were selected at different soaking time(1hr,2hr & 3hr) respectively. All cryogenic
treatments were adopted after hardening by air & oil respectively. It was
concluded that the property enhancement for this tool steel can be attributed by
conversion most of retained austenite to martensite accompanied with higher
dislocations density that leads to the precipitation of fine carbide during the
cryogenic treatment especially at the samples quenched by oil & treated at (-
150°C) with soaking 1hr

Watermarking in WAV Files Bases on Phase Coding

Salah S. Alrawi; Rasheed Abdulshaheed; Akeel A. Alhadithy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 770-780

The growth of the network multimedia open the illegal ways for users to use the
digital media without any hindrance or control. This state created, the need for the
copyright protection of various digital media. WAV audio files is one of these media,
these media file format itself has no built in copy protection controls. Other systems
must be used to prevent illegal copying called watermarking. In this paper, we used
the phase coding method to embed the watermark, by using FFT method in two ways.
The first way used the block size of the wave data equal to (22) and the second way
used the block size of the wave data equal to (23).
The results of the above two ways shows that, when we use the first way the
noise of the sound will be very smaller than the results of the second way. On the
other hand the length of the watermark in second way will be longer than when use
the first way. Finally, we can say that the two ways yield good results.

Generating of Chaotic Signals by using Semiconductor Laser with Optical Feedback

Shatha M. Hasan; Mohammed S. Mehde; Raad S. Fyath

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 781-790

This paper addresses theoretically generating the chaotic signals by using
semiconductor laser diode of 1550 nm with optical feedback. The performance of a
semiconductor laser subjected to a delay optical feedback was investigated using rate
equations that describe the temporal variation of photon density, carrier density, and
the phase of the lasing field. The simulation results show how semiconductor lasers
are sensitive to external optical perturbations and how rich chaotic signal with large
information can be generated with controlled optical feedback.

Advanced Neighborhood Operation Based Image Zooming In

Mithaq N. Raheema

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 791-804

Perhaps the most interesting feature of digitally encoded image data is that
the image can be analytically manipulated. An entire field of computer graphics,
named image processing, has emerged as a result of this capability. Once the data
is numerically represented and stored in a manner that corresponds to the image
itself, the information can be manipulated by a computer in order to compress the
image, correct defects, enhance its qualities, geometrically transform it, perform
measurements, detect patterns and objects, and manipulate it in many other forms.
This paper provides an overview of the types of image processing operations and
introduces an advanced algorithm to enlarge an image to get a closer look. This
algorithm changes the magnification of the image and displays the new view in a
new figure. It determines the pixel's 3-by-3 neighborhood at the output image,
distributes the value of the center pixel in the input matrix to the entire pixel's
neighborhood corresponding to it, and filtering the enlarged image by median.
This proposed algorithm is tested with many image classes and the results show its
very good ability to perform the image zooming in. Some preprocessing and post
processing is done automatically which improve this algorithm and give its
advantages over the traditional zooming operations. The programming language
MATLAB is used to realize the proposed algorithm

The Effect of Pure Aluminum Weight Percent on Different Properties of a New Cermet Material Made of Al-Machinable Glass Ceramic

a Abdul-Hassan Khalaf; Bayda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 805-813

In this research high pure aluminum metal with the following weight percent
(1,2,3,4,5) has been added to machinable glass-ceramic, after the preparation of the
samples by pressing then firing the effect of this addition on the density, hardness,
young modulus, and polishing and grinding time of the machinable glass-ceramic
have been studied. It has been found that the increasing in aluminum percent lead to
slightly increase in density while the hardness, young modulus, and polishing and
grinding time decreased.

Study on The Production of Ammonium Sulfate Fertlizer From Phosphogypsum

Khalid K. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 814-821

The production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from phosphogypsum
is studied. The phosphogypsum is considered by product from extraction process
of sulphoric acid. The mereseberg process is used a waste of phosphogypsum with
ammonium carbonate to produce ammonium sulfate as a main product and
calcium carbonate as a byproduct. It is a process could be used as a successful
method in phosphate industry (AL-Qauim).The flow diagram is drawn to illustrate
the mersberg process then material balance is done. The carbonation process is
one of the stage of mereseberg method, then carried out at constant temperature
(44Co) because of the reaction is exothermic and high temperature causes
decomposition of ammonium carbonate and low temperature causes precipitate
different kind of salts. From results of laboratory experiments the temperature of
ammonium sulfate preparation is done in 23Co and the ratio of phosphogypsum to
ammonium carbonate (400ml /192 gm phosphogypsum ) at reaction time( 4 )
hours. The aim of this work focus on making a process flow diagram which is
used in dealing with waste of phosphogypsum and production a useful product.

Experimental Study of the Effect Geometrical Shape and Vertical Vibrations on Forced Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient from Circumferentially Triangle-Cross Section Finned Cylinder

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 153-174

The aim of this work is to perform an experimental study for the effect of forced
vertical vibrations on forced convection heat transfer coefficient, by the use of a
circumferential finned cylinder made of Aluminum. The cylinder was heated under the
condition of a constant heat flux which is generated by applying an alternating voltage
on a fixed resistor mounted inside the interior space of the cylinder which was located
horizontally or inclined in multiple angles of (0°, 30°, 45°). In this experimental study,
the circumferential finned cylinder prototype of inner diameter (16 mm), and outer
diameter including the fin of (48 mm)was used, and the effect of the frequency at a
range of (2-16 Hz) and the vibration amplitude range of (0 - 2.2mm) have been studied
with heat flux rates (500,1000,1500 W/m2) on heat transfer coefficient. From the results
of this study, it was found that the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and
amplitude of vibration is incrementally for angles (0°, 30°, 45°). And reaches a
maximum ratio of (12.85%) with respect to the frequency equals zero. The increment of inclination angle reduces the values of forced convection heat transfer coefficient,
because the fins work as path lines that help to increase the movement of convection
currents in the case of horizontal prototype, but in case of inclined cylinder, the fins
work as obstructions for the convection currents, thus reducing the ranges of forced
convection vibrational heat transfer coefficient. Generally, the heat transfer coefficient
increases as Reynolds number increases. The experimental results were compared with
results of reference [9] and found that the effect of Geometrical shape on heat transfer
coefficient of the cylinder used in this research less than that for reference [9] because
the total surface area for the sample used in reference[9] was larger than that for the
sample used in the current study .

Effect of Asphalt Concrete Test Results Deviation on Ratio Discount Decided of Cost And Ability Decrement

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 175-194

The road is the mirror of the civilization in any country so the quality and
the quantity of the paved road measure the development in the country. During
construction stage must be taking a care for a rehabilitation or maintenance
operations latest for cost saving and reduce losses in money involved for these
tow activities .The unsuccessful results in testing asphaltic mixtures always
could be occur due to unsuitable operation throughout any stage in the
production process, leading to disturb the optimum benefit use of such mixture
.This paper reviewed roadway layers ( base and surface course),and concerns
about different alternatives of designing and testing of asphaltic mixtures that
required to be succeed, and take a deviation that may be occur, and the direct or
indirect effect of that deviation on roads construction costs . The results show
that the discount ratio more than 10% is very effective and make 34%of the 35
mixes samples that taken. While, the discount ratio more than 5% leading to 46%
of the samples taken. Accordingly, this research work recommended using the
5% discount ratio as a deviation criteria and it is essential to do an appropriate
steps behind it such as adjustment of mixing proportion or increase working
inducement in case where there is no discount.

Studying The Importance of Evaluation And Determination of Volume Fraction Values For Wound Glass And Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 195-204

The wide and increased use of the composite materials in industry especially into
important applications such as pipes and pressure vessels tends to give the study of
their properties more importance, so results will be presented from a series of tests on
the physical properties of composite materials . Specimens cut from pipes made from
composite materials to be tested under internal pressure loadings have been tested by
using a series of ASTM D2584 (1968) standards test methods for glass fiber
reinforced composites and the density method for carbon fiber reinforced composites
.The results from this series of tests have been tabulated and presented. The volume
fraction for the glass and carbon fibers were found to be 0.476 and 0.540,

Analytical Criticizing Study of Governmental Contracts Instructions no.1, Issued by the Ministry of Planning and Developing Cooperation at 2008

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 205-217

For the important role of the Governmental Contracts Instructions, issued by
the Ministry of Planning and Developing Cooperation, in regulating the works of
the Iraqi Construction Sector, rights, duties, and delegations of Governmental
Clients, Contractors, Consultants, and Importers. This analytical criticizing study
has been carried out, covering the rules of Governmental Contract Instructions
no.1 for 2008. The study aims at focusing on amendments need to be issued,
seeking for meeting some general concepts of the Iraqi Construction Sector
concerning contracts natures, award, credits, and ban. In addition, it seeks for
meeting justice criteria in disputes settlement, bonds, liquidated damages,
overheads, breach. and payment terms. It also seeks for being consistent with
other rules concerning, tenders opening and evaluation, time extension, and
variations. In addition, it seeks for better organizing concerning titles, inception
rules, bidding procedures, announcement, and invitations. It is recommended that
the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation may take these
amendments into consideration.

The Effect of Hardening Exponent on Mechanical Properties of (Al-Si) Alloy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 218-230

This approach involves theoretical and experimental study on the effect of cold
working percentage on the hardening exponent (n). The important of this object deals
with relation of hardening exponent on the spring back and mechanical properties.
The materials used was aluminum alloy, which as a round specimen and compressed
in different cold working percentage. For the research the following condition are
obtained, that the hardening exponent, spring back of metal and hardness increase
with increase of cold working percentage. This explain the behavior of metal during
forming process and explain the change witch obtain in micro structure ,the hardness
and spring back of metal is directly proportional with strain hardening exponent.