Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 29, Issue 6

Volume 29, Issue 6, April 2011, Page 271-1226

A Study of Changes in the Chemical Properties of Soil due to Irrigation by Polluted River Water (Army Canal in Baghdad) for a Long Period

Shaimaa Taleb Kadhum; Ayat Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1032-1051

Soil is an essential natural resource for support of human life, but with time, its
degradation has been constantly increasing due to the deposition of pollutants.
The aim of this research is to study the changes of the chemical properties of
the soil which has been irrigated for a long period with polluted river water, and
the effect of each property on the other properties.
The study was on the agricultural soil besides Army canal in Baghdad city
which is irrigated by the canal water. This canal ends at Al-Rustamia wastewater
treatment plant. Samples of soil which is irrigated and not irrigated with canal
water were taken. The samples were analyzed to find the chemical properties such
as heavy metals(Pb,Zn,Ni,Cr,Cd) and other parameters of soil (SO4
Samples were taken from points far from the canal (non irrigated soil), the
other samples have decreasing distances from the canal bank and the last one is just
at the river margin (irrigated soil) to find out the differences in chemical properties.
The relation between soil concentrations of heavy metals and the other
parameters in the chemical properties of the soil was studied the following results
were found: A positive corelation between SO4 and OM, TSS and EC was found,
also Zn and Pb with SO4, Zn and Pb with OM.
Also, a comparison was done between the properties of irrigated soil and the
properties of non irrigated soil. Results show that Pb and Ni increased out of the
allowable limits, Ec and TSS increment has also been found especially in the non
irrigated soil.

A Numerical Prediction of the Turbulence Parameters in Two-Dimensional Ventilated Rooms

Ayad M. Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1052-1068

Turbulent flow in two-dimensional ventilated room has been numerically
simulated in the present research. A modified form of Wilcox's two-equation LRN
k-w model is proposed for predicting internal turbulent ventilation flows. The
modifications include adding a turbulent cross-diffusion term in the w-equation,
and re-establishing the closure constants and damping functions, with the
application of the wall-function method. The turbulent cross-diffusion for specific
rate, w, is modeled with two parts: a second-order diffusion term and a first-order
cross-diffusion term.
The air was used as the working fluid, and the length of ventilation enclosure (9
m), and height of ventilation enclosure (3 m). The study was made for Reynolds
number values of (Re=7.5´103).
A finite volume method is used with a staggered grid arrangement. The
continuity, momentum and turbulence model equations are solved with hybrid
method by using SIMPLE algorithm. A computer program in FORTRAN (90) was
developed to carry on the numerical solution. The Computational algorithm is
capable of calculating the hydrodynamic and turbulence properties such as the
velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy, specific dissipation rate (w), turbulent
Reynolds stress, and terms of convection, production, diffusion, destruction,
turbulent cross-diffusion and square root mean of fluctuating velocity. The results
showed the peak value of velocity near the wall jet region and negative value of
velocity near the bottom region (floor region) i.e. recirculating zone. The
maximum value of turbulent kinetic energy near wall jet region in the first
horizontal section of ventilation enclosure, and the profile become flattened in the
second section of ventilation enclosure room. The same behavior in the turbulent
Reynolds stress distribution because depending on velocity in his calculations. The
same behavior between production term and destruction term but the values of
production term is positive and the value of destruction term is negative. The
distribution approximately symmetry.
The numerical results were compared with other previous theoretical results.
The agreement was good, confirming the reliability of the proposed mathematical
model and computational algorithm in investigating the performance of turbulence
model in numerical simulation of turbulent ventilation flows.

Effect of Soaking on the CBR-Value of Subbase Soil

Zeena Tariq Jaleel

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1069-1079

The effect of soaking on the top and bottom CBR value of a sub-base is studied
in this paper.
Fourteen CBR samples were prepared at 95% relative modified AASHTO
compaction .Two CBR samples were prepared for each soaking period of
0,4,7,14,30 and 60 days. These samples were prepared and compacted
mechanically in the laboratory. The first group was tested in case of unsoaked
while the second group was tested in case of soaking.
The results showed that, a significant drop in the CBR for top and bottom due to
the soaking was observed compared with natural case due to softening of soil
particles Which means that the bearing capacity of subbase soil decrease with
increase of soaking time. Most of decrease in soaked CBR value is pronounced
inthe first days for top and bottom CBR, respectively. And it dropped to 20%
and23%value for top and bottom after 60 days soaking period and this drop is in
full of weakness of soil with soaking.

Performance of Cooling Tower with Honeycomb Packing

Nagam Obaid Kariem; Hayder Mohamad Jaffal

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1080-1093

The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally and theoretically
heat and mass transfer characteristics of the cooling tower. The investigation
carried out at a mechanical forced direct cooling tower. A column-packing unit is
made of a new type of packing named honeycomb (plastic). Air and water are
used as fluids and the runs are done at the air and water mass flow rates ranging
between 0.05 and 0.15 kg/s, and between 0.1 and 0.25 kg/s, respectively. The inlet
water temperatures ranging between 35 and 50 oC. A mathematical model based
on the equations of mass transfer and energy is used and solved to determine the
characteristics of cooling tower, pressure drop, temperature ratio, and tower
effectiveness. There is reasonable agreement from the comparison between the
calculated and measured data.

Influence of Corrosion Rate on the Double Butt Welding Shapes Design for Low Carbon Steel

Hani Aziz Ameen; Khairia Salman Hassan; Walid Khalid Abdul Kader

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1094-1106

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of butt welding shapes
on the corrosion rate, microstructure and temperature of carbon steel type
St37.The double butt welding was performed by V angles 15°,30° and 45°. The
finite element analysis via ANSYS software is performed, this analysis includes a
finite element model for the thermal welding simulation. The temperature
distribution was obtained. From the results of the microscopic structure it is
evident that the geometric shape has an important role in the welding process,
when the geometric value of the welding region gets bigger, the faults get less due
to increase of heat quantity in the welding region and the corrosion rate for the
rain water is less than of sea water. The work presents the finite element model for
numerical simulation of welding in carbon steel St37 double butt welding.

Soaking Effects on the Shear Strength Parameters and Bearing Capacity of Soil

Alaa Dawood Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1107-1123

This research includes complete study of the laboratory examinations for
soil layers and its engineering properties for certain areas of Baghdad city
(Alkadhimya, Alaitaifiya, and Alhurriya). The soil was classified according to
USCS and showed the soil is considered as a non homogenous Because of the
presence of multiple chemical materials in the soil, some chemical examinations
have been done such as sulphate percentage, gypsum content, total soluble salts, in
addition to the amount of acidity and alkality (pH) in the soil. In this research the
direct shear test was used to obtained to value (cohesion and internal friction angle)
for the soil in both natural situation and (24 hour) in water soaked situation. The
laboratory tests results showed that these soils have high bearing capacity was
varied between (1200 --- 3000) kPa while (760 --- 1000) kPa at soaking state and
that the parameters of shear (cohesion and internal friction angle) decrease when
soaked in water but the main decrease was in cohesion value. Soaking of soils
reduced cohesion by approximately (2-2.5) folds, while the angle of internal
friction exhibited marginal reduction

Surface Roughness Effect on Fatigue Life Preditions under Cumulative Damage

Khairallah S. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1124-1130

The influence of surface roughness parameter on the fatigue life is studied using rotory bending loading under room temperature and zero mean stress (R=-1).
Three levels of average surface roughness (Ra), namely smooth, medium and rough, are considered. For the above three levels, three equations which describe the S-N curve are established. The application of these equations to specimens tested under cumulative fatigue damage shows that the roughness parameter must not be ignored. Hence a new model considering this parameter is formulated which may take the form
From the applications of the proposed model, it is concluded that fatigue life predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Membrane Action in Orthotropically R.C. Rectangular Slabs Supported on Three Edges Only with Variable Axial Restraints

Hisham M. Al-Hassani; Sura Abdul Muneim Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1131-1144

In this paper, large deformation analysis is carried out on uniformly loaded
orthotropically reinforced concrete rectangular slabs that have one free edge and
different restraints on the other edges. For the purpose of such analysis, the slabs
are assumed to behave in a rigid-perfectly plastic manner and to yield under the
combined effect of bending and membrane action. Two cases are analysed; the
case of a slab having two adjacent edges fixed- one edge simply supported and one
edge free, and the case of a slab having two adjacent edges simply supported- one
edge fixed and one edge free.
Results of the analysis indicate considerable enhancements in the load carrying
capacity of such slabs above those predicted by Johanson's simple yield line
theory(1).The amount of the load enhancement in a particular slab is found to
depend on many parameters such as the steel ratio rx
, orthotropy ratio g,
compressive strength of concrete fʹc , yield stress of steel fy , and the slab aspect
ratio Ly/Lx, such that a higher enhancement in load is achieved for a slab having a
higher value of fʹc but lower values of Ly/Lx , rx
+ , g and fy .

A Hydrodynamic Study in a Sieve Plate Sectionalized Bubble Column

Burhan Sadeq Abdulrazzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1145-1156

The sectionalization of conventional bubble columns to tray bubble column by
perforated trays has been used in chemical, biochemical, and petroleum processes
as an effective way to improve the gas-liquid contacting efficiency, and reduce
liquid backmixing. In this study, an experimental semi-batch tray bubble column
setup has been built. Column 0.15 m inside diameter and total height of 2.20 m is
sectionalized into four stages using three perforated plates to investigate the
effect of tray geometry, superficial gas velocities and liquid phase physical
properties on overall gas holdup. The overall gas holdup is measured
experimentally by bed expansion technique. For studying the effect of physical
properties of the liquid phase, two different gas and liquid systems are used (airwater
and air-methanol solution).Methanol solution was used as the liquid phase
to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of the high gas holdup systems.
Remarkable increases of up to 80% in the overall gas holdup have been observed
in tray column as compared to conventional bubble column when this liquid
system was used. Experimental results of tray bubble column shows significant
increase the overall gas holdup in comparison with conventional bubble column.
Correlations have been used for the estimation of the fractional gas holdup in
bubble column with and without tray. Comparison of the model predictions with
the experimental data and with the published data of other authors shows fine
agreement which ensure the reliability and confidentiality of the adopted the
correlations to be used in further designation.

Study the Effect of Electrical Current on Average Surface Roughness of Borosilicate Glass at EDM Machining and Comparison Using Matlab Program

Shukry H. Aghdeab; Ahmed A. Abulwahhab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1157-1165

Machining of electrically non-conducting materials like glass is still a major
problem. The principle of electric arc was used to generate high electrical
discharge (spark) at high currents to machine non-conducting materials at any
EDM system was build for machining of non-conducting cutting materials
such as glass including the use of powder (graphite) mixed for dielectric solution
(tap water) by supplied DC current values (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400A). Voltage
of (70V) was used to cut 3mm thickness of borosilicate glass (BSG) to obtain the
average surface roughness (Ra) of about (0.003-0.012μm).
Matlab program has been used to investigate the process control for EDM that
could the Ra experimental and theoretical with accuracies of 94.236, 94.034,
96.628 and 92.875% respectively.
From the reading of the magnitude of the roughness it was found that differences
between the theoretical and experimental values for 3mm thickness of BSG was
never exceed (8%).

Hybrid Simple Genetic Algorithm (HSGA) and the Effect of using Fitness Functions for Layout Problem

Fadhela Sabry Abu-Almash; Baidaa Abd-Alkhalik; Firas Ali Hashim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1166-1175

In this research there is a wide study about Hybrid Genetic algorithm was
presented in addition to Varity in fitness functions and there are effect on used
Results occur by using disjoint algorithm with genetic algorithm. We applied on
two matters which are the (10) ten objects and the more complex , the (30) thirty
objects . This way called hybrid simple genetic algorithm. This way developed to
solve this subject of different objects layout.

Image Features Evaluation Using New Algorithm Proposed For Reducing Image Feature Number & Size Stored In Database

Shahlaa T. Abdulwahab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1176-1194

This study proposes technique that capable of reducing image features size and
number stored in the database. The proposed technique depends on the image content
of numerical values for the three basic colors (red, green and blue) and then stores it in
the database and to be used for image retrieval. This technique has been developed
based on recent image retrieval procedures that include Color Descriptor Matrix,
YCbCr Color Space and Discrete Cosine Transform. Those procedures have been
applied sequentially on the image and finally Kekre’s Transform has been applied in
the last stage of this technique to evaluate image features and reduce its stored size in
the database. The validity and accuracy of the proposed technique have been
evaluated through experiments by applying Kekre’s Transform on Color Descriptor
Matrix instead of using Kekre’s Transform directly on the image in order to reduce its
feature stored size. Another experiments have been tested and evaluated that include
the application of YCbCr Color Space on the Color Descriptor Matrix and
finally Kekre’s Transform to be executed and explore the image features size and
compare it with the previous stage. The effect of applying the Discrete Cosine
Transform on the YCbCr Color Space and finally the Kekre’s Transform on the image
features size has been studied and compared with the previous step. It is concluded that
the best reduction in image features size stored in the database can be obtained only
when Kekre’s Transform applied in the last step of the proposed technique with
unchanged threshold based image retrieval ratios. Parametric study has been conducted
to investigate the effect of applying the new algorithm on both isolated and mixed
image groups. Good precision ratios of 82% and 65% have been obtained for the
isolated and mixed image groups respectively.

Evaluation of Drilling Process for Clamped-Free-Clamped- Free Rectangular Plate Using Vibration Analysis

Mauwafak Ali Tawfik; Sami Ali Nama

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1195-1207

In this paper, the superposition method was used to obtain the solution for the forced vibration of clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) isotropic rectangular plates subjected to a concentrated drilling force. This method was found to work extremely well, and fewer terms in the series were used to provide an equivalent accuracy of solutions. The drilling force signals can be represented by Fourier series; the terms of the series were used to calculate the plate dynamic response at any point on the plate surface. The effect of the drilling conditions on Fourier series terms was analyzed and an empirical equation was derived to calculate the fundamental Fourier frequency at different drilling conditions. It was found that the speed and feed have pronounced effects on the Fourier fundamental frequency term.

Study The Proton Momentum Distribution of The 51V (γ,p)50Ti Reaction at Energy of 59.2 Mev

Alaa .B. Kadhim; Raafat. A. Muslim; Khaled. H. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1208-1215

The technique developed by Findlay and Owens for the extraction of a
consistently effective momentum distribution from the 51V (γ,p)50Ti reaction data is applied to the cross sections obtained for each of the discrete low lying excited states ( 0.0 , 1.6 , 2.7 , 3.2 , 3.8 , 4.4 and 6.0 ) MeV ,respectively.The momentum density and momentum mismatch have been calculated using the method of Findlay and Owens for each excited state. This program has been written for this purpose using
Fortran-77 language.The momentum scaled distribution would illustrate that the simple Direct Knockout Model (DKM) behavior observed in the (γ,p) reaction could be regarded as evidence for the importance of the DKM process in the (γ,p) reaction.
Clearly the application of the procedure given by Findlay and Owens leads to a more consistent momentum distribution

Proposal to Complex DES Security Using Diffie Hellman Injection

Shatha habeeb Jafar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 1216-1226

Data Encryption Standard (DES) is based on a round of starters, from the
results of the use of multi-stage permutation and replacement to the more complex
algorithm which adopts the symmetric key. Diffie- Hellman is based key
generation algorithm puts a shared secret key between two parties A and B, which
depends on the prime number.
This research suggest a technique it is objective is the blending between the
two encryption methods DES and Diffie Hellman to make DES more safe and
secure. That by propose two options first one include injection the encryption DES
after the seventh round with Diffie-Hellman just as key distribution algorithm then
the results of the last back to the eighth round to complete the encryption process
of DES. The second include injection the encryption DES after the eighth round
with Diffie-Hellman just as key distribution algorithm to generate key the results
of the eighth round will be encrypted using stream cipher then back to the ninth
round to complete the encryption process of DES.

Reducing the Concentrations of Chromium and Cyanide from Industrial Wastewater By Chemical Treatments Substitutes

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 271-276

The attempt on Chromium and Cyanide removing from industrial wastewater
of chemical plotting was achieved by using the natural polymer ( animal gelatin 0
and calcium salts . Among three treatments with non treated wastewater , we were
selected the treatment with calcium chloride and gelatin in which the chromium
(Cr +6 ) reduced from 3.5 mg /l to 0.86 mg / l and the cyanide from 0.06 mg /l to
0.03 mg / l . The treatment with gelatin alone reduced concentration of the cyanide
to 0.015 mg / l. Chromium adsorption in three treatments after two hours of
stabling was ranged between 37 – 75 % and cyanide 30 – 75 % which became
within the limitation.

Effect of Additives of Recycled Al Alloy on the Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Standard Al-Si Alloy Which Produced by Precision Casting

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 277-290

The expansion in using Al-Si Alloys for the industrial and engineering
applications for their distinguished properties, presented in the combination between
mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in addition to the light weight, leads to
find substitution resources to produce these alloys and more than 40% of the world
production depends upon such a kind of production. Therefore, it is necessary and
important to search in details the mechanical properties and microstructure of the
recycled or secondary alloys. In this research , many types of practical experiments
are made for the Al- Si alloys by adding recycled alloys in different percentages (25-
36%) , which produced by precision casting ,specimens prepared for the testing of
tension , torsion, impact, fatigue and microstructure ,to find the optimum mechanical
properties with different variables by preventing the defects produced by casting such
as the presence of hydrogen and Al2O3 and their effect on the mechanical properties .It
has been found the higher percentage of the original alloy improving the mechanical
properties in the new alloy.

Compromise Study Between The Hydrate And Dehydrate Coagulate (Alum ,Ferrous sulfate and Ferric Chloride )

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 291-305

This research focuses on the use of hydrate and dehydrate aluminum sulfate (Alum) ,ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride ,Which burnt in different temperatures degrees ,or use U.S.Pat.NO.4105747 to dehydrate of ferric chloride, and compare the result and selected the batter coagulate to remove the turbidity from the water sampling light 6NTU ,medium 55NTU ,high 150NTU turbidity use the jar test to find
the change in PH and turbidity at the same condition .
The study revealed the efficiency of the gradually dehydrate coagulant in reducing the turbidity from prepared samples by continuous burnt when using alum and ferrous sulfate, and when use ferric chloride in continues change from hydrate to dehydrate coagulant.
The hydrate and dehydrate alum is batter coagulant for removal turbidity. The final turbidity from the light sample less than 1NTU and less than 2NTU from the medium samples, less than 3NTU from high samples.
There is no change in the cost by using hydrate or dehydrate alum.
It appears high increase of removal ratio between hydrate and dehydrate alum i.e from 64% to 85% for light samples and from 94% to 98% for medium samples, 91% to 98% increasing removing ratio from high turbidity samples.

Assessment Lead Content In Skin Whitening Products Available In Iraqi Markets

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 306-314

It seems evident from a wealth of scientific research that Lead is toxic. Because
of the nature of the Iraqi markets, different brands of skin-lightening creams are
widely available. In this study, 17 skin-lightening cream samples were collected
and analyzed for Lead by atomic absorption spectrometry (ASSP) after an acid
digestion procedure. About 53% of the tested skin-lightening cream samples
contained Lead at levels well above the FDA's acceptable limit of 0.01 ppm. These
findings are alarming and have wide legal and educational implications for Iraq in
particular and developing countries in general. Further investigation for possible
adverse health effects is also needed.

Study The Implications of The Decomposition by Acidic Particles of The Novolak Composites

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 6, Pages 315-332

The study tries to illustrate the most important danger of urban air pollution by acid particles ,and its effect on rain, which often turn it into sulfuric acid or sulfurous . Then it studies the problem of their impact on the Novolak composites, which work extensively in an open environment, especially in areas with industrial activity. The study focuses on the role of those pollutants, which used in certain
concentrations in traces images reflect on the composites resistance of the flexural creep at the time of dropping the load. The composites were prepared by reinforcing the Novolak material, by glass fibers one time and asbestos glass the other time. In addition, hybrid composites, by reinforcing Novolak material, with the pervious fibers (30% glass fibers +asbestos glass) were prepared. These samples were prepared in two different rates from the solid material (HMTA), which represented once by (10%) weight and (14%) weight the other time, in order
to notice the effect of the solid material on the flexural creep to the preparing models. The rate of the weight fraction of all materials was 60%. It is clear from the study that the resistance of the Novolak material to the flexural creep can be improved, by reinforcing it with fibers, and increasing the rate of (HMTA) because of their importance in raising the rate of the flexural creep strain loss % in addition
to the effect of the loss on raising the value of coefficient of flexural creep modulus of the resin material.The results show that, there are many factors help in polymeric composites decomposition .The most important factor is the high rate of the moisture content of the pure rain, which has 6.8 acidic functions (collected in
Iraq -Alkadhimiya) in the polymeric composite substance .It is clear that the flexural creep strain increased ,with the accumulation of liquids . So that the effect of this increasing, when the value of coefficient of flexural creep reduced will be clear. The research tries to ascertain that the danger implied in the assimilation of
the prepared composites of (PH) exponent of value less than (6.8). It is proved practically from the study that the collected rain from (Baghdad -Aldwoora) of (PH) exponent of value (6.3), which rose the lose value of coefficient of flexural creep. This lose doesn’t stop at this point, but the reducing of (PH) value of the unpolluted water from 6.8-5 once and 2.31 another time in the laboratory ,cause
increasing in coefficient of flexural creep lose rate. So that the Novolak composite exposing to the rain characterized in raising in the acidic degree ,when it is on the effect of continuous loading that increase creeping.