Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 29, Issue 7

Volume 29, Issue 7, May 2011, Page 333-1450

Numerical Modeling of Flood Wave Behavior with Meandering Effects (Euphrates River, Haditha-Hit)

Muhanned J. Al-Kazwini; Rafa H. Al-Suhaily; Sadiq A. Al-hdawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1227-1240
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.1

A numerical model for routing of flood wave in a part of meandering river is
presented. It is based on a modified form of the complete one-dimensional Saint-
Venant equations of unsteady flow. These equations were modified such that flows in
the meandering river channel, left over bank flood plain, and right over bank flood
plain were all identified separately. Thus, the differences in hydraulic and geometric
properties and flow-path distances were considered for all three divisions of the valley
cross-section. This development differs from conventional one-dimensional treatment
of unsteady flows in rivers with flood plain wherein the flow is either averaged across
the total cross-sectional area (channel and flood plain) or the flood plain is treated as
off-channel storage, and the reach lengths of the channel and flood plain are assumed
to be identical. The weighted four-point implicit finite difference method is selected to
solve a modified Sain-Venant equations for its versatility and computing efficiency.
The numerical model was applied to the Euphrates river at the reach between Haditha
dam and Hit city along (124.4 km) to make a sensitivity analysis of the following
parameters: maximum flood wave discharge, maximum flood wave elevation, lag time
of the peak discharge, lag time of the peak level, and time of arrival of flood wave to a
seven major cities along the Euphrates river in a case study and comparing it with a
same parameters produced when a conventional one-dimensional treatment of
unsteady flows in river with flood plains where the meandering in river is neglected.

The Frequency Theoretic Estimation of non-Linear Key Generator Sequences

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Shatha A. Salman; Ayad G. Nasser

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1241-1250
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.2

The Randomness is one of the basic criterions to measure Key Generator
Efficiency. The key generator depends basically on Linear FeedBack Shift
Register which is considered as one of the basic units of Stream Cipher Systems.
In this paper, the frequency postulate of Randomness criteria is calculated
theoretically for non-linear key generator before it be implemented or constructed
(software or hardware), this procedure save time and costs. Two non-linear key
generators are chosen to apply the theoretical studies; these key generators are the
Product and Brüer.

Output-Feedback Stochastic Nonlinear Stabilization and Inverse Optimality

Radhi A. Zaboon; Auras K. Hameed; Jehad R. Khider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1251-1264
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.3

Output-feedback (observer-based) robust and optimal control law which guarantees
global (local) asymptotic stability in probability for nonlinear stochastic dynamic
system are stated, developed and proved with the help of stochastic Lyapunov function
approach supported by necessary theorems and an illustrative example. The inverse
optimal stabilization in probability with suitable performance index has also been
stated and developed.

Steganograhy in Images by Using Intersecting Planes

Esraa Jaffar Baker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1265-1275
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.4

Steganography is the art of hiding, and transmitting information using
apparently innocent carrier without expose any suspicion. In this paper the
proposed system is an implementation of image steganography techniques. This
system will be used for embedding a steganography string into an image, which is
true color image by using LSB technique to embedding text. The proposal
technique is depending on the selection of the pixels that uses geometrical
mathematical for intersecting planes. In this method the message cipher are
repeated many time this help us to increased secure message. This method tests by
many images, and give the results without distortion the image steganography.

Using Geographic Information System (GIS) to Manage Civil Engineering Projects

Asmaa Abdul Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1276-1289
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.5

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used in many fields of Science;
one of these fields is civil engineering. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a
computer based tool used to solve engineering problems related to spatial data. GIS,
its complete potential to construction industry has not been realized. GIS technologies
have the potential to solve space related problems of construction involving,
integration of information, urban planning, and project site selection, soil studies,
Hydrology and environmental studies. Proper use for these tools necessitates training
the GIS techniques.

Influence of Flap Angle on the Aeroelastic Behavior of Wing- Flap Configuration Using Fully Coupled Structure-Fluid Interaction Model

Mauwafak A. Tawfik; Mohammed I. Abu-Tabikh; Hayder S. Abd Al-Amir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1290-1307
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.6

The influence of trailing edge flap angle on the aeroelastic behavior of a vibrating
wing-flap configuration is investigated in this work. For this purpose an aeroelastic
numerical model with fully coupled structure-fluid interaction is developed. The flow
and structural solvers are coupled via successive iterations within each physical time
step. The aerodynamic model is based on a hybrid unsteady panel method which is still
a good approach to calculate the unsteady loads. While the nonlinear plate equation
solved by an assumed mode method is used to represent the structure wing model. The
results for a vibrating rectangular wing-flap configuration in low subsonic attached
flow are presented, including the effect of flap angle on the unsteady pressure
coefficient, time history of lifting coefficient and aeroelastic behavior of the wing.
These results clearly show the effect of strong structure-fluid interaction and illustrate
the utility of the present model which may be used in the preliminary stage of the wing

Random Insertion Watermarking By Computing Angle Between Two Lines In Blue Components On Postage Stamp

Nada Mahdi al- Husseiny

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1308-1328
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.7

This paper presents a new approach for watermarking by using geometric analytic
and mathematical model providing robustness to embed the watermarking in postage
stamp (ps) image, using the angle between two lines to insert the embedded
information in blue component for pixels. Analytic geometry, also known as
coordinate geometry, or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a
coordinate system and analysis. The modern and advanced meaning refers to the
geometry of analytic varieties, to develop a data-hiding method that has a good
performance in color images. Furthermore, the watermark must be either robust or
fragile; depending on the application. The expression "robust" in this paper refers to
the capability of the watermark to resist manipulations of the media. Two types of
watermarked attack was used; the JEPQ compression as lossy compression (where
compressing and decompressing data retrieve hidden information that may be close
enough to the original image), and the enhancement filter (mean filter). This proposed
watermarking system refers to the watermark objective evaluation test or (WOET).

Training Artificial Neural Networks by PSO to Perform Digital Circuits Using Xilinx FPGA

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Firas R. Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1329-1344
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.8

One of the major constraints on hardware implementations of Artificial Neural
Networks (ANNs) is the amount of circuitry required to perform the multiplication
process of each input by its corresponding weight and there subsequent addition. Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a suitable hardware IC for Neural Network (NN)
implementation as it preserves the parallel architecture of the neurons in a layer and
offers flexibility in reconfiguration and cost issues. In this paper the adaption of the
ANN weights is proposed using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as a mechanism
to improve the performance of ANN and also for the reduction in the ANN hardware.
For this purpose we modified the MATLAB PSO toolbox to be suitable for the taken
application. In the proposed design training is done off chip then the fully trained
design is download into the chip, in this way less circuitry is required. This paper
executes four bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) implemented using Xilinx schematic
design entry tools as an example for the implementation of digital circuits using ANN
trained by PSO algorithm.

Microcontroller-Based Sun Path Tracking System

Nasir Ahmed Filfil; Deia Halboot Mohussen; Khamis A. Zidan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1345-1359
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.9

The objective of this paper is to design and construct a solar tracking system
based on a microcontroller. The system design depends on some mathematical
equations to send three signals to drive circuit to change the position of the solar
cell by changing the polarity of two motors. These mathematical equations are used
to compute the solar height angle (elevation) and the solar horizon angle (azimuth),
whereas the usage of the fixed solar cells does not accomplish the desired object,
that means the use of fixed solar cells does not grant a suitable output during a day
and a season, where the sun position differs at the morning to the noon and at the
setting of the sun, this is due to the spherical shape of Earth and to its rotation
around the sun.
The solar cell is controlled vertically and horizontally at period equal to one
hour, whereas the stored data that denote of the sun position is computed each hour
from the sunrise to the sunset, the amount of the stored data is different from a day
to another, this variation is produced by the difference of day length during the
year, whereas the amount of computed data at the summer is more than the amount
of computed data at the winter. The microcontrollers vouch for processing the data
and issue the commands to actuators to change the orientation of the solar cell. All
obtained results are very acceptable, when the system has tested in certain days. By
using the microcontroller, the project efficiency is improved, and the cost of
hardware is reduced.

The Seismic Analysis for a Multi-Story Building Due To UBC 1997&IBC 2006 Codes

Alaa K. Abdal Karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1360-1371
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.10

This Study is aimed to investigate the seismic design for typical ten-story
building by using codes formulas for evaluating the base shear forces, and
distribution of these forces, and lateral displacements along the height of this
building, also a comparison is made between two seismic codes. These different
design codes are: UBC 1997 and IBC 2006 codes. It is concluded from this
analysis that the maximum computed lateral displacements for this building by
using UBC 1997 is equal to (58.6%) relative to lateral displacements computed by
using the IBC 2006, also it is concluded from the results that the value of base
shear obtained by using IBC 2006 code is higher than the value obtained by using
UBC 1997 code by (66.6%).
The results of the bending moments obtained from the computer analysis of the
applied static seismic codes, shows that the bending moments of columns is
higher when using IBC 2006 code.

Neural Network-Based Robust Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) of Synchronous Generator

Abdullah Sahib Abdulsada; Abdulrahim Thiab Humod

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1372-1385
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.11

The voltage stability and power quality of the electrical system depend on proper operation of AVR. Nowadays, Design technology of AVR is being broadly improved.
Nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties are unavoidable problem faced in
controlling the output voltage of Synchronous Generator (SG) when working alone or with others. This paper proposes a Nonlinear Auto Regressive-Moving Average control (NARMA-L2) as a voltage controller which is one type of Neural Network (NN) plant structure. Nonlinearities due to the effect of saturation in machine between generated voltage and field current, uncertainties arise because variation of the load connected with time and the change of rotors resistance with temperature. Due to this fact, Proportional- Integral- Derivative (PID) controller cannot be used effectively since it is developed based on linear system theory. NN controller shows less over shoot and settling time than PID controller with different conditions of load. Also NN controller shows high robust characteristic than PID controller.

Residual Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

Manolia Abed Al-wahab Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1386-1390
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.12

This study aims to investigate the residual mechanical properties (compressive
strength, modulus of rupture and dynamic modulus of elasticity) of selfcompacting
concrete (SCC) exposed to elevated temperatures ranging from (100-
800 oC) as well as studying its fresh and hardened properties at normal
temperature. Also it aims to study the influence of high reactivity metakaoline
(HRM), as a partial replacement by weight of cement, for improving its mechanical
properties after and before exposure to elevated temperatures.
The concrete specimens were subjected to a temperature range of (100,
200, 400, 600 and 800oC) with an exposure duration of 2-houres. The test results
showed that the performance of SCC containing HRM is higher than that of SCC
without HRM , where the residual compressive strength of HRM SCC after an
exposure to a temperature level of (800oC) was 73.2% while for the normal SCC
was 65% from their original strength .At the same exposure temperature (800oC) ,
the loss in modulus of rupture is higher than that of compressive strength , the
difference was between (2% - 12.4%). Also the reduction in dynamic modulus of
elasticity (Ed) is higher than that of compressive strength and modulus of rupture
,where the residual (Ed) was between (47.3% - 63.5%) after 800oC exposure.

Eyes Recognition System Using Central Moment Features

Sundos A. Hameed Al; azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1400-1407
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.13

Central moment is widely used in pattern recognition because of their
discrimination power and robustness. For eye recognition these moments can also be
normalized so that the moments are also size invariant. In this work, the proposal
Eyes Recognition with Moments System(ERMS) including two methods, first method
Shape Feature Extraction(SFE) by using central moment and some image processing
techniques worked together for the features extraction, second step is a method to
recognition of eyes features by comparing between an input test eyes features
(moments) from the input image and an eyes features which store d in the features

Object Tracking using Generalized Gradient Vector Flow

Israa A. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1408-1424
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.14

The aim of an object tracker is to generate the trajectory of an object over time
by locating its position in every frame of the video. In this research, we present an
object contour tracking approach using Generalized Gradient Vector Flow
(GGVF). GGVF active contour, or snake, is a dynamic curve that moves within an
image domain to capture desired image features. Mostly, GGVF is not sensitive to
initial conditions and converges to the optimal contour. Given an initial contour
near the object in the first video frame, GGVF can iteratively converge to an
optimal object boundary. In each video frame thereafter, the resulting contour in
the previous video frame is taken as initialization so the algorithm consists of two
steps. In the first step, the initial contour is applied to the desired object in first
video frame. The resulting contour is taken as initialization of the second step,
which applies GGVF to current video frame. To evaluate the tracking performance,
we applied the algorithm to several real world video sequences. Experimental
results are provided.

Surface Fitting and Representation By Using 2D Least Squares Method in CAD Applications

Tahseen F. Abbas; Omar A. Raheem; Abdulwahab N. Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1425-1437
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.15

This paper presents a general method for automatic surface fitting from
scattered range data and describes the implementation of three methods for fitting
surfaces: linear, quadratic and cubic. It uses a modified 2D least squares method to
fitting, reconstructing and modeling several surfaces and statistical criteria to
compare the three approaches. The comparison is performed using a
mathematically defined data as real data obtained from the proposed models.
The method can be used in a variety of applications such as reverse engineering,
automatic generating of a CAD model, etc, and it has proven to be effective as
demonstrated by a number of examples using real data from mathematical
functions ( sine, cosine, exponential and cubic). By applying the proposed
surface fitting model the standard deviation was found to be (0.04-0.26), (0.02-
0.07) and (0.0-0.12) mm for linear, quadratic and cubic fitting models

Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Maher A.R. Sadiq; Yassar K. Ali; Aimen Rashad Noor

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 1438-1450
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.16

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigations
have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in
combustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewable
alternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on
the exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated at
various engine loads.
Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels
increases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the CO
and HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanol
addition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement of
combustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly with
the increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be used
as a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without major
changes, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to save
a considerable part of the available oil.

Comparison Between Nanofilters and Reverse Osmosis Membrane In Desalination Iraqi Surface Water

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 333-344
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.17

Nanofiltration (NF) has received increased attention as a possible treatment
process providing high rejection of solutes and high water flux rate. Using NF as a
desalination process for Iraqi surface water is considered in this research. A small
system with one membrane of 4 inch diameter and 1 meter long was used to
evaluate the performance of NF membrane for the desalination of Tigris River
water in Baghdad, and compare it with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. The
results showed that one could get double the permeate flow rate and spend about
20% less electric power when using NF membranes instead of RO membranes.
Permeated water TDS values for NF membrane are low enough to allow for further
adjustment for drinking water quality. NF rejection capacity for monovalent ions is
lower than that of the divalent ions, and in general the salt rejection capacity is
above 88%.

Effect of Addition Some Element Laser Surface Treatment on Wear Rate of Al-16%Si

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 345-356

In this work laser surface treatment has used in hardening alloy which are (Al-
16%Si) after melting it and addition element which are (Mg,Cu,Ni) with high
purity with suitable quantities by using pulsed Nd-Glass laser with pulsed duration
(6Hz.) with overlapped-pulses.laser surface melting method done for the alloy,and
wearing test performed with different loads before and after laser treatment ,the
results show that wear rete and hardness increases after laser treatment.
Keywords: high purity, Nd-Glass laser, laser surface melting, wear, hardness.

Design and Build a Controlled Hydrogen Fuel Cell Feeded by an Electric Circuit to Increase The Effectiveness Production of Hydrogen Gas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 357-367
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.19

In this research we report anew building system for fuel cell by the division of
water into oxygen and hydrogen using a very small amount of electric power to
obtain unlimited quantities of hydrogen fuel, by using the waves hit the water with
specific frequencies, using a new building electronic circuit. To reach the situation
of the most effective system, we built again another system by changing the
polarity shape from cylindrical shape to the flat shape to increase the surface area
and to obtain more space for the dismantling of the water molecules.
Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen fuel, electronic circuit.

Evaluation of Some Cytogenetic Effects of Bt.ASF.1 in Lab.mice

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 368-373
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.7.20

This study was amid to detection the genotoxicity ffect of biocide (Bt-ASF-1)
producing from Bacillus thuringiensis ( by oral nutrition ) in inhibition of the
Cyclophosphoamide drug in mice (Mus musculus) . Cytogenetical tests were used
to determination of the mitotic index ,micronuclei , chromosomal central
association and chromosomal aberration . The results revealed the absence of
toxicity and mutagenicity effects of biocide and its inhibition efficiency to prevent
the toxicity and mutagenicity effects of CFA drug before feeding with biocide .
Keywords : Genotoxic effects of Bt-ASF-1