Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 8,

Issue 8

A Deactivation Correlation for Platinum Y-Zeolite in n-Hexane Isomerization

Haiyam Mohammed A. Al-Raheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1451-1462
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.1

The objective of the present work is to realize the kinetic modeling regarding
deactivation of Pt-HY zeolite and monitor the isomerization reaction of n-hexane. The
catalyst has been prepared with o.4% Pt and evaluated during the isomerization reaction
of n-hexane. Based on the results of catalytic investigation, a kinetic model was proposed
to deactivate the catalyst by coke formation. The present method provides information on
apparent overall kinetics as well as deactivation parameters and would seem to provide a
rapid method for screening of reaction/deactivation behavior. Accordingly the
deactivation order was found to be 3.72. The obtained correlation of deactivation predicts
the activity pattern under the applied reaction conditions, closely mimics those observed
experimentally, and spans those obtained from empirical correlations.

One Parameter Composite Semigroups of Linear Bounded Operators in Strong Operator Topology of Schatten Class Cp

Samir Kasim Hassan; Al-Taie M; Al-Malki Anam; Al-Attar Abeer; Mustafa Khaleel Ismael; Fatema Ahmed Sadeq; Radhi A .Zboon; Jehad R.Kider; Samir K .Hassan; Hussain J. M. Alalkawi; Raad H. Majid; Rawaa A. Alomairy; Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair; Hadia Kadhim J.Al-Ogili; Assifa M. Mohamad; Abbas Sheyaa Alwan; Haider L. Aneed; Assim H Yousif; Salema Sultan Salman; Abbas Hussien Miry; Abduladhem A.Ali; Mohammed Zeki Al-Faiz; Sabah N. mahmood; Khansaa Dawood Selman; Shaymaa Tareq Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1463-1470
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.2

For semigroups of linear bounded operators on Hilbert spaces, the problem of
being in Cp , 0 Keywords

Manufacture of Light Weight Ceramic Bodies as Thermal Insulator From Local Material

Al-Taie M; Al-Malki Anam; Al-Attar Abeer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1471-1481
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.3

The research work covers a study of the feasibility of producing
lightweight ceramic thermal insulation bodies used for lining the furnaces
by adding saw dust and AlF3 to the Dewechla clay (Kaolinite).AlF3 is a
chemical waste materials in the Akashat–factories in Rutba to the
Dewechla clay (kaolinite). Finely distributed Saw dust and ALF3 were
added to clay with different weight percentages (0, 15, 25, 35 & 40) Wt%.
Cylindrical shape samples (30mm diameter and 30 mm height) were
prepared by using the semi–dry method, moulding pressure was
(500Kg/cm²). After drying at (110C◦), the samples were burnt at (900, 950,
1000, 1050&1100) C◦. The fired samples were investigated to obtain their
properties, bulk density, porosity ,compressive strength and thermal
conductivity. It was possible to produce ligh-weight ceramic thermal
insulators with bulk density between (700 and 1300) Kg/m³ compressive
strength not less than (25) Kg/cm² and thermal conductivity between (0.2
and 0.4) Kcal/m.h.c.

Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy 7020-T6 in Sea Water

Mustafa Khaleel Ismael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1482-1490
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.4

The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of heat treatment on corrosion resistance of Al-alloy 7020-T6 in sea water, the specimens which manufactured by (1.5*1.5*0.2) cm, according to ASTM (G31-72) [1] The heat treatment was carried out at 480°C and water quench after that artificial aging are implemented at temperature 150°C for (1, 4) hours. Microstructure and phase properties after heat treatment and corrosion test were investigated by optical microscope; X-ray diffraction and
computer potentiodynamic polarization technique have been used to study corrosion behavior in 3.5% NaCl. The results of corrosion resistance 7020-T6 decrease by solution heat treatment and, increase the holding time from 1- 4 hour would increase the corrosion rate, Intermetallics compounds containing zinc represent as the sacrificial anode and control pitting corrosion in 7020-T6 alloy also, the artificial
ageing time increase the precipitation of zinc and decrease pitting corrosion at 1 hour.

A New Approach for Finding The Coefficients and Roots of The Ehrhart Polynomial of A Cyclic Polytope With Some Properties

Fatema Ahmed Sadeq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1491-1496
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.5

The aim of this work is to give a simple description of a cyclic polytope and a new approach for finding the coefficient of its Ehrhart polynomials using Pascal triangles. Theorem for concluding that the roots of a cyclic polytopes are negative is also given.

Solvability of Semilinear Initial Value Perturbed Control Problems with Unbounded Control Operators

Radhi A .Zboon; Jehad R.Kider; Samir K .Hassan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1497-1508
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.6

In this paper the local existence and uniqueness of the mild solution to some operator
semi-linear initial value control problem were studied and developed by using the
theory of perturbation, composite, admissibility and "Banach contraction principle", in
arbitrary Hilbert space H via perturbation composite semigroup approach.

Fatigue of Cu 65400 Alloy under Laser treatment

Hussain J. M. Alalkawi; Raad H. Majid; Rawaa A. Alomairy

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1509-1516
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.7

Fatigue tests were done to determine the S-N curves for Cu 65400 alloy
specimens .The effect of laser shotting on the fatigue properties were investigated with stress ratio R=-1 at room temperature. Laser shotting of this alloy increases the life, endurance limits and compressive residual stresses. The largest increase in compressive residual stresses were observed at stress level 350 MPa.

Behavior of Plain and High Performance Polypropylene Fiber Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1517-1535
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.8

The aim of this work is to determine the residual compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to an elevated temperature (between100 to 500 C ◌ْ ) of plain and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PPFRC) in comparison with specimens exposed to ordinary temperature 25C ◌ْ . High – performance concrete mixes were produced by using high rang reducing agent superplasticizer (SP) and 10% high reactivity metakaoline (HRM) as a partial replacement by weight of cement (350)Kg/m3 . A single concrete mix with HRM,
SP and four PPF contents of (0.25, o.5, o.75 and 1%) by volume were adopted. The workability of the concrete was kept constant ( slump 100 ± 5mm ).Each group of specimens ( plain and PPFRC ) was heated to a specified temperature and kept at the temperature for one hour before being gradually cooled to room temperature and then they were tested .
The results show at ordinary temperatures 25 C ◌ْ, the addition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.25%) increases the compressive ( 20.6% ) comparable to HPC without fiber . While the addition of ( 0.5 , 0.75 and 1% ) of polymer fibers , the compressive strength decreased (12.6 , 19 and 33%) respectively comparable to HPC without fiber . On the other hand the addition of (VF%) of (0.25) increased splitting tensile strength ( 15%) comparable to HPC without fiber . while the
addition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.5 ) increased splitting tensile strength by a percentage which is lower than that in specimens with VF% of 0.25 , the increase in splitting tensile strength was ( 6%) comparable to HPC without fiber at ordinary temperatures
The results also shows that , when (1% ) fibers was used , the splitting tensile strength decreased ( 10.8%) in comparable to HPC without fiber At elevated temperature the results show an appreciable decrease in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to temperature higher than 300 C ◌ْ of both plain and PPFRC
Specimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , and 0.75 %) the percentage of
reduction in splitting tensile strength is lower than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature ( 500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ ) comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ .While specimen containing PPF ( 1% ) the percentage of reduction in splitting tensile strength was higher than specimen without PPF after exposure to a similar temperature .On the other hand , specimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , 0.75 and 1 %) the percentage of reduction in compressive strength is higher than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature (500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ). comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ

Effect of Thickness to the Structure Properties of CdO Thin Films

Hadia Kadhim J.Al-Ogili

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1536-1544
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.9

In this paper CdO thin films were prepared by using chemical bath deposition
method. Three different thicknesses of CdO films (84.1nm, 165.1nm, 194.23nm) were
used .x-ray diffraction technique has confirmed the formation of cadmium oxide,
where reveals the changes in films structure with thickness increase. Many structural
properties and constants have been studied and calculated by using the formation from
XRD patterns and ASTM chart such as grain size, FWHM, integral breadth, shape
factor, texture coefficient, and number of layers .These structural constants were
plotted as a function of the films thicknesses. The results indicate that the high grain
size (21.557nm) which was calculated for crystalline plane (111) was corresponding to
the high film thickness (194.23nm), while larger number of layer obtained for the film
thickness 165.2nm.

Effectiveness of Naphthalene in Grain Refinement of Commercially Pure Aluminum and Zinc Ingot Castings

Assifa M. Mohamad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1545-1553
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.10

It is well established that the properties of cast metals are greatly improved by refinement of their grain size. The method employed in this study for the refinement of grain size of commercially pure aluminum and zinc castings is inoculation of naphthalene in powder form to the mould prior to pouring the molten metal. The results show that the
addition of naphthalene remarkably suppresses the formation of columnar grains and refines the structure. Increasing the amount of naphthalene addition also minimizes and may eliminate the formation of the shrinkage cavity. Furthermore, the ability of castings
for mechanical working increases as the naphthalene addition increases

Effect of Normalizing Process on Mechanical Properties of Submerged-arc Weldment

Abbas Sheyaa Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1554-1562
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.11

Submerged arc welding is carried out and efficient metal- joining process widely
used in great importance in many industrial applications, structures of ships, storage
tanks and agriculture equipments. Low alloy steel used under welding conditions
which are, (560 Amp) welding current, (42cm/min) welding speed, (3.25mm) wire
diameter, direct current straight polarity (DCSP) with the joint geometry of single -Vbutt
joint and weld one pass are used for plate of thickness 16mm. After welding, the
components have be submitted to a normalization heat treatment in order to recover
the original mechanical properties of the welds. In this work two different filer metals
both in the as welded condition and after normalizing heat treatment have been studied.
Optical microscopy was used to observe the weld microstructure. Tensile and Charpy
V toughness testing and microhardness measurements were used to evaluate the
mechanical properties of joint. Results show that normalizing reduces the original
columnar structure in the as welded condition to an equiaxial structure. It was observed
a high decrease in the tensile properties specially the yield strength after normalizing.
In respect of toughness, the normalizing heat treatment was observed to increase the
Charpy V energy.

Evaluation of Aerodynamic Coefficients of High Temperature Gas Turbine Cascade of Cooled Blade

Haider L. Aneed; Assim H Yousif

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1563-1579
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.12

The aerodynamic force coefficients of five linear cascade of existing film cooling
turbine blades are evaluated numerically. The blade is geometrically identical to the
first rotor blades of the high pressure (HP) turbine of the F-100-PW-220 military
turbofan. Cascade turbine blade test rig has been designed, constructed, and calibrated
to introduce experimental work for the same flow conditions of the numerical solution
to validate correctness of the numerical results. The numerical simulation shows
acceptable agreement with experimental. Also it was found experimentally that both
lift and drag coefficients are increased slightly with add of film cooling.
The local Mach number distributions outside the boundary layer on both blade
sides of the cascade blade are evaluated numerically and compared with the results of
well known CFD code (Fine/Turbo) for existing gas turbine rotor stage of identical
blade. The computational results obtained for both cases show that the Mach number
distributions trend along both blade sides for rotor stage and cascade are approximately
the same, and the values of Mach number of rotor stage are higher than that for the
corresponded cascade. Also it was found that the Mach number distributions on both
blade sides are reduced in values by the addition of air cooling, and the local Mach
numbers for the cascade case is reduced in values among the rotor stage for the two
cases with and without film cooling on both blade sides.

Study the Effect of Transmission Cable Resistance on Tv – Satellite Image Quality

Salema Sultan Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1580-1596

The noise of satellite broadcasting images was statistically analyzed as a
function of values of resistant put in video signal transmission cable in images
adopted in the study. This was made by using a new method includes
mathematically separating of the two noisy effects (additive and multiplicative) by
adopting the mathematical models of noise. We have made an algorithm that
includes effects separation process and finding the site statistical distribution of
them for each band in the used images. In this study the contrast and edges points
of the satellite images were calculated. We can note the increase resistant which
put in video signal transmission cable leads to decrease in contrast and rates of
edge and increase in noise.

GUI Simulation for Movement of Human Arm Driven by EMG Signal

Abbas Hussien Miry; Abduladhem A.Ali; Mohammed Zeki Al-Faiz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1597-1609
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.14

This work presents a simulation methodology applied to a human arm. It is
aimed to allow the human-assisting manipulators to perform complex movement
based on electromyography (EMG) signal for patient person in Virtual Reality
(VR). This work achieves better classification with multiple parameters based KNearest
Neighbor for different movements of a prosthetic arm. A K- Nearest
Neighbor (K-NN) rule is one of the simplest and the most important methods in
pattern recognition. The method implements in the 3D space and uses the
MATLAB Ver.2009a approach. This methodology can be used with different
robots to test the behavior of system and the different motion

Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Mechanical Properties of CK45 Steel

Sabah N. mahmood; Khansaa Dawood Selman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1610-1618
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.15

The research aims to study the effect of laser surface treatment on mechanical properties of CK45 steel which is widely used in Bolts, Axles Various,Connecting Rods and Hydraulic clamps. Trails of laser hardening were carried out by using CW Nd: YAG laser with different powers 2.7, 3.3, and 4.3 Watt. Mechanical tests were done for the specimens who were used in the research before and after treated by laser such as: Tensile test, Micro hardness. Also grain size measurement and microstructural evaluation were done by using
computerized optical microscope. The results show that improvement in
mechanical properties at laser power 4.3 watt obviously when compared with other laser powers. From tensile test we show that increasing in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength Poisson's ratio and plasticity constant (k). Also decreasing in Young modulus, Rigidity of modulus and strain hardening coefficient (n). While microhardness results show that the highest value was obtained at laser with 4.3
watt power and decreased far from the surface. Metallographic of the specimen show that refining in grains size after the treatment with laser.

Studying the Behavior of Axially Loaded Single Pile in Clayey Soil with Cavities

Shaymaa Tareq Kadhim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 1619-1630
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.16

This paper deals with the interaction between cavities and adjacent axially loaded pile in clayey soil using the three dimensional finite element program (ANSYS 11.0).Three dimensional SOLID45 and SOLID65 elements were used to model the soil and the reinforced concrete pile respectively. Druger- Prager model is chosen to simulate the non-linear elastic-plastic clayey soil, concrete model is used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of concrete pile, the steel bars are assumed to be embedded in concrete section. A comparison of the behavior of load-settlement curve, shear stress on pile (τxy) and lateral soil stress on pile (σx) is made for cases of the variation in the cavity positions in the vertical direction (Z-direction) with case of no cavity. It has been found that the effect of the cavity on the shear stress along pile length (τxy) and on the lateral soil stress on pile
(σx) is ignored to the depth greater than (20%) of the pile length from the ground level. Furthermore, the load-settlement curves are quite difference if compared with reference case of no cavity due to the cavity position near the face of pile.

Economic Energy Consumption Using Tromb Wall Without Openings By Solar Radiation

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 374-387
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.17

The present study deals with the prediction and distribution of temperature of air that is contained in an enclosure (test room). The test room is equipped with a concrete thermo storage wall (Trombe wall). All walls of the room are thermally insulated except the one that is facing the sun light. The latter is composed of an external layer of glass followed by an air gap and the Trombe wall. Temperature
readings were taken on 21st and 22nd of December 2009. The theoretical investigation of this study is done by solving continuity,
momentum and energy equations using Finite Volume method. The solution
includes the use of the algebraic expressions of turbulent viscosity and diffusion coefficient using (k - e) turbulent model. A FORTRAN computer program is built and used to obtain the temperature and its distribution inside the room and across the wall. The variation of the temperature with time during the two days, mentioned above, has marked a highest temperature of 40oC at one clock pm . The comparison between theoretical and experimental results indicated that the rate of
rising of the mean room temperature observed experimentally is higher than that observed theoretically. However, the latter has faster rate of drop and the wall keeps the heat for longer time. The comparison is considered acceptable despite of the observed discrepancies

The Use of Toluene to Improve the Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical Properties of Polymer Blend

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 388-396
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.18

This study was performed to investigate the effect of addition the toluene solvent to prepare polymeric blends that are used in the tile manufacture. The first blend was prepared by adding the toluene solvent to epoxy resin at a weighted ratio 50%. While the second blend was prepared by adding a fixed weighted ratio of toluene solvent to varied weighted ratio of epoxy and polystyrene resins. The mechanical (hardness), thermal (thermal conductivity) and electrical
(electrical isolation) properties were applied to find the optimum weighted ratios of prepared blends when compared with untreated samples of toluene solvent. The experimental results showed that the properties of hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical isolation for both of blends were improved by (0,2.5,5,10%), down each of the hardness (27,21,20,28%) and thermal conductivity (42,20,25,27%) and
the dielectric constant (69,62,61,61%) on respectively compared with those properties of untreated samples. The improvement of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties for the second blend was predominant

Study The Environmental Effect on The Properties of (Epoxy / Rubber) Composite

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 397-407
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.19

This study includes preparation of polymer blend consisting of epoxy resin with NBR (Natural Butadiene Rubber) with70:30 percentage respectively, and this blend is used as a matrix in a composite material together with short glass fiber Eglass and carbon fiber HST type as hybrid reinforcement. Composite material specimens were prepared with a volume fraction Vf =35 %. SiO2 with particle size 50-75 μm was added in a percentage 3% to improve mechanical properties, (Impact, tensile strength, hardness) and diffusion coefficient in water and basic solution. The effect of U.V. radiation was also studied for different intervals of exposure, for the previously mentioned properties
The results showed that KOH solution had a noticeable effect on the
properties and the radiation affects negatively on the properties more than the water .The composite material reinforced with carbon fibers had better properties when considering its resistance to radiation, water, and alkaline solution.

Erosen In Architecture

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 8, Pages 408-429
DOI: 10.30684/ etj.29.8.20

The Architectural movements have adopted many strategies to create
architectural outcomes reflecting their thoughts, goals, concepts, and their special trends. Among these strategies is Erosen which has been tackled by different fields of study (artistic and architectural) to describe the characteristics of their physical outcomes, but it has not received sufficient investigation and analysis in the different architectural trends and this has triggered the need to carry out the
current research. The research problem discusses the issue that there is no sufficient theoretical knowledge concerning the strategy of Erosen, the mechanisms of embodying it, the degree of its realization in the architectural outcome of both the modern and postmodern
trends, and the nature of variance between them in the way of achieving
Erosen .Thus, the present research aims at investigating and explaining this variance in details. As to the methodology the research, it has been represented by a number of steps: First, the research tried to build up a theoretical framework for Erosen in architecture that clarifies its variables and detailed indicators, Second,
built he research hypotheses have been stated and the samples have been selected for both the modern and post-modern trends for the purpose of application and finally the results have been analyzed and the final conclusion have identified. The research has reached the following conclusion that there is a variance between the modern and post-modern trends in the way of applying Erosen of their architectural outcomes despite their similarity shown in the adoption of Erosen as a strategy to generate the outcome ,but the variance clearly has been
clearly shown in the method , style and the degree of achieving Erosen. While modernism has focused on the explicit Erosen and largely and excessively achieving it, postmodernism has focused on Erosen the content in a higher degree and achieving it in a moderate degree along with the adoption of both trends of certain mechanisms to embody the Erosen strategy within their outcomes and this is due to the variance between the two trends in the intellectual attitudes and objectives.