Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 10,

Issue 10

Investigation of the Behavior for Reinforced Concrete Beam Using Non-Linear Three-Dimensional Finite Elements Model

Israa Kh. AL-Shimmari; Nagham T.Hamad; Waleed A Waryosh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1870-1885

This study presents theoretical investigation that reinforced concrete and composite construction might be suitably combined to give a new structural material: composite reinforced concrete. To study theoretically the composite beam, nonlinear three-dimensional finite elements have been used to analyze the tested beam.
The 8-node brick elements in (ANSYS) are used to represent the concrete, the steel bars are modeled as discrete axial members connected with concrete elements at shared nodes assuming perfect bond between the concrete and the steel. The results obtained by finite element solution showed good agreement with experimental results.

Development a Sequential Search Algorithm by using Triple Structure

Ragheed D. Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1886-1892

This paper develops sequential search algorithm by using new structure called Triple structure. In this structure data are represented as triple. It consists of three locations (1-Top, 2- Left, and 3- Right)
Sequential search algorithm is a simplest form. This search is applicable to a table organized either as an array or as a linked list, this process makes the maximum number of comparisons (Average case complexity of Search) is O( n) (pronounce this "big-Oh-n"or "the order of magnitude"), if we search in a list consists of N elements. In this research the number of comparison is reduced to a third by using triple structure, is achieved this process makes the maximum number of comparisons is O(2.5(n/3)) if search in a list consist of N elements.

Multistage Ant System Optimization Algorithm

Azhar Waleed Hammad; Faiz Faig Showkat

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1893-1901

In this paper we introduce a modified ant system optimization algorithm,
we call it the multistage ant system optimization (MS-ASO). This modified algorithm
have many advantageous like releasing ants from local optima, enabling ants to accept
temporary bad solution in order to find better one later, improving the diversification
by forcing (not encouraging) ant to search new parts of the solution space, and also
pass information about the global best solution between the predetermined number of
iterations/stages. We test our modified algorithm on some benchmark problems of the
traveling sales man problem to see how good it is, the result we get was encouraging
that is we succeed in reducing the number of calculations (iterations) and we also find
new optimum solution (i.e. routes) for some benchmark problems which are better
(i.e. shortest) than published routes.

Hydrological Operation Requirements for Restoration and Improving Water Quality of Al Qurna Marsh

Ali S. Al Saady

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1902-1916

A hydrological routing study for Al Qurna Marsh was carried out to estimate the hydrological state within the marsh for the Present and future conditions of the marsh. The water surface elevation, area and storage within the marsh at the present and for the future conditions were estimated and the effect of uncontrolled outlets on the hydrological and water quality state of the marsh at the present conditions was specified. The salt mass - balance equation was used to estimate the inflow and outflow discharges that required for reducing the effect of evapotranspiration on the water quality and flashing out the accumulated mass of salts and then improving the marsh water quality. This equation was applied on the future conditions of the
marsh and inflow and outflow discharges that required for this purposes were estimated. Results of the hydrological routing for the present conditions showed that the maximum water surface area is 785 km2 which occur during October. While it is 431km2 during September and it can not be increased during these months since the outlet of the marsh is uncontrolled. The TDS concentration within the marsh
increases during the months of high evapotranspiration although the inflow increases during these months. For the future conditions, the inflow discharges required to sustain the restoration requirements must be increased to decrease the deterioration in the marsh water quality. These discharges increase with the increase in the marsh area
during the months of high evapotranspiration values.

Heavy Naphtha Reforming Reactions with Tri-metallic Catalysts, Experimental and Analytical Investigation

Shahrazad R.Raouf; Khalid A.Sukkar; Ramzy S.Hamied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1917-1935

In present work experimental and theoretical studies (A comprehensive
mathematical model and simulation was developed to describe the reaction
kinetics in catalytic reforming process) have been carried out on tri-metal supported on Al2O3 catalysts using catalytic reforming process. The Iraqi heavy naphtha is used as a feedstock for the process. The dehydrogenation, dehydrocyclization, and hydrocracking reaction were investigated to characterize the catalysts performance toward higher activity and selectivity to desired products. The performance of catalysts was studied under the following operating condition: weight hour space velocity in the range of (1-2 hr-1),
reaction temperature in the range of (480-510 °C). The results showed that the conversion of heavy naphtha components (Paraffin’s and Naphthenes) increases with increasing of reaction temperature and decreases with increasing of weight hour space velocity. Also, it was noted that the yield of aromatics and light component increases for the two types of catalysts at the same condition. The concentration, conversion, and temperature profiles have been studied of and
the results show a good agreement between experimental and simulation model with a deviation ranging between 4. 18% to 19.50%.

Off-Line Arabic Signature Recognition Based on Invariant Moments Properties

Rassoul A. H; Yasser C. Bucheet; Mohammad I. Abd-Almajied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1936-1954

In this paper, a number of persons were selected to use their signature as a
database for the work. Six signatures were taken from each person through two
separated period of time using the same pen and paper. The adopted method consists of
three main steps. In the first step, the digital image of the signature transformed into
contours. After that the main contours were extracted and the noise was rejected. These
extracted contours and their dimensions were measured precisely according to their (x)
and (y) axis. Second step is the coding step, where the (Chain Code) method was used
to code the extracted contour from the first step, converted them into vectors in which
they are very easy to deal with. Using length of the vectors were sorted descending by
that can be easily used in comparison process. The third (final) step includes
application of the (Invariant Moments) method with these chain vectors and the
calculated mean of the output for the five signatures taken for each signer and used it
as a reference feature for the signer in the recognition process. The signature
recognition process completed using the (Minimum Distance) method as a classifier to
identify the personal signature.

Novel Model Design of Compact Dual Notch-Bands of Attenuation for Bandpass Filters

Jamal. M. Rasool; Saad H. Abdul Razzaq

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1955-1961

In this paper, a new microstrip model design of bandpass filter is
proposed. Open stubs are applied to the band pass filter to refine the skirt
selectivity on both sides of the upper and lower frequency band. Two
attenuation poles are produced by this new structure. The upper band pole is
introduced by the hairpin-comb structure. The lower band pole is introduced
by the tapped open stubs. We fabricated a new structure using milling
machine at the Lab in University of North Texas (UNT). Two attenuation
poles are realized at the upper band and the lower band respectively, one at
1.71GHz and one at 1.93GHz. Sharp roll-off on both sides of the pass band is
obtained. Measured results show good selectivity at both upper and lower

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Heterogonous Epoxy -Cellulose Fiber- Micron Ceramic Particles Composite Systems

Falak.O.Abas; Sarmad.I.Ibrahim; Raghad.U.Abass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1962-1970

The new improved heterogeneous epoxy systems were successfully synthesized at different volume fraction and particle size for (0.1-50 μm) p.s and (10, 20, 30, and 40 %vol..) additives ratios respectively.
The base epoxy firstly cured with the above additive at these ratio by use of mechanical mixing without heat then mold and solidified for 48 hrs. Different thermal and mechanical properties achieved at different volume frication and partial size such as ( thermal conductivity, bending resistance , impact resistance and hardness). The results of final heterogeneous epoxy ceramic systems characteristic properties are:
Lower thermal conductivity at for boron heterogeneous systems than other
systems of Al2O3 ,SiO2, ZrO2 at 0.13 and o.37 for small and large range p.s than others of 0.18,o.21,0.37,and 0.37 for small and large range p.s than others of 0.18,0.21,0.37, and 0.41,0.49,0.55 w/mc°. Hardness of shore is higher for boron heterogeneous system than others one at 38 for large p.s and 87 for small one than others of 79,75,73 and 84,82,81 respectively . The high value of impact strength for boron system for small and large p.s for than others at 4.1 and 3 than 2.8,2.1,1.8 and 3.8 resistance at small and large p.s for boron heterogonous System than others at 0.25, and 3.8, than 0.28 , 0.35, 0.4 and 0.42, 0.43 and 0. 46 respectively.

Studying the Impact Strength of (Epoxy with TiO2 and MgO) Composite

Balkees M.Deya; Fawziea M. Hussien; Intihah Gatia Dway

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1971-1978

This work has been done with using of epoxy resin mixed with polystyrene
(90/10) % to compose binary blend. Two types of powder (TiO2, MgO) in two volume fractions of (10, 15) % were used as reinforcement materials to the prepared polymer (B).Hand lay-up technique is used in fabrication of the composite samples. Impact test was carried out for the proper samples in both normal condition and after immersion in water, KOH (0.5 N), HCL (0.5 N) solutions for periods ranging up to 8 weeks. After comparing the results between the polymer blend and their composite, it was found that Impact Strength were greater for the matrix (B) after immersion compared with their values before
immersion while the results of the composite before immersion show that
(B+10%MgO) has higher impact strength (11.333) KJ/m2

Intelligent Classifier for WBC Physiology Assignment Based on Active Contour Model

Sammar Jaafar Ismail

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1979-1990

White blood cell (WBC) plays an important role inside
human body, because it is acting as the body defense mechanism
against infection and cellular injury. Segmentation in biomedical
imaging often the starting point for other process. In this paper an
Intelligent classifier has been used to classify the normal and
abnormal WBC, this model built using MATLAB 7 package. The
output from active contour model (ACM) will be the input to the
intelligent classifier . The accuracy of classification is about 90%
according to American Heart Association (AHA) to evaluate
procedures for diagnose in biomedical applications. The approach
provide a robust and accurate results.

Secret Technique To Hiding Image After Compression In Cover Image

Ammar Abdul-Amer Rashed; Aymen Dawood Salman; Saddam Kamil Alwane

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 1991-2003

This paper presents a technique for image compression and hiding in image of a high secret has been applied to wavelet transform and wavelet transform packet first apply two dimensional wavelet transform packet on the cover image was analysis and resorting to (Secret Sub bands level) of the cover image has secret algorithm either the image you want to hide has been compressed using two dimensional wavelet transform and then the application (Hard Thresholding) in order to reduce the values of the image and was also re-sorting to the transactions analysis (Secret Sub-band level) of the secret image(compressed image) Through a secret algorithm and then was minimized transaction values of sub bands level of image want to hide, the key used (random generated Key )to hide the secret, and
this system has the property of the secret high in the process of concealment and the distribution of transactions analyzed for the image want to hide After the hit
was so secret key and collected(adding) with the sub band level of the cover image
on the adoption of the proposal are known algorithm with the secret key for both
the sender and the receiver.

Completion of Fuzzy Normed Spaces

Jehad R.Kider

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2004-2012

In this paper we recall the definition of fuzzy normed space. Much attention is paid to the concept of completeness a property which a fuzzy normed space may or may not have. We prove that for a fuzzy normed space there is always a competition. Also we study the relation between ordinary normed space and fuzzy normed space.

Kinematic Coupling Analysis of Autorotation Flying Body

Muhammad. A .R. Yass

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2013-2025

The kinematic coupling dynamic stability has been analyzed .The Laplace
transformation and the coefficient matrix determinant are used to find the rolling stability characteristic equation. The effect of parameters is investigated with different value of roll rate . It is found that the kinematics coupling or autorotation is critical at flying regime of low and high .The results can be used as real design requirements for further configuration improvements of the airplane.

Computation of Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surface Over Some Iraqi Cities

Firas Aziz Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2026-2043

In this study a simple correlation is developed to predict monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surfaces for different Iraqi locations. For fiveyears interval (1981-1985), monthly average daily global solar radiation and sunshine duration data were measured on horizontal surfaces at some Iraqi cities (Kirkuk,
Baghdad, Nasiriyah). A mathematical linear correlation represented by (Angstrom correlation) was applied to estimate the global radiation from hours of sunshine duration for these cities at the specified day of each month as shown in tables (2a, b, c). The model was compared with three different mathematical correlations models (quadratic, logarithmic, and exponential) to get the best fit among them. The obtained models have a high value of regression coefficient and give best fit through the measured values. In this study, the monthly average daily diffuse and beam radiations on horizontal surface were estimated from the measured global radiation. The overall
results show that, Baghdad city received higher radiation on the horizontal surface than Kirkuk and Nasiriyah.

Enhanced Aggregate-Asphalt Adhesion and Stability of Local Hot Mix Asphalt

Alaa H. Abed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2044-2059

A polymer modification is used to improve the fundamental properties of
asphalt binders as those properties relate to the performance of asphalt mixtures.Adhesion and cohesion are two important related properties of asphalt binders that can affect asphalt mixture performance. The first target of this study is to quantify
the effects of polymers on the adhesion and cohesion of the binders. Two types of stones are used in this study, limestone and sandstone. The pneumatic adhesion tensile tester (PATTI) is used to measure the pull-off tensile strength in Wisconsin University, it is found that the tensile strength between limestone and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) polymer increase 26% to 55% as using 2% and 4% of SBS respectively, while increase 54% to 76% when use 2% and 3.5% of Functionalized Polyethylene (PE) polymer respectively. For sandstone, 2% and
4% of SBS causes increasing the strength 5% and 18% respectively, while these values becomes 29% and 51% for asphalt binder modified with 2% and 3.5% of PE respectively. The second objective of this paper is to find the effect of the fine aggregate and polymer on the stability of the local asphalt mixture. To achieve this target two
blends have been selected, the first blend is passing under restricted zone (Sshaped blend) and second blend passing through restricted zone (fine blend). The pressure distribution analyzer (PDA) which is developed to Gyratory Load-cell Plate assembly (GLPA) by asphalt research group in Wisconsin University to measure and evaluate the resistance of mixture to distortion, the (PDA) is placed
in the gyratory compactor mold and provide load measure which is recorded simultaneously with deflection, the vertical load and the eccentricity of the load are measured using three load cells placed at the edge of the plate, the measurements are used to calculate the resistive effort (w) as a function of number of gyrations. Functionalized polyethylene (PE) polymer and styrene-butadienestyrene
(SBS) are used to show effect of polymers on Construction Force Index
(CFI) which is related to the amount of the work done for rising density of the mix to 92%. The results indicated that CFI is reduced by about 68% as using 3.5% of PE, while it is reduced about 42% when using 4% of SBS which give good indication for contractors to use polymers for reducing cost. Resistive effort results show that fine blend has higher stability than coarse (S-shape) blend,all the tests of local asphalt binders are done in the University of Wisconsin-Madison- USA.

Reaction Kinetics of Acetic Acid and n-Butanol Esterification Catalyzed by Dowex 50 Catalyst

Zaidoon M. Shakoor; Khalid A. Sukkar; Mohammed S. Baqer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2060-2072

The reaction kinetics of the n-butanol esterification and acetic acid on acidic solid catalyst named Dowex 50 under atmospheric pressure was investagated in this work. Reaction experiments were carried out in a stirred batch reactor at temperature range of 343 to 363 K, under various catalyst loads and various starting reactants feed
ratios. The experimental data were fitted to estimate the kinetic parameters for reaction mechanisms by using MATLAB 7 software. The chemical equilibrium composition was measured and kinetic information was obtained at the same temperature range. The results show that the activation energy of n-butanol esterification reaction was found to be 39.975 kJ/mol. Finally the results of produced reaction mechanisms were compared with experimental results to validate the reaction mechanism. Then it was conclud that the model results with the regressed kinetic parameters are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

Tests of Composite Beams with Web Openings

May J. Hamoodi; Waleed Kh. Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2073-2086

The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the structural
behavior of simply supported composite beams, in which a concrete slab is connected together with a steel I-beam by means of headed stud shear
connectors under the presence of web openings. Six composite beams with
constant degree of interaction were tested under central concentrated static load. One of the beams is constructed without web opening while the others contain various number, location and shape of openings. Deflection at midspan and at the ends of each opening were observed versus load. The experimental results show that the web openings decrease the strength of composite beams in the range of 19% to 24% for the tested specimens. Distinctive effects for the location, number and shape of openings took place after initiation of section yielding. Different patterns of cracks at concrete slab were observed.

Bioactivity of Curcumin Extract Against of Some Pathogenic Strains

Hamdan Abood Aday

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 2087-2092

Dried powder was extracted with ethanol. Crude ethanolic extract of Curcmin was tested against number of microorganisms (gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and gram negative bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella)) . The antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against bacteria using disc diffusion method. Results were compared to commercial antibiotics, penicillin. The ethanolic extract showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive bacteria. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of the Curcumin and
its antibacterial properties in progress.

Study Some of Mechanical Properties and Effects of Immersion in Solution of (Epoxy /Unsaturated Polyester) Blend Which Reinforced with Glass Fiber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 464-473

In this research, polymer blend was prepared from Epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester resin as matrix material (EP/UPE) with weight ratio (90/10) %. E-glass fibers type (woven roven) was used as a reinforcement material with volume fraction for fibers (Vf =30 %) by using hand lay-up method. Some mechanical properties were studied on the specimens of the above mentioned materials and then the results of the blend (EP/UPE) compared with its composite which was reinforced with glass fibers. The samples were immersed in (H2SO4) and (NaOH) solutions with normality (0.1 N) at room temperature for (7,
14, 21, 28) days. The effects of the immersion were noticed on the hardness and impact strength values. It was found that the reinforcement with glass fiber leads to the increasing of both impact strength and shore hardness of the composite before the
immersion. The effects of immersion showed decreasing of hardness values after immersion samples in to both above solutions while the results of impact strength showed an increasing after the immersion in to the acidic solution and decreasing of the pure blend and its composite after the immersion in to the basic solution.

Effect of Reinforced by Zinc Oxide Powder on the Mechanical Properties forUn-saturated Polyester Matrix Composite Material

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 10, Pages 474-484

This research is devoted to the preparation of polymer matrix composite materials by (Hand Lay-Up ) method, where the composite material was prepared from the unsaturated polyester resin (UP) as a matrix reinforced by Zinc Oxide with volume fractions (0% , 1% , 2% , 3% ,4% ) .several of mechanical tests were done and these includes Impact, Bending, Flexural Strength, Shear Stress and Hardness, Result of the
tests shows that the values of (Bending elastic modulus, Flexural Strength , Fracture Toughness, Hardness and Shear Stress) increase with the increase of Zinc Oxide particle volume fraction, but the values of Impact Strength decreased with the increases of volume fraction of Zinc Oxide particles.