Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 13,

Issue 13

An Efficient Approach Combining Genetic Algorithm and Neural Networks for Eigen Value Grads Method (EGM) In Wireless Mobile Communications

Mohammed Hussein Miry

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2590-2600
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.1

The objective of this paper is combining Genetic Algorithm and Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) neural network for Eigenvalue Grads Method (EGM)
to estimate the number of sources in wireless mobile communications. The
Eigenvalue Grads Method (EGM) is a popular method for estimation the number
of sources impinging on an array of sensors, which is a problem of great interest in
wireless mobile communications. This paper proposed a new system to estimate
the number of sources by applying the output of genetic algorithm and PCA neural
network with Complex Generalized Hebbian algorithm (CGHA) to EGM
technique. In the proposed model, the initial weight and learning rate values for
CGHA neural network can be selected automatically by using Genetic algorithm.
The result of computer simulation for proposed system showed good response by
fast converge speed for neural network , efficiency and yield the correct number of
the sources. The important feature of new system is that, the PCA of covariance
matrix are calculated based on CGHA neural network instead of determining the
covariance matrix because computation of covariance matrix is time consuming.

Influence of Metal Type on the Deep Drawing Force by Experimental and Finite Element Method

Moneer H. Al-Saadi; Hani Aziz Ameen; Rawa Hamed M. Al-Kalali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2601-2608
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.2

This paper is aimed to study the effect of material type on the drawing force. Three metals are used (low carbon steel 1008 AISI, Austenitic stainless steel 304 AISI, and pure aluminum 1100), as a sheet with thickness of 0.5mm for each one, and they were cutting as a blank with 80 mm diameter, then drawn in a die with 44mm diameter to produce cup. To predict the deep drawing force by finite element method, Hill's yield criteria is used, which examines the effect of anisotropy. Two dimension axisymmetry model of deep drawing were built and analyzed by ANSYS FEM code. The results show that the drawing force for stainless steel is higher than the other two metals due to the difference in metallurgical structure. The numerical results were compared with the experimental; good agreement was found between finite element and experimental results.

Sphrical Slab with Ferrocement

a A. Mohammed; Shayma

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2609-2616
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.3

This research is devoted to investigate the behavior of spherical ferrocement slabs under flexural loading. The main parameters considered in the analysis are the thickness of the slab, vertical and horizontal diameters, and the effect of number of wire mesh layers on the behavior of spherical. Analysis was done using the finite element software ANSYS V. 11, which is used for solving several problems of structural engineering. The 8-node iso-parametric brick elements in ANSYS are used to represent the mortar, the wire mesh layers are
considered as smeared layers elastic-perfectly plastic materials embedded within the
brick elements by assuming perfect bond between the mortar and steel.
An improvement was indicated in the behavior of the elements when changing the shape of the slab from straight to spherical slabs found in deflection about 64% (as indicated in ref. [1]). As well as increasing number of wire mesh layers from two to four and from two to six tend to increase the load capacity by 18% and 28% respectively.
The increase in the thickness and the vertical diameter cause decrease in deflection to 20% and 10% alternately.

Finite Element Analysis of Fire Extinguisher for Different Types of Composite Materials

Raed Naeem Hwyyin

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2617-2636
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.4

The stress and strain concentrations of a fire extinguisher made of different types of composite materials are investigated. The prediction of the failure limit and its location in the proposed design is always the associated problem that is inescapable and difficult to be solved completely in the shape design of pressure vessel. A three dimensional analysis in finite element method was made for determining the
concentration of stress and strain of the extinguisher. The xtinguisher is made of polyester resin reinforced with different types of fiber glass. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of different levels of internal pressure and different types of composite material on the failure limit for limiting capability of applying that
product in practical field.The results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding model where xy-strain of composite material reinforced with random fiber glass increases with rate (98%) while in the composite material reinforced with fiber glass arranged
with 45o it increases with rate (99.8 %) due to increase in the internal pressure to (0.9-5) MPa. The comparison between theoretical and numerical results gives a good agreement.

A Study of Optimum Blank Shape for Square Cup Drawing Using Finite Element Method

Harith Yarub Mann; Shakir Madhlwm Katee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2637-2647
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.5

The aim of this study is to determine the optimal blank shape for a square cup drawing with uniform flange (square and circular flange).A new algorithm is proposed to control of flange shape based on shape error. To reduce earing defects on boundary of deformed flange, the initial blank shape was iteratively modified. This modification is repeated until an optimal blank shape for the part is achieved. To
apply this algorithm, 3D model of deep drawing was used and analyzed by Ansys 11.0 FEM code. Low carbon steel was chosen to carryout the simulation. The results show that the shape of optimum blank has significantly reduced the earing defects in few iterations
by using this algorithm.

Proposed Method to Enhance the Security of Blowfish Algorithm

Shaimaa H. Shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2648-2661
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.6

The selective application of technological and related procedural safeguards is an important responsibility of every organization in providing adequate security to its electronic data systems. Protection of data during transmission or while in storage may be necessary to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of the information represented by the data. This paper introduces a proposed method to enhance the complexity of the Blowfish algorithm. This is done by using an operation depends on using eighteen multiple keys, each key consists of a combination of 4 states (0, 1, 2, 3) instead of the ordinary 2 state key (0, 1) applied during the 16 round of Blowfish algorithm,
according the analysis of results found the new approach provide more secure and more robustness to cryptanlaysis methods.

Preparation and Catalytic Study of Selected Types of Zsms-Zeolites

Shahrazad R.Raouf; Moayed G. Jalhoom; Ramzy S.Hamied

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2662-2679
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.7

In present work experimental studies have been carried out on three types of crystalline zeolites were prepared and used as supports for platinum catalysts. All were synthesized in the laboratory (ZSM-5, -11, and –23) with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 37, 86 and 94 respectively. N-Pentane is used as a feedstock for the process. The isomerization and cracking reaction were investigated to characterize the catalysts performance toward higher activity and selectivity to desired products. The
performance of catalysts was studied under the following operating condition:liquid hour space velocity in the range of (1-2 hr-1), reaction temperature in the range of (310-350 °C). The results showed that the prepared catalysts exhibit different activities toward n-Pentane isomerization and hydrocracking. These catalysts have high activity toward isomerization at low temperature while at high
temperature the yield toward hydrocracking is increased. Also hydroconversion of n-Pentane decreases with increasing of liquid hour space velocity.

Study of Thermal Behavior for Epoxy and Some of Its Composites in Different Temperatures Using Water Bath Technique

Zaid Ghanem M.Salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2680-2688
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.8

The aim of this research is to study the property of thermal conductivity for epoxy and some of its composites at room temperature, and various temperatures for various period of immersion using water bath technique. Three samples are prepared by hand lay-up method. The first sample is epoxy resin, the second sample is epoxy resin reinforced with Aluminum powder, and the third sample is epoxy resin reinforced with Al fibers. The volume fraction is 15%. Thermal conductivity is measured for three samples at room temperature (30 ºC) using Lee’s disc device. Thermal conductivity is measured for samples after immersion in water bath for (30, 60) minutes at (40, 50) ºC. Activation energy is measured for samples. Results show generally that reinforcing with Al powder and fibers increases thermal conductivity.
Also thermal conductivity increase for samples at 50 ºC after immersion in water bath at this temperature as compared with other temperatures. It is found that thermal conductivity, generally, decreases by increasing the period of immersion in water bath whereas thermal conductivity recorded lower values after immersion for 60
minutes. Results shows that sample of epoxy reinforced with Al powder have the highest value of activation energy as compared with other samples.

Statistical Models for Predicting the Optimum Gypsum Content in Cement Mortar

R. S. Al-Rawi; A. H. Al-Neaime; Zena K.Al-Anbori

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2689-2705
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.9

One of the most important problems in concrete industry in Iraq is deterioration due to internal sulfate attack that causes damage of concrete and hence reduces its compressive strength, increases its expansion and may be lead to its cracking and destruction. Linear regression analysis is used to predict the optimum SO3 content
(O.G.C) on the basis of cement chemical composition, Blaine fineness and age. Three models are presented, the first one is an early age model (less than or equal to 7- days). Then a late age (greater than 7-days) model was developed based on the predicted optimum SO3 content of early age and late age. The third model was an all ages model and it is a general model specially for OPC. The important results
obtained are the positive effect of C3S, C3A and C4AF on optimum SO3 content in cement mortar. The effect of C3A on optimum SO3 content is about twice that of C4AF. The study also showed a trend of positive and important effect of the fineness of cement.

Effect of the Heat Treatments on Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion for Carbon Steel

Muna k.Abbass; Mohammed A.Ahmed; Makarem Hazem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2706-2722
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.10

The aim of present work is to study the effect of different heat treatments [full annealing ,normalizing ,and hardening and tempering at (300C° ,600C°)] on general corrosion and erosion-corrosion for a carbon steel type (C35) in 3.5wt% NaCl solution as corrosive medium for general corrosion while in erosion-corrosion ,slurry with 1wt% SiO2 sand was added to 3.5wt% NaCl solution as the erodent. The experimental work tests were done using special device which was designed and manufactured according to (G73 ASTM) using traditional weight loss technique to measure weight loss rate or corrosion rate in (gmd) unit.
It was found that the general corrosion rates for all heat treated specimens were lower than erosion-corrosion rate. The erosion-corrosion rate of specimen which was quenched and tempered at 600C° was found smaller than other heat treated specimens The normalizing heat treatment of low carbon steel improves the general pure corrosion resistance after immersion 20 day in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution.

Simulation of Interference Avoidance in Cellular Digital Relay Networks using Dynamic Frequency Hopping

Hosham Salim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2723-2738
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.11

Cellular Digital fixed Relay networks are new wireless system architecture based on integrating Digital Relay technique in the cellular networks to provide high data rate coverage. Therefore, interest has focused on solving the interference and multipath
fading problems which introduce in system because of increasing the resources of signal in cell (Base station, Relays). This paper proposes Dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) as an interference avoidance technique for cellular Digital fixed Relay networks. The simulation of system contains applying Digital Relay and DFH techniques and focuses on the handoff process between Base station and Digital Relay. The simulation results compare the performance of system for two cases; with
Relay-without DFH, and with Relay-with DFH. The results indicate that DFH can significantly improve the performance of system. The results show when the cluster size of system consists of seven cells the enhancement ratio is 83% in the blocking probability with high number of calls per hour and increase 15.38% in the number of
users. When the cluster size of system consists of thirteen cells, the enhancement ratio is 85% in the blocking probability with high number of calls per hour and increase 15.38 % in the number of users.

Training Artificial Neural Network Using Back-Propagation & Particle Swarm Optimization for Image Skin Diseases

Hanan A. R. Akkar; Samem Abass Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2739-2755
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.12

This work is devoted to compression Image Skin Diseases by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and training Feed-Forward Neural Networks (FFNN) by using Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) and compares it with Back-Propagation (BP) neural networks in terms of convergence rate and accuracy of results .The comparison between the two techniques will be mentioned. A MATLAB 6.5 program is used in simulation.
The structure Artificial Neural Network (ANN) of training image skin diseases is proposed as follows: 1- The proposed structure of NN that performs three compressions Images Skin training by BP algorithms with log sigmoid activation function, and three neurons in output layer.
2- The proposed structure of FFNN using PSO that performs three compressions Images Skin with hardlim activation function, and three neurons in output layer. The results obtained using PSO are compared to those obtained using BP. Learning iterations (602-4700 epoch), convergence time (1sec.- 100 sec.), number of initial
weights (1set - 75set), number of derivatives (0 - 38 derivatives) and accuracy (60% - 100%) are used as performance measurements. The obtained Mean Square Error (MSE) is 7 10 - to check the performance of algorithms. The results of the proposed neural networks performed indicate that PSO can be a superior training algorithm for
neural networks, which is consistent with other research in the area.

A New Design of High Negative Dispersion Optical Fiber with - 951ps/ ( at 1550nm

Jassim Kadim Hmood; Alaa Hussein Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2756-2764
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.13

In this paper, a new design of high negative dispersion optical fiber is introduced.The generalized analysis of multiple-clad cylindrical dielectric structures with step index profiles is presented. The design is focused on quadrature-clad fibers. The optical fiber with step-index but certain profile is tested. By using simulation program, the optical fiber with high negative dispersion was designed and tested. A very high negative dispersion (up to -951ps/nm/km) is obtained due to a design optical fiber with quadrature-clad at wavelength of 1550nm.
Each of fiber profile and the relation between the dispersion and wavelength are plotted. The computer simulations show that an optimally designed negative dispersion fiber can reduce the dispersion of standard fiber when it is added with the existing standard fiber in a ratio of 50:1.

The Effect of (á-Al2O3) Volume Fraction on The Mechanical Properties of (Al-Alumina) Metal Matrix Composite

Fawziea M. Hussien; Baydaa Abdul-Hassan Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2765-2772
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.14

This research tends to study the effect of change in volume fraction of alpha phase alumina on mechanical properties of a metal matrix composite specimens contain (Al- áAl2O3). Specimens were prepared with the following volume fractions (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45). Then effectof this change on hardness, maximum stress and strain,
Young’s modulus, impactand wear resistance has been studied. Results of testing showed that while hardness, maximum stress, Young’s modulus, and impact strength increased markedly with volume fraction of alumina, wear rate, and maximum strain decreased with increasing of volume fraction.

Crack Growth Model for Estimating the Fatigue Life under Variable loading

Hassan Abd- ALRsoul; Basim H. Abbas; Khairallah S. Jabur

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2773-2782
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.15

This paper examines the fatigue short and long cracks behaviour in 2024 T4 aluminum alloy under rotating bending loading and stress ratio R = -1. In the short cracks region, cracks grow initially at a fast rate but deceleration occurs quickly and, depending on the stress level, they either arrest or are temporarily halted at a critical length. This critical length is shown to conincide with the value of the microstructure parameter, grain size diameter, An empirical model which describes short and long cracks rates is developed and
is seen in good agreement with the experimental observations in this alloy. Comparison of the empirical model lives results with cumulative fatigue results has shown encouraging experimentally agreement while liner rule gave a non – reasonable prediction.

The Effect of Water Film on Built Oxide Layer in Copper Plate Using Laser Shock Wave

Ali A.Abdulhadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2783-2792
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.16

After Nd-Yag laser treatment with and without water thin film, copper plate material was used under 2880 hours of humidity environment to build a green oxide layer. Oxide layer and water thin film were studied; corrosion rate and oxide percent were measured with and without water film under same environment for one laser pulse, 2 pulses, 3 pulses and 4 pulses. The results show improvement and stability in corrosion rate for water thin film of one pulse during the test period. This paper gives comparative results referring to water laser technology on corrosion rate of green oxide layer for copper plate
with and without water thin film during specific period of time.

Effect of Rubber Treated by Acidic Solution On Some Mechanical Properties of Rubberize Cement Mortar

Aziz Ibrahim Abdulla; Salwa Hadi Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2793-2806
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.17

In the present work, the properties of rubberize cement mortar containingcrumb rubber treated by acidic solution are tested and compared with normal rubberize and normal cement mortar.The rubber, which is treated by different acidic solution such as: (H2SO4, HCl and CH3COOH) is used as a fine aggregate as avolumetric partial
replacement of sand in cement mortar. The percent of replacement ranged from 5 to 30%.Compressive strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity (static and dynamic) a retested for all mixes. Cubes of cement mortar also tested by ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and hammer tests method to show the effect of treated rubber on the UPV and hammer tests and to demonstrate the possibility of this methods for
estimating the compressive strength of rubberize cement mortar.The results show that the treatment of rubber by acidic solution significantly improves the properties of rubberize cement mortar. Moreover the results show that CH3COOH gives better improvement compared withH2SO4. The treatment of rubber by HCl shows negative
effects on all cement mortar properties.

Studying the Effect of Adding Sea Nodules Powders on Flexural Strength and Hardness of Unsaturated Polyester Resin

Saad M. Elia

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 2807-2817
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.18

This research had studied the effect of Sea Nodules powder filler with different particle size (<53, <75, <106 ìm) and volume fraction of (3, 6, 9, 12) % on some mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resin. Bending results had revealed a decrease with the increase of volume fractions, and decrease of particle size. While modulus of elasticity increased with increasing volume fraction and decreasing of particle size. Hardness and bending strength results had show an incremental increase with volume fraction increase and a decrease with particle size decreasing also the maximum shear stress was increased.

The Cytotoxicity Effect of Ethanolic Crude Extract of Petroselium Crispum Leaves on Cancer Cell Line AMN-3

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 543-553
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.19

This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethanolic crude extract of Petroselium cripum leaves on the proliferation of the cancer cell lines AMN-3. The cytotoxicity of cancer cell line of concentrations of (0.95, 1.9,3.8,7.7,15.5,31.25,62.5,125,250,500,1000,2000, 4000, 6000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 14000 and 16000) μg/ml showed there was no inhibition observable in concentration (o.95, 1.9, 3.8, 7.7, 15.5, 31.25, 62.5 and125) μg/ml. While at concentration of 250,500 and 1000 mg/ml the inhibition percentage was less than 50%.But at concentration of 2000 and 4000μg/ml the inhibition percentage was(63%,66%) respectively , while after 48hrs the concentration of
(6000,8000,10000,12000,14000 and16000)μg/ml the inhibition percentage was more than70% .This study was found that the alcoholic extract has toxic effect on cancer cell line . AMN-3 cell line the inhibition percentage was71.97% and78.20% at concentration of 6000μg/ml and 16000μg/ml after 24hrs; while after 48hrs the percentage was 74.04% and 80.96% respectively,but after 72hrs the percentage was 75.08% and82.69% respectively.From this result we can concluded that this plant have a promosing medicinal plant for effect on cancer,through out the toxic
effects on cancer cell line.

The Study of Spectroscopic Properties and Determinate the Quantum Efficiency For Coumarin Dye (C-2) With in DMSO Solution and PMMA Thin Film

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 13, Pages 554-565
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.13.20

It has been studied absorption spectra and The fluorescence for Coumarin Dye (C-2) as mixture in polar solvent with different concentrations and in addition to poly Methyl Metha Acrylate (PMMA) as a thin film with concentrations ( 2x10-5, 6x10-5, 1x10-4)M at room temperature ,and the quantum efficiency of this films for each concentration has been calculated to be ( 65. 7 , 70.1 , 75.3 ) % respectively.Also ,the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the polymer mixed with different concentrations of dye C2 has been studied