Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 29, Issue 14

Volume 29, Issue 14, October 2011, Page 566-3037

Comparative Study of Swarm Intelligence Behavior to Solve Optimization Problems

Hasanen S. Abdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2818-2840

The optimization problems usually need specific techniques to solve, therefore many approaches and methods were proposed to solved such problems, but there are many difficulties (limitations) still faced the problem solvers such as how to reach the solution (or solutions) with high performance and efficiency or with more accuracy results or with suitable behavior. Thus the artificial intelligence tools are considered the best tools that can be used to solve the optimization problems, because the AI tools must decide two important
aims: the problem reduction and the guarantee of solutions which lead to less the effect of the difficulties (limitations) and give more suitable criteria in performance, efficiency, and behavior. The swarm intelligent techniques are considered the most modern AI techniques which contains many approaches that are used to solve optimization problems with high performance and efficiency and suitable behavior
In this paper a specific study is made to the behavior of the swarm intelligence techniques and evaluates its performance to solve various problems, then there is a presentation to a scientific comparative section in which many approaches is presented that used different swarm intelligence techniques such as Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Bees Algorithm (BA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to solve various optimization problems and them make a comparison among them in
term of behavior and performance. Finally we reach to scientific discussion and conclusions that distinguish among the presented approaches to prove that the swarm intelligence techniques success in solving practical, important, and applicable problems with high performance, efficiency, and special behavior.

Influence of the Butt Joint Design of TIG Welding on the Thermal Stresses

Hani Aziz Ameen; Khairia Salman Hassan; Muwafaq Mehdi Salah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2841-2858

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of the single butt joint design of TIG welding on the thermal stresses for carbon steel type St-37. The butt welding was performed by V angles 30°,45°,60° and 90° and the thermal stresses analysis is based on the local moving heat flux. The numerical model developed by ANSYS12
software based on solving the three dimensional energy equation, considering moving heat source and temperature dependent material properties. Temperature and stresses distributions were obtained function of time. From the results, it is evident that the
joint design has an important role in the welding process, when the edge angle of the welding region gets bigger, the faults get less due to increase of heat flux in the welding region. It can be concluded that the specimen with less than 6mm thickness can be welded without edge angle preparation, due to increase the thermal stresses
when edge angle is evident and higher thermal stresses distribution was at edge angle 60° and lowest thermal stresses distribution was at 90°.

Website Anti-Phishing Technique Using Randomized Dyadic Dilation DWT

Mohammed Gheni Alwan; Khlood I. Abbas; Mohammed lbrahim Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2859-2868

Website phishing is a growing threat on the internet and its effect is devastating when it comes to phishing financial web sites, such as eBay, official bank accounts or other critical sources. It is an easy way to fraud a web site source code and even a whole website
can be totally downloaded using free software packages, clients do not know for sure if they talk to a genuine or fake websites by counting on what it looks like and its components. This paper is proposed to use randomized dyadic dilation wavelet to enhance the authenticate designated website to the visitor and in the same time authenticate the visitor to the website. This technique mainly designed
to defeat Man-In-Middle attack which is the main threat source for website phishing due to the difficulties of getting the transformed image reconstructed easily.

Rotational Viscosity Prediction Models For Asphalt Cement

Alaa Saadi Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2869-2879

It is a great importance to know asphalt cement viscosity in order to perform handling, mixing, application processes and asphalt compaction in highway surfacing.This paper presents the results of rotational viscosity measurement for different asphalt cement sources, grades, and different test temperatures. statistical models were developed to predict the rotational viscosity for any asphalt cement grades that
usually used in pavement work in Iraq and for different test temperatures. in this study six types of asphalt cement have been used. All the asphalt cement are locally available and widely employed for the pavement construction in the Iraq. These asphalt cement are: AC(40-50) from Daurah and Baiji refinery, (AC 60-70) from
Daurah refinery, AC(50-60) from Daurah and Basrah refinery, AC(85-100) from Daurah refinery. Also, this paper shows that no change have been observed in rotational viscosity for asphalt cement blow 100 °C, and it is about 12613 mPa.s.

Validation of Numerical Computations and Turbulence Models Combinations for Gas Turbine Cascade Blade Flow

Assim Yousif Hameed; Hakem Tarteb

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2880-2899

The accuracy of computer codes for turbo-machinery turbulent flow field
calculations relies strongly on the type and behavior of the turbulence model used
in the computations. Analysis of different Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes
Equation (RANS) based turbulence models was applied to predict the flow field in
the linear first stage gas turbine cascade blade. The experimental investigation is
also introduced to validate the accuracy of turbulence models. This was done by
using five linear cascade blades tested in an open jet type low-speed subsonic wind
tunnel. The static pressure distribution was measured at the midspan of cascade
middle blade by using static pressure taps. The numerical results obtained from
different turbulence model simulations is individually reviewed for the correctness
of its predictions and compared with the experimental data in terms of integrated
flow parameters, such as static pressure coefficient distribution on both blade sides.
The results show that RNG k-e turbulence model gave the best prediction of
pressure distribution when compared with the experimental data. Prediction of
standard k-ε and k-ω turbulence models fail to predict accurately the flow field
parameters in cascade passage. Prediction of (k-ε) turbulence model overestimate
the turbulence kinetic energy values, especially in the regions of high velocity at
blade suction side, also not accurately predict the flow separation on the blade
suction side.

Optimizing the Process of Arc-Spraying To Improve Wear Resistance of Crank Shaft

Asmaa Ali Hussein; Abdullah F. Hauier

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2900-2911

This research studies the factors effecting on coating produced by electrical arcspraying. The studied variables are applied voltage, wire feed rate and spraying distance.In this investigation used wires made from martinsitic stainless steel to coat the bearing of spherical graphite cast iron. range. The mechanical properties of coating such as hardness are used.Limited optimal environments by electric arc
spraying to improve wear rate resistance of crank shaft.In the first stage all samples and metallizing wires were prepared and chemically analyzed. The coating operation was carried in the second stage. Each group of samples was coated in different way with variable spraying factor being considered. In the third stage all samples were
tested using pin on ring wear testing machine. The investigation performed in this work showed that the process variable have a considerable effect on coating quality ,and spraying distance range emerges as the most significant process variables. The
final results showed that the best voltage in this application is between 28-30V, wire feed rate is 100 mm/s, and best spraying distance is about 12-15cm to get a good coating with maximum wear resistance.

Particle Swarm Optimization for Adapting Fuzzy Logic Controller of SPWM Inverter Fed 3-Phase I.M.

Fadhil A. Hassan; Lina J. Rashad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2912-2925

According to the high performance demand of speed control of an induction motor, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) gives superior behavior over wide range of speed variation. Fuzzy logic is a robust controller for linear and non-linear system, even if good mathematical representation of the system is not available. But, adapting
fuzzy controller parameters is very complex and depends on operator experience. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper as an optimization technique for adapting centers and width of triangle inputs membership functions. The ordinary adapting method of FLC is represented too. Meanwhile, based on the concept of optimization, ways of defining the fitness function of the
PSO including different performance criteria are also illustrated. The complete mathematical model and simulation of an induction motor and inverter are represented in this paper. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSOFL speed controller realizes a good dynamic behavior of the I.M with very good speed tracking.

Studying the Effect of Chemical Solutions on Bending Behavior of Epoxy Reinforced With CDs Waste

Nervana A. Abd Alameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2926-2932

The aim of this study is the effect of salt, acid and base solutions on bending behavior of CDs reinforced epoxy. Epoxy resin matrix is reinforced with weight fraction 15, 30&45 % chopped chips CDs waste. The experimental results indicate that the composites materials have higher flexural stiffness than the matrix material where the young modulus of epoxy is improved from 2.6GPa for matrix to 3.936 GPa
reinforced with 45% CDs that is 60% increasing, due to CDs were more contact which have high flexural stiffness. The test solutions chosen were 10 % NaCl, NaOH & H2SO4. The results indicate that the 45% CDs reinforced epoxy chosen is good chemical resistant to NaCl and NaOH whereas flexural stiffness changes are relatively for each examination time, while the maximum flexural stiffness occurred in H2SO4 solution was approximately -10% for 8 week due to epoxy is less resistant
to sulfuric acid.

Non-Destructive Test of Concrete Structures Using: FERROSCAN

Aseel A.Salman

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2933-2941

The non-destructive testing (NDT) industry is reviewed, the major techniques being described and current development directions and challenges identified. One of the most common techniques (ferroscan) is explained briefly below. Ferroscan is a non-destructive measuring method based on the generation and detection of electromagnetic fields in conductive materials. In concrete structures, the strength of this induced field depends on the diameter and the cover of the
reinforcement. The techniques has been shown to find location and orientation of reinforcement bars, stirrup, or other metal pipe, in the concrete, measure thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement bar, and to determine the bar diameter. In this paper Ferroscan FS 10, a portable detection, was used for measuring and mapping system which provides an immediate liquid crystal image of the reinforcement within a survey area which include reinforcement concrete beam
(1000*200*120)mm. The great advantage of measurements with ferroscan, compared to existing detection systems, is that the measurements can be carried out far quicker and more accurately, accurate mapping out of reinforcement and verification of reinforcement in old building.

Lipes Tracking Using Active Contour Method

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Abdulhamza A. Abdul karim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2942-2953

Speech recognition based on visual information such as the lip shape and its movement is referred to as lip reading. The visual features are derived according to the frame rate of the video sequence. The proposed work adopted in this paper based upon the lower part of human face to extract the speaker sound relevant features accurately and robustly from the inner edge of lips, using biometric to verify a person's identity by drawing their relevant physiological or behavioral characteristics curves. Lips contain a large volume of unique features. The results are promising and offer a good reaction (even with reducing the number of tested frames). The recognition rate with only audio: 86% - 100%, with only visual: 73% - 100%, and with both (audio - visual) recognition rate is: 92% - 100%.

Alpha Amylase Production by Aspergillus Oryzae Using Solid State Fermentation

Suhad Adnan Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2954-2960

A fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae was used for the production of alpha amylase by solid state fermentation from agro-industrial waste. Enzyme production was growth associated and maximum activity (8.23 U/ml) were obtained after 120h when incubated at 30°C on wheat bran with initial moisture content 60%; initial medium pH = 5 . Enzyme activity increased when the solid medium was supplemented with additional nitrogen source (sodium Nitrate).

Experimental Investigations in Circular Tube to Enhance Turbulent Heat Transfer Using Various Types of Twisted Tape Insert

Akeel Abdullah Mohammed; Ameer A. Jadoaa

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2961-2972

This work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of twisted tape inserts. Six types of twisted types used with total length of 1200mm and diameter of 50mm are considered for experimentation as follows: normal twisted tape regularly spaced twisted tape, triangular-cut twisted tape, rectangular-cut twisted tape,
semicircular-cut twisted tape, and drilled twisted tape. The range of Reynolds number extends from 4500 to 23500. Correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and enhancement efficiency are developed for each type of twisted tape inserts from the obtained results. It is observed that the enhancement of heat transfer increases as the
type of twisted tape changes from one to six, respectively.

Parameters Influence Pedestrian Traffic Safety at Urban Unsignalized Intersections

Sahar Saffaa Hadi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2973-2985

This paper reports on diagnostic parameters for pedestrian traffic safety problems using the Traffic Conflict Analysis Technique (TCT), particularly for pedestrian crossings at urban unsignalized intersections. The method of study is based on the U.S. FHWA-Federal Highway Administration guides for vehicular and pedestrian
conflicts, applied using data collected from pedestrian crossings of several types observed in 4 critical unsignalized intersections in Baghdad city all of them located on the CBD area and experiencing high vehicular and high pedestrians volumes. Regression analyses is performed to relate hourly pedestrian conflict to (hourly traffic
conflict, hourly pedestrian volume, average pedestrian walking speed) as well as hourly pedestrian conflict/ approach to (average spot speed, average pedestrian delay and approach width). HCM 2000 manual are adopt to determine the average pedestrian delay. Specific categories of countermeasures in geometric characteristics are suggested to improve pedestrian safety. A developed model shows that, an extra increase of hourly pedestrian conflict can be represented by positive exponential model trend in relation with hourly pedestrian volume, hourly traffic volume, average spot speed and average pedestrian delay with
coefficient of correlation range between 0.824–0.949, as well as a developed model shows that, an extra decrease of pedestrian conflict can be represented by negative exponential model trend in relation with average pedestrian walking speed with coefficient of correlation 0.921, on the other hand, it is found that, an increase of pedestrian conflict can be represented by positive linear model trend in relation with
approach width with coefficient of correlation 0.837.In addition it is found that the higher coefficient of correlation 0.943 well get it when pedestrian conflict related with the hourly pedestrian volume and average pedestrian delay convened from all studied parameters (average spot speed, approach width, hourly traffic volume, average walking speed, average pedestrian delay and exit stop line).

A study of Free Convection in A solar Chimney Model

Sabah Tarik Ahmed; Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2986-2997

A solar chimney is a hot air channel attached to a circular translucent
roof opens at the periphery. The roof and the ground below it form an air collector. It enhances natural ventilation by employing air temperature difference between channal inlet and outlet. An experimental work was carried out for a designed and fabricated prototype solar chimney, in Baghdad-Iraq’s autumn weather 2009. The chimney’s tower hight was 4 m and the solar collector diameter was 6 m. A maximum air temperature differance attained was 22ºC at mid day through the solar chimney. The study shows that Iraqi weathers are suitable for this system. Maximum heat transfer coeffecient (h) was 31.83 W/m2K, maximum air volume flow rate achieved was 0.065 m3/s, and maximum air velocity at the chimney outlet acquired was 2.309 m/s. Empirical equation that relates Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers was obtained.

The performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Charge Coupled Devices

Saad Al-Sabbagh

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 2998-3005

From gas phase and by glow-discharge method Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Charged Coupled devices have been deposited. A detailed practical study has been carried out. The most important parameter , the transfer efficiency , was found to depend strongly upon the device gate number and the clock frequency. The best efficiency achieved was 97.7% and that was at frequency of 250 Hz.

Surface Treatment of Aluminum Alloys Using Nd:YAG Laser

Majid Hammed Ismaiei; Mohamed Abdul Wahhab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 3006-3018

In this research, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with wavelength (1064nm )
and (532 nm) and pulse duration (100 ns) for different energies [250 mJ,500 mJ,750 mJ,1000 mJ ] and spot size (1.5mm) was used.
Laser surface treatment is the most important way in industrial application because of its ability to improve the surface properties of metal and alloys. The alloys used were [Al-Cu-Si], [Al-Si-Mg] and [AL-Zn-Mg].The essential aim for this work includes study the effect of laser parameters on aluminum alloys. In laser surface engineering the mirohardness and wear tests will be studied after laser treatment.
The effect of laser parameters includes:
1- The effect of the pulsed Nd: YAG laser energy.
2- The effect of the number of shots (pulse).

Removal of SO2 in Dry Fluidized and Fixed Bed Reactors using Granular Activated Carbon

Neran K. Ibrahim; Omar A. Jabbar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 3019-3037

Flue gas desulfurization process has been studied using granular activated carbon in bubbling fluidized bed reactor. For the sake of comparison, fixed bed configuration has been also studied at the same operating conditions. The effect of temperature 30 . T . 80 oC, inlet SO2 concentration 500 . Co . 2000 ppm, and flue gas flow rate 2.5 .
Q . 30 ./min were investigated. The results showed that the SO2 removal efficiency increases with increasing reaction temperature up to 80 oC. Also, it was noted that the removal efficiency decreases with increasing the inlet SO2 concentration within the range of temperatures studied. The effect of flue gas flow rate on the desulfurization
activity was in two ways; an increase in the removal efficiency with increasing gas flow rate was observed below flow rate = 7.5 ./min, while a decrease in the efficiency was observed upon any increment in the gas flow rate beyond the 7.5 ./min. The results of fluidized bed reactor were used to obtain an empirical correlation and the experimental results were well correlated with the proposed form
with a correlation coefficient, (R) =0.989. A reaction rate equation was proposed for the oxidative desulfurization and the activation energy was obtained using differential analysis of integral reactor technique. The resulted value of apparent activation energy was 2.981 kJ/mol.

The Optimal Selection of The Workers Number and Reduction The Time In Maintenance Lines of Production Machine Using Waiting lines Theory

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 566-575

Aiming to reduce waiting time and to get optimum investment for material and human resource .The queuing lines principle is introduced, the mathematical models required are given, and its applications are discussed. The queuing lines procedure is applied in the general establishment for manufacturing of ready made clothes in Mousl , the data collection and statistical tests are used to choose the mathematical model suitable for a certain workshop . The results for such a model showed that there are better operation results with less time and more organized processing.

The Effect of Addition of Carbon Fibers on Some Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 576-596

To Study the possibility of producing self compacting concrete (SCC), 10% by weight of cement of metakaoline and silica fume were used and carbon fiber with two volume fraction (0.1%, 0.5%) and two fiber lengths (6mm, 12mm) were add . the effect of these variables on most properties of SCC containing fibers has been studied.
Test results show that concrete mixes containing metakaoline and silica fume required higher superplastizer content to 9% and 10% by weight of cement compared with 8% by weight of cement for mixes without Pozzolanic materials to maintain the self compatibility of mixes .
A significant improvement was observed in the mechanical properties of mixes including compressive and splitting tensile strength, Moduls of rupture, static Modulus of elastisity, and impact resistance. the improvment percentage at 28 days were (6.74% , 5.37% , 4.5% , 3.2% , 6.07%) respectively for SCC with silica fume mixes and (8.43% , 7.6% , 6.08% , 4.03% , 30.30%) respectively for SCC with High
reactive metakaolin mixes. Test results indicate that the addition of carbon fibers led to reduce the workability of mixes and the reduction was increased with fiber length and fiber content. mixes
reinforced with carbon fibers, the compressive and splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, static moduls of elastisity, and impact resistance at failure were higher than the reference mixes by not more than (25.75% , 66.18%, 38.26% , 14.14% and 1195%) respectively .

Study To Improve Some Mechanical Properties of Iraqi Portland Cement By Adding The Industrial Waste

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 14, Pages 597-606

Added different percentages of iron slag ,which can be considered solid waste plants as well as iron and bauxite clays to Iraq Portland cement to improve its properties. 3- 15 wt % of slag added to the cement and 2-10 wt % of bauxite added to the slag accumulating .
The obtained results showed that ,the compressive and impact strength after 28 days from the date of preparation of samples has increased with the increase in the percentages of slag content until (9%) , and then decrease their by increasing Slag contents while in case , slag and bauxite were used to gother , we noted that , the
compressive and impact strength were decreased by increasing slag and bauxite percentages .