Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 29, Issue 15

Volume 29, Issue 15, November 2011, Page 607-3255

Experimental Determination of Drag Coefficient on Different Automobiles Geometry

Abdulhassan A.Karamallah; Abdessamed Kacem Wahab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3043-3057

The undertaken research deals with an experimental determination of drag
coefficient for five car models. Experiments were run within a subsonic aspiration wind tunnel, covering an air speed up to 33m/s.Drag coefficients of 0.45, 0.39, 0.53, 0.34 and 0.68 for Mercedes SEL300, Hyundai, Toyota, Pajero, and Mini-Bus models were obtained respectively.
The flow field around the pre-quoted models with a qualitative description about the flow visualization for car models using a subsonic smoke wind tunnel has been accomplished.

Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Medium

Abdulrahman Khalaf Ali; Dayah N. Raouf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3058-3066

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (Q-switched Nd:YAG, ë=1064nm, 10 ns pulse duration and E=100-900 mJ) of pure Ag metal plate immersed in double distilled and deionised water DDDW. Spectral measurements, such as surface plasmon extinction SPE spectra of the produced nanoparticles solution were measured. The size and concentrations measurements of produced nanoparticles were estimated. UV-VIS absorption spectra of produced solution show a sharp peak around 400 nm, indicating the produced Ag nanoparticles with a narrow size ranging from 5 to 50 nm with almost spherical shape.

Synthesis, Structural and Biological Studies of /3-(1, 3- benzothiazol-2-yl) - /4H- spiro[indole2,3-[1,3]thiazolidine]- 2,/4(1H) dion with Cr (III), Mn (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) ions

Rehab A.M. Al-Hasani; Sinan M.M. Al-byatti; Sarab M.S. Al Azawi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3067-3078

This paper describes the synthesis of a new derivative 3-(1,3-
benzothiazol-2-yl)- /4H- spiro[indole2,3-[1,3]thiazolidine]-2,/4(1H) dion [L], which have been obtained from the cyclization of 3-(benzo [d] thiazol-2- ylimino) indolin -2-one[AB] through the addition of á-mercapto acetic acid. The product [L] was characterized by (FT.IR) and (U.Vis) spectroscopy and in addition to element analysis (C.H.N.S.).
A number of metal complexes were synthesized from the reaction of
the ligand [L] with ions Cr (III), Mn (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) . The prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by using (FT.IR) and (U.Vis) spectroscopy in addition to element analysis (C.H.N.S.), flame atomic absorption technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The antibacterial activity of the ligand [L] and its complexes were studied against two selected micro-organisms (Pseudonomous aerugionosa) as gram negative and (Bacillus subtitis) as gram positive.

Simulation of Deep Excavation in Sand by Finite Element Using Hardening Soil Model (HSM)

Zuhair Abd Hacheem

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3079-3096

Deep excavation is very important problem in geotechnical engineering and use in construction of tunnel and underground structure. This paper study the deep excavation using Plaxis V8.2 engineering program and simulation the soil behavior by Hardening soil model (HSM) that very sensitive to descript the stress path of deep excavation and the model distinguishes between loading and unloading stiffness compares to The Mohr-Coulomb Model (MCM). The parametric study adopt the variation of sand density (loose, medium, and dense), and excavation width (B = 10,
20, 40, 60, and 80 m). The result conclusions this parameter it's very important on horizontal wall deflection, bending moment of wall, interface stress between soil and wall, heave, and settlement of near ground surface, to make the deep excavation and don’t failure
and reduce of on horizontal wall deflection, bending moment of wall, heave and settlements of near surface and contort on the near building to attainment the safe design and easy construction with optimum dimensions

Exploring Turbulent Effects on Spray Evaporation Modeling

Noor M. Jasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3097-3107

In this work, numerical investigations are conducted for diesel spray under evaporating conditions. The Eulerian-Eulerian framework of evaporating turbulent spray is presented in terms of the methodology of spray moments of drop size distribution. Turbulence effects on mass and heat transfer in evaporation test case are presented. The simulated results showed that the turbulence intensity decreases with the development of spray under hydrodynamic changes. The simulation shows good agreement with the experimental results illustrated by comparison of spray tip penetration elevations.

A Confined Flow over a Cylinder by the Finite Element and the Finite Difference Methods

Ahlam Sadir Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3108-3117

The Finite element and the finite difference methods were applied to a confined flow over a cylinder. The values of velocity potential (F), the stream function (Y) and the velocity distribution are calculated by using a computer programs achieved by the researcher. The results revealed that, convergence and divergence were achieved between the equipotential lines by two methods. The finite element method
has been shown to be a powerful tool. Small elements may be used in areas of rapid change and large elements may be used where variations are less severe. The boundary conditions are handled naturally by the finite element method in contrast to the finite difference method.
This study shows that the finite element method is the best technique for the solution of practical engineering problems like thermal and fluid flows (steady state or unsteady problems).

The Geometrical Analysis Accuracy for Parallel Robotic Mechanisms

Hassan M. Alwan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3118-3129

The geometrical analysis of the robotic mechanisms means the formulation of the position equation of the mechanism in terms of dependent and independent coordinates. This function should describe the position of its links and the end effecter (or moving platform center) in terms of dependent and independent coordinates.In this paper will be derived a mathematical model, that is, a model in terms of
dependent and independent generalized coordinates, for the position accuracy of the end effecter (platform) of the closed kinematics robotic mechanisms. In these types of mechanisms it is necessary to solve the inverse problem of the geometrical analysis. The
solving of the inverse problem in the robotic systems means the definition of independent coordinates on preset values and evaluation of the dependent coordinates with several degrees of mobility.
The aim of this paper is to obtain a new mathematical formulation for evaluation of the deviation of the end effecter position due to the deviation of the independent coordinates. It will be evaluated only the deformations of the arms caused by the weights and the forces.

Effect of Using Local Sand Filter on Increasing Efficiency of Treatment Wastewater in Iraq

Suhair Mohammed Hassan Yaseen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3130-3140

Sand filtration has been an effective wastewater treatment process for control of contaminates. Sand filters are very economic treatment and do not need constant operator attention, making them an appropriate technology for wastewater systems either they are big or small. Iraq has combined wastewater systems (domestic and storm) water, old treatment plants with very determinate characteristics of influent
(suspended solids S.S equal to 350 mg/L), increasing population and absence of industrial water treatment units; all these conditions lead to problems of overflow, bypass wastewater and effluent which have characteristics under what are required. The results of this paper demonstrate that 76% removal efficiency (R.E) for S.S.
can be achieved by using sand filtration technique. The best position of sand filter is in 2nd stage (pretreatment) because of the
highest R.E of S.S. High possibility to contaminate filter in 1st because of oils and floating materials makes this position not good in spite of high R.E. As a result of this position, effluent will be very low contaminate (s.s reaches 5-10 ppm). In oppose to ordinary effluent which has 69 ppm of s.s ( according to international
environmental standards , effluent's s.s should be 35 ppm or less and according to Iraq E.S effluent's s.s should be 60 ppm or less ) .No desirable change in s.s concentration Is noticed with different sand thickness. Sand filtration appears unexpectable ability (approximately 50%) to remove iron and toxic cadmium.

Study the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

Zuheir T.Khulief.Al-Tai

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3141-3157

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiologically
influenced corrosion of carbon steel in water, samples of water taken from Al-Hilla rivers and distill water (control medium ). Corrosion analyses by using (Liner polarization tafel test; weight loss method ; microstructure examination , surface roughness test and X-Ray diffraction analysis) and microbiological analyses by using
(Isolation and identification by using appearance factors microscopic ,culturing factors and biochemical tests for biofilm of corrosion product) are used in this study. The result of corrosion analyses shows the corrosion rates of carbon steel in rivers water are more than that in control water, the microstructure examination and surface roughness tests show increase in roughness of surfaces which are
under the corrosion medium (rivers water) compared with control medium. The result of microbiological analyses shows the slides that made from the biofilm (product of corrosion) under microscopic appear small bacilli negative gram strain (G-ve) bacteria, where as culturing test shows small colonies with 2.5ìm in diameter of bacteria have mucin appearance and green pigments as well as the result from
biochemical tests; these facts indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria are correlated with the type of corrosion occurring in the carbon steel in the rivers water.

Color Images Hiding Based on Wavelet Based Fusion

Saddam Kamil Alwane

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3158-3171

At present, information is being communicated and proceeds automatically on a large scale. Hence, the required measures for secure storage and transporting of the information are increased. The protection of the information is necessary to guard economic interests, to prevent fraud, to guarantee the privacy of the citizen, etc.
In this paper, a new steganographic system with high capacity is proposed. The proposed algorithm chooses wavelet transform techniques for embedding to achieve a robust system. The main idea of the proposed system is called the wavelet based fusion. In this method, the wavelet decomposition of the cover image and the secret image are merged into a single result called stego-image.

New Design of Optical Filters Based on Single Mode-Multimode-Single Mode Fiber Structure for Optical Fiber Communication Systems

Jassim Kadim Hmood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3172-3184

In this paper, a design of optical filters based on single mode-multimode-single mode fiber structure (SMS) is demonstrated. The multimode interference effect can be utilized to design wavelength-selective devices with high extinction ratio. The proposed optical filters are realized by using standard optical fibers.
Two optical filters are designed to operate with wave division multiplexing (WDM) communication system in two channels at wavelength of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. First filter has power transmission of -0.253/-35 dBm at wavelengths of 1310/1550 nm respectively while, second one has power transmission of -32 / -1.35 dBm at wavelengths of 1310 /1550 nm respectively. In addition, power transmission
curves, spectral response curves, and propagation field of SMS structure in two and three dimensions are plotted.

Omnidirectional Mirrors for Porous Silicon Multilayer by Electrochemical Etching

Uday Muhsin Nayef

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3185-3193

The measurements and calculations of monolayer and multilayer reflectance, made of porous silicon films, have been carried out. The multilayer component has been made of porous silicon layers that has refractive indices of nA=2.16 and nB= 1.55. The band structure of one dimensional photonic crystal has been calculated using the transfer
matrix method which consists of alternative layers of two dielectric materials A and B. As for the multi layers component which are consist of the periodical repetition of two layers of different refractive indices (nH and nL) which has an omnidirectional photonic
band gap (PBG), the width of which depends on the incidence medium and on the refractive index ratio nH/nL. In porous silicon, this ratio is limited by the material and fabrication characteristics. Theoretical and experimental study has been carried on the wide range of practical fabrication parameters for the formation of omnidirectional PBG.
A band width of 400 nm is corresponding to a reflectivity higher than 97% which is suitable for applications of omnidirectional PBG at wavelength 1550 nm.

Studying the Effect of Chemical Solution on Corrosion Behavior of SiC and Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminum Composite Materials

Nervana A. Abd Alameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3194-3203

Corrosion behavior of aluminum matrix composites (MMCs) with (10, 20 &30) weight fraction of each alumina and silicon carbide was investigated in 10% (NaCl, NaOH &HCl) solutions at different temperatures (40, 60, 80 &100) °C also at room temperature. The results showed the corrosion rate was increased with increasing in
weight fraction of alumina and silica as reinforcement due to discontinues protective film in addition to increasing in temperatures at 10 % HCl solution, it reached (8.252 mpy) by reinforced with SiC. Alumina was exhibited corrosion resistant better than
SiC due to it is insulator; galvanic corrosion occurs when incorporation of semiconductor SiC only. Specimens were exposed to NaOH solution, aluminum reinforced with Al2O3 and SiC appears poor corrosion resistance. Finally, the results of effect NaCl were investigated, appeared an increase in corrosion rate with increasing in time.

Linear Graded Refractive Index Antireflection Coatings For Silicon Substrate

Muhammed Abdulredha Husein

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3204-3210

In this work, a theoretical study of linear profile for graded antireflection coating has been used with silicon as substrate. A computer program has been designated using the basic equations of thin film, and the reflectance has been obtained over a wide range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm) as well as incident angles (0-60 degree)
for many film thicknesses. The film consist of hydrogenated nitrides, it was shown that the reflectance decreases as the thin film thickness increases. The reflectance reaches to less than 1% for thin film thickness 0.6 ìm.

The Characteristics of Vortex Spray Countercurrent Mass Exchange Device (VSCMED)

Sklabinskyy Vsevolod Ivanovych; Abdullah Jalal Mohammed; Mohammed Nahdim Gasim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3211-3223

The article contains the results of the efficiency research of vortex dispersing countercurrent mass exchange device performance. There are recommendations given on the basis of analysis of liquid jet and liquid drops movement to assess the mass exchange surface. Processes and Equipment of Chemical and Petroleum Refineries Department of Sumy State University has carried out a great research to design new
constructions of vortex mass exchanged devices with countercurrent flow of gas and drop flows.

Improvement of Ballast Embankment Resting on Soft Clay by Reed and Asphalt Layers

Namir.K.S. AL-Saoudi; Falah.H.Rahil; Kawther.Y.H.AL-Soudany

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3224-3241

The present paper investigates the possibility of using reed and /or asphalt as stabilizing materials for ballast model embankment overlaying a bed of soft soil. Four model tests were performed consisting of a model embankment 500mm base width 300mm crest width and 75mm high. The embankment was constructed on a bed of saturated soft clay 500mm thick with undrained shear strength 16 kPa. The ballast
embankment was gradually loaded up to failure by a model footing 200mm wide and 400mm long placed on the crest with continuous monitoring of the generated settlement. The use reed and/or asphalt along the interface surface between the ballast embankment and the soft soil demonstrated significant improvements in both load carrying capacity and reduction in settlement.

Speaker Identification Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Network

Manal Hadi Jaber

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 3242-3255

This paper presents an effective method for improving the performance of
speaker identification system based on schemes combines the multi
resolution properly of the wavelet transform and radial basis function neural net works (RBFNN), evaluated its performance by comparing the results with other method. The input speech signal is decomposed into L sub band. To capture the characteristic of the vocal tract, the liner prediction code of each (including the linear predictive code (LPC) for full band) are calculated. The radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) approach is used for matching purpose. Experimental results shows that the speaker identification using the methods
achieve (combines the wavelet and RBFNN) give (100%) identification rate
and higher identification rate compared with multi band liner predictive
code, in this paper used Matlab program to prove the results.

Stadying mechanical properties for polyethylene composites rein for by fish shell particles

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 607-620

In this research we use both High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), and Low
Density Polyethylene (LDPE)were used as matrix to the composite material and fish shell particles were used as a reinforced filler, Plunger injection molding method were used to prepare samples which have different filler percentage as below:-
1. Pure High Density Polyethylene (HDPE).
2. Pure Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE).
3. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with fish shell particles in the
following percentage (30, 40 and 50%).
4. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) reinforced with fish shell particles in the following percentage (30, 40 and 50%).
In this research some of the mechanical properties (Modulus of elasticity, Impact strength, Hardness, and Creep rate). The research results showed that the values of (Modulus of elasticity, Hardness) will increase with the increase of the filler percentage for both types of polyethylene used in this research, in the other hand the
values for impact strength and the values of Creep rate of the all samples used in this research will be decreeing with the increase of the filler percentage.

Study Relationship Between The Dimensional Change – Temperature and Carburizing Time of Low Carbon Steel By Using (C#2008) Programming Language

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 621-634

In this paper a program was build by (C#2008) programming language to calculate a dimensional change in specimens of low carbon steel during solid carburizing process. The chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructure for all specimens was the same. Carburizing process was done in different temperatures ( 850 , 900 and
950 ) oC for holding times of ( 3 , 6 and 8 hours ) respectively flowed by normalizing , quenching and tempering to improve mechanical and microstructure properties. The specimens was measured dimensionally with high accuracy before and after mentioned above heat treatments processes to identify the change in dimensions due to change in
phases of the surface layer of metals during martenstic transformation. Briefly this work is useful in determining the right dimensions of parts before applying heat treatments to obtain the final desired dimension of the final product.

Study of Some Structural , Optical Properties of Copper Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 15, Pages 635-649

In this research we prepared copper oxide thin films by Spray pyrolysis method with various salts such as ( acetate, nitrate & copper chloride (0.1 M) and study its structural and optical properties.
Laser technique has been used to determine the thickness of thin films, The structure characterization of the film was carried out with XRD. The results of XRD show that all samples have a polycrystalline , Optical properties has been measured by using spectrophotometer . The absorption coefficient was (1.723*105- 1.936*105 cm-1) at ( 380
nm ) according to the kind of salt, and (1.81*104 – 1.748*103 cm-1) at ( 900 nm ). The energy gap for direct allowed transition was ranged (2.05 eV– 2.65 eV).