Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 16,

Issue 16

Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm for Tuning PID Controller of Synchronous Generator AVR System

Fadhil A. Hassan; Lina J. Rashad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3256-3270
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.1

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers are widely used in
many fields because they are simple and effective. Tuning of the PID
controller parameters is not easy and does not give the optimal required
response, especially with non-liner system. In the last two decades many
intelligent optimization techniques were took attention of researchers like:Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques. This paper represented the non-linear mathematical model and simulation of the synchronous generator with closed loop PID controller of AVR system. The traditional PID tuning technique is proposed as a point of comparison. Two of intelligent optimization techniques: PSO and GA are proposed in this paper to tune the PID controller parameters. The obtained results of the closed loop PSO-PID and GA-PID controller response to the unit step input signal shows excellent performance with respect to the traditional trial and
error tuning of the PID controller.

Simulation Study of Wired/Wireless Fieldbus Systems Using Store and Forward Mode

Sufyan T. Faraj Al-Janabi; Ali Shuaib

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3271-3290
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.2

Fieldbus is a specific class of LAN technology, through which the communication process in industrial applications is integrated. The extent of using the wireless communications in most applications, leading to design hybrid wired/wireless fieldbus systems is based on standard PROFIBUS protocol. Because of the difference in physical
media such as bit rate and/or frame format between wired domain and wireless domain, there is a need to use a method to overcome traffic congestion that may occur in the intermediate systems as a result of the heterogeneity in the physical media. Within this work the intermediate systems (repeaters) are suggested to work as store-and-forward mode. The main objectives of this work is to develop simulation tools for the hybrid wired/wireless PROFIBUS architectures in order to perform behavioral study of such network protocols. The use of our developed simulation tools has indeed enabled us to
test different network configurations and different parameters settings more easily, cheaper, and faster than in a real application.

A Proposed Secure Protocol for E-Mail System Based on Authentication and Hash Function

Muna Mohammed Al-Nayar

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3291-3301
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.3

Internet has opened new channel of communication enabling an e-mail to be sent to a relative thousands of kilometers away. This medium of communication opens doors for virtually free mass e-mailing, reaching out to hundreds of thousands users around the globe within seconds, so e-mail becomes the most popular form of communication today. E-mail systems have suffered from increasing attacking problem that threatens the validity and integrity of communication. Many different
approaches for fighting this attack have been proposed, ranging from various sender authentication protocols to encrypt the message itself. This paper demonstrates a promising protocol. The proposed protocol ensures the authentication and integrity of the data and avoids the problem of key distribution or breaking by using multiple
random keys generated automatically during communication session.

The Effect of Waste Ceramic Materials ( Iraqi Stones Dust Powders ) on The Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin

Fadhil A.Chyad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3302-3312
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.4

Using waste materials, which have a high pollution on the environment, as an improvement to the properties of a weaken material such epoxy resin become a good achievement. Iraqi stones dust powders have been used to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Impact strength and fracture toughness from impact test, Young`s modulus from tensile test, Shore hardness, fracture toughness and thermal
conductivity have been investigated. The percentages of the ceramic powders have affected all the above properties and increased the values of them about twice. The highest values were at 12% and then decreased. Also the particle size of this powders has affected these properties, where the lowest particle size (25ìm) has the best values.

Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Reinforced with Glass Fiber and Plam Fiber

Wafaa AbedAlkazem Zkaer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3313-3319
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.5

In this work a composite materials is prepared containing matrix of polymer (unsaturated polyester) reinforced with different reinforcing materials (glass fiber + plate fiber) in different values of volume fraction %. All samples for to mechanical tests were prepared by hand layup process. The mechanical tests can be classified into: bending, tensile strength, tensile strength at break, elongation at break and hardness. The study of mechanical test shows that the mechanical properties increase with the increase in volume fraction.

Effect of MnO-4 Anion Inhibition on Corrosion of (70%Cu-30%Zn) Brass in Salt and Basic Solutions

Mervit M. Al-Jnabi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3320-3330
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.6

This research involves study effect of MnO-4 anion addition as inhibitor on the polarization behavior of (70%Cu-30%Zn) alloy in salt and basic medium ( 0.6 M NaCl & 0.6 M NaOH) by potentiostatic method where Tafel slopes and corrosion rate (Rmpy) and inhibition efficiency (El%) for each salt and basic environments were measured .
Result of the tests shows that the values of Tafel slopes and corrosion rate decreases with adding the MnO-4 anion in two solutions, the Inhibition efficiency of 70%Cu-Zn30% alloy in NaOH solution more than that observed in NaCl solution. which means that the basic media is more corrosive Cu-Zn alloy even after the addition of inhibitor.

A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Based Optimum of Tuning PID Controller for a Separately Excited DC Motor (SEDM)

Alia J. Mohammed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3331-3344
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.7

The PID algorithm is the most popular feedback controller used within the process industries. It is robust easily understood algorithm that can provide excellent control performance despite the varied dynamic characteristics of process plant. But the tuning of the PID controller parameters is not easy and does not give the optimal required response, especially with non-liner systems. In the last years emerged
several new intelligent optimization techniques like, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques. This paper deals the non-liner mathematical model and simulation for speed control of separately excited D.C. motor with closed loop PID controller. The conventional PID tuning technique is represented as a point of comparison. The
intelligent optimization technique: PSO is proposed to tune the PID controller parameters. The obtained results of the closed loop PSO-PID Controller response shows the excellent response with comparing to the conventional PID, a good results gives in PSO-PID Controller. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed method, which has got a wide number of advantages.

Effect of Fly and Dust Ash Additions on Hardness and Wear Resistance of Composite Metal Matrix (Al-Si-Mg)

Siham E. Salih; Sahib M. Al-Saffar; Solaf Majeed Darkhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3345-3358
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.8

The current paper deals with the preparation of bars with a length of about 13 cm and 2.5 cm diameter from MMC materials. These composites consists of cast (Al-Si-Mg) as a matrix that reinforced with fly ash (0.454 ìm) or fly dust (0.620 ìm) in relative weights (2, 4, 6, and 8%) respectively. Both of composite materials samples were manufactured
by casting method (Vortex method). Vortex method has been used successfully to obtain a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles. Samples were classified into two categories according to the type of reinforcement particles. The results showed that the
wear rate of the samples depends heavily on the working conditions. Which increases with increased load and download time.The results also showed superiority aluminum alloy reinforced fly ash compared with the aluminum alloy reinforced with dust flying. Furthermore, a significant increase in the hardness and wear resistance for all samples
prepared with increasing added particles for the purpose of reinforcement.

Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Carrot Fibers –Epoxy Composites

Wafaa A. Hussain

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3359-3367
DOI: 10.30684/etj.29.16.9

Epoxy composites were prepared with two sizes of carrot fibers in different weight percent (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) by hand lay-up technique. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor (tanä) of pure epoxy resin and composites were measured in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz with increase fibers content, dielectric strength
(breakdown voltage) and thermal conductivity were evaluated as a function of fiber content. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor values were found to be higher for fiber reinforced system than the pure epoxy. The dielectric strength values decreases and the values of thermal conductivity increases with fibers content.

Effect of Freezing-Thawing Cycles on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Some Sedimentary Rocks Located Near Mosul City

Thamer Mohammed Nuri; Moafaq Abbo Awad; Asaad Mohamad Azhar Msbah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3388-3404

This study is aimed to investigate the surfacial deterioration of some common sedimentary rocks near Mosul city as a result of freezing-thawing cycles on physical and mechanical properties of two types of Limestone denoted as (L1 and L2), Sandstone (S) and Mosul Marble (M). Physical and mechanical tests include; uniaxial, triaxial compression tests, point load test and the indirect tensile strength
(Brazilian test) have been performed on both the fresh specimens and the specimens subjected to a number of freezing-thawing cycles (5, 10, 15 and 20). Test results showed that the freezing and thawing is a process of physical deterioration, a significant reduction in different percentages in uniaxial and triaxial compressive and tensile strength was observed in all the rocks tested. A little variation was observed in
the slaking durability indices (IS-D) of (L1, L2 and M) rocks among three conducted cycles at fresh state, while (S) rock showed high percent loss of about 45.81% in its durability. On the other hand, the water absorption percent of the tested rocks showed a clear increase with the increase of number of freezing-thawing cycles.

Generate Animated CAPTCHA Based on Visual Cryptography Concept

Akbas E. Ali; Nidaa F. Hassan; Matheel Emad EL-Deen Abdulmunim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3405-3416

CAPTCHA is a standard security technology. To date, the most commonly used are various types of visual CAPTCHAs, in which a challenge often appears as an image of distorted text that the user must decipher. The proposed scheme is used visual cryptography encryption protocol to encrypt CAPTCHA image in perfectly secure way, such that only the human visual system can easily decrypt the CAPTCHA image with animated arrangement. Numbers of blurring image process are implemented on the CAPTCHA images, to make this test difficult for current computer systems. The new animated CAPTCHA is more secure than the current
versions and easier for humans to pass.

Improvement of Soil by Waste Tires Addition

Falak O.Abas; Mohammed .O.Abass; Raghad.O.Abass; Shymaa K.G

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3417-3428

Low able fill material is a self – leveling– compacting one; these types of material rapidly gain acceptance and application in construction utility earthworks. The use of scrap tires as a reinforcement element is an attractive solution that combines the
advantage of improving soil mechanical behavior with environmental concerns. The present work describes an experimental study on replacing sand aggregate grain size with wastes rubber and plastics at different mixing ratio (6, 18, 30) % wt. respectively to support technical feasibility of muddy soil by using wastes materials then compared with commercial additives (carbon fiber) afterward check their hydrodynamical
properties (E.L, P.L, hydrometer, compaction, and of prepared
compacting improved soil mixtures. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber have successfully used to produce a light weight flow able fill ( 1.2 to 1.6 g/ cm3 ) than other additive waste plastic and carbon fiber based on the characteristic properties (E.L, P.L, hydrometer, compaction ) as follows:
Have 65% for rubber samples than other additives of 45% and 55% molecules respectively for hydrometer test, 2 Gs for rubber than 1Gs for other additives; and 560 g/cm3 compaction for rubber additive than 520 g/cm3 for other additives carbon fiber and waste plastic.

Message Coding and Compression with Artificial Neural Networks

Hasan M. Azzawi; Hassan A. Nasir; Ali K. Naher

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3429-3437

The need to overcome data preprocessing inherent in much of the classical data coding techniques commonly available led to the search for a free, easy-to-use, but flexible and powerful method. Artificial Neural networks have been attracting more and more researchers since the past decades. The distinct properties, such as learning ability,
nonlinearity, fault tolerance, generalization etc., make it suitable for information protection, such as data encryption, data authentication, data detection, etc. In this paper a simple and low-cost coding method based on neural networks is proposed to be used to patterns compression. The goal of the developers is to build a tool able to store and send a coded and compressed message. The formed two-dimensional patterns are coded and compressed using the multilayer neural network with Back-propagation training algorithm. Hidden layer outputs of a trained network are sent as two-dimensional data,
which represents the encoded vectors. To reconstruct the original patterns, this requires the output weights matrix and the output nodes functions which are unknown and not available in the encoded sent vectors. A compression rate of about 6:1 has been achieved.

Using Fractal Model in Documents' Security

Ali .A. Saeid

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3438-3450

The research aims to build graphical models of complex formation and morphology which can be used to secure paper documents from attempts of fraud, especially those trying to expose them to scanning. Therefore, the scanned version will differ in features from the original one, particularly the part that contains the seal (the decorative form). The forms were generated by using a model of Koch's star; keeping
in mind that points of the lines of the new form will be generated by using Brsenham's theory in order to generate the straight line.

A Study for the Influence of Change in Ratio of Cross Sectional Area to Constant Perimeter of Thermosyphon's Condenser

Ali D.Salman; Israa S.Ahmed; Waleed Y.Shehab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 3451-3467

This experimental study investigated the change in cross-sectional area (csa) of thermosyphon's condenser to it's a constant perimeter (RAP) and effect of that at the thermal performance. Geometries shapes deform from circular to elliptical and flat to make a change in csa at a same perimeter of all geometries shapes where a different value of RAP are got. At each RAP a different rate of heat input in evaporator and
different filling ratio of working fluid (distill water) are applied. Threshold angle (working angle) where the condensate of distilled water vapor begin to return to evaporator, this angle are examined with the horizontal level for three geometries shapes (three RAP). The results indicated that the flat two phase closed thermosyphon( FTPCT)(low RAP value) and elliptical two phase closed thermosyphon (ETPCT) had a higher and more stable heat transfer coefficient h (condenser air side) with the high and mid filling ratio from than of the circular two
phase closed thermosyphon( CTPCT). That refer to more useful length of condenser to absorb heat from evaporator and prevent it from causing a rise in temperature. The high filling ratio with low rate of heat level in evaporator lead to unuseful area in thermosyphon's condenser and lowering its pressure, while low filling ratio with high
rate of heat caused a chaotic flow inside TPCT and rising the evaporator and condenser temperatures.

Prepare of Mapping the Distribution of Schools in Kut City Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 650-663

The increased rates of urbanization have resulted in doubling the number of schools in
in the city randomly, which resulted in building schools lacking the most appropriate
standards required like being fit with the convenient environmental and health conditions
or being away from natural and human dangers, because of the great abilities that the
geographic information systems gives which help in finding the most appropriate
solutions and making the best decisions, especially with regard to processing and analysis
of spatial information. Thus, the current research aims at using GIS in assessing the
current status of school sites in all stages of primary intermediate and high school,
according to a set of natural, human and social standards. As well as the employment of
GIS to document the locations of the current distribution of schools in the city to produce
digital maps of sites and the pattern of distribution of schools subject to update, then it
suggests amending some of the sites according to the degree of suitability criteria in
research. To achieve these aims, the research depends on the data available at the
directorate of education in wassit, in addition to the field survey to identify the location of
schools accurately using GPS and updating the data available. The research finds the
existence of concentration in the distribution of schools which is concentrated in some
regions, random in others or regular in others. In general, this distribution may not reflect
a situation similar to the distribution among all regions in the city.

Text Files Compression using Combination of two Dictionary methods (Specific dictionary for specific language and LZ77 Approach)

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 664-671

In this paper we suggest combination between two dictionary methods. Specific dictionary (for specific language) and LZ77. The dictionary is used for replacing any word in it by its two Bytes index. A words not exists in the dictionary is written without changing preceded by four bits for length of this word. A modification was made on this approach for reducing the file to minimum size. Because of each word
was replaced by two bytes (which are substituted in any appearance for this word in text), LZ77 can be used efficiently. Before this, the file is arranged specially in order to use LZ77 optimally for minimizing the data. This approach is tested on real text files and verifies it’s successful.

Studying the Sensitivity of Bacteria Isolated From Respiratory Tract Infections To Peanut and Various Antibiotics

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 672-681

The sensitivity of bacteria isolated from respiratory tract infections for various
antibiotics and peanut was studied. These bacteria included 5 gram- negative
species: Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 isolate), K. oxytoca (1 isolate), Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (6 isolates), Escherichia coli (2 isolates) and Neisseria meningitidis (1
isolate), while gram- positive bacteria included: Staphylococcus aureus (6 isolates),
Streptococcus pneumoniae (6 isolates), Micrococcus antarcticus, coagulasenegative
Staphylococci (CNS) and Corynebacterium spp., one isolate of each. We
tested the sensitivity of bacteria to 16 antibiotics as follows: Tobramycin (10 ìg),
Ceftazidime (30 ìg), Vancomycin (30 ìg), Ampicillin (10 ìg), Cefaclor (30 ìg),
Ofloxacin (5 ìg), Cloxacillin (1 ìg), Cefalothin (30 ìg), Erythromycine (15 ìg),
Clindamycin (2 ìg), Oxytetracycline (30 ìg), Enrofloxacin (5 ìg), Neomycin (30
ìg), Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid (30 ìg),Ampicillin/ Cloxacillin (30 ìg) and
Cefotaxime (30 ìg). Also the sensitivity of bacteria to ethanolic extracts of peanut
(Arachis hypogaea) was tested. We found that S. aureus was resistant to most
antibiotics (13 antibiotics), and was sensitive to vancomycin, ofloxacin and
enrofloxacin. As well as S. pneumoniae which was sensitive to the same antibiotics
above in addition to ampicillin/ cloxacillin, while was resistant to 12 antibiotics. K.
oxytoca was more resistant than K. pneumoniae and both were sensitive to
enrofloxacin. Both E. coli and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 13 antibiotics and
both were more sensitive to tobramycin and ofloxacin . N. meningitidis resisted 9
antibiotics , where as all of CNS , M. antarcticus and Corynebacterium spp. were
sensitive to most antibiotics. When we studied the sensitivity of bacteria to
ethanolic extracts of Arachis hypogaea ,four isolate of
S. aureus were sensitive with zones of inhibition 7- 11 mm and two isolates were
negative. The growth of two isolates of S. pneumoniae was inhibited with
inhibition zones of 8 and 10 mm, while 4 isolates were not inhibited. The herb
extract recorded zone of inhibition of 8 mm in only one isolate of P. aeruginosa.

Study of Some Structural, Optical Properties of ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Method Study of Some

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2011, Volume 29, Issue 16, Pages 682-691

In this research we prepared ZnS thin films by Spray pyrolysis method with thickness(300nm) on a glass substrates and study its structural and optical properties . The result of (X-Ray ) diffraction showed that the films have a polycrystalline structure , The Absorption and The transmission as a function of Photon Energy for ZnS films had
been studied , The investigated of energy gap of the direct allowed transitions of ZnS film showed a value of (3.53eV). The optical Absorption coefficient , extinction coefficient , and have been also study Refractive Index, as a function of Photon Energy.