Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Volume 30, Issue 1

Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2012, Page 1-188

Analysis the Effects of Shot Peening Upon the Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of 2024-T351 Al-Alloy

Alalkawi H. J. M; Talal Abed-Aljabar; Safaa H. Alokaidi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

This paper presents an experimental study on the effect of shot peening on
mechanical properties and residual stresses of 2024-T351 Aluminum alloy. Under the
effects of shot peening time SPT the results show that the existence of SPT can
improve the mechanical properties and fatigue life up to a limit value of SPT. The 15
minutes SPT gave the highest value of (σu, σy) which is about 6.7 % for (σu) and 11.7
% for (σy). Empirical equations were proposed to evaluate the SPT with the
endurance limit stress and the residual stresses.

A Modified Grouped Linear ZF Algorithm Using Different Modulation Schemes for MIMO Systems

Ahmed Gh. Wadday; Saod A. Alseyab; Abdulkareem S. bdullah

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 13-23

A new algorithm for a group iterative linear Zero-Forcing (ZF) receiver for
multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is proposed in this paper. The
proposed algorithm merges between the group linear ZF receiver and V-Blast
algorithms, where the signals in every group are detected by linear ZF method and
then successive interference cancellation detection is applied between the different
groups. Three types of modulation schemes are adopted for testing this algorithm
namely; BPSK, QPSK, and 16 QAM. Simulation results show that the proposed
algorithm achieves a performance improvement over the ZF algorithm and the
grouped linear ZF algorithm at modulations (BPSK, QPSK). The proposed scheme
offers better performance gain for BPSK modulation of about 7dB and 2dB compared
with ZF and MMSE schemes respectively at BER of 10-3. On the other hand, the
proposed scheme offer better performance gain of about 3dB and 1dB compared with
ZF and minimum mean square error schemes for QPSK modulation at BER 10-3.
However, at using modulation of (16QAM), the performance of the proposed
algorithm is almost the same as that of the aforementioned algorithms. A little
increase of computational complexity is noticed with this proposed algorithm
compared with both the ZF, MMSE and the grouped linear ZF algorithms.

Studying a Buckling Behavior for Edge Cracked Plates Under Compression

Nathera Abdual Hassan Saleh; Saddam Kallsan Kuess

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 24-42

In this work, the buckling behavior for edge cracked plates under
compression loading is studied considering the influence of the crack parameters
(i.e. size, location and orientation), plate aspect ratio and plate boundary
conditions. The problem was solved numerically using finite element method
utilizing ANSYS software version11 .The obtained results show that the crack
parameters as well as plate aspect ratio and plate boundary conditions are
efficient factors on the buckling coefficient and corresponding nodal patterns of
such plates. The useful numerical results for buckling coefficients and
corresponding nodal patterns are displayed in figures. According to the author's
knowledge about the published literature on the buckling field, there is no
specific report on the nodal patterns results of such edge cracked plates.

Fabrication and Study Nanostructure Deposited Thin Films Heterojunction Solar Cell

Khaled Z.Yahya; Muhanad Adel Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 43-50

In the present paper, nanostructure tin oxide (SnO2) thin films on Si P-type
substrates heterojunction solar cell has been made by using a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG
laser. Deposition of films is achieved at 400 °C substrate temperatures. The X-ray
diffraction (XRD) results show that the deposited films are crystalline with tetragonal
rutile SnO2 structure. The morphology of deposited films were characterized by
scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the grain
size value (30–50) nm and rms roughness values are (2.8 nm) for thin films
deposited at 400ºC. Photoluminescence PL spectrum showed good light emission in
the visible field. The photovoltaic characteristics included short circuit current (Jsc),
open circuit voltage (Voc), where the maximum (Jsc) and (Voc)obtained at AM1
were 14.3 (mA cm-2) and 630(mV), respectively. The fill factor (FF) was (0.68). The
fabricated cell exhibits good performance with 7 % conversion efficiency.

Modeling and Control of pH Process for Weak Acid-Weak Base System

Karima M. Butrus; Hayder A. Mohsin; Ali R. Mohammad Jawad

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 51-66

This paper studies the model and control of pH neutralization process of waste water
system using different control schemes. An experimental investigation was conducted for
the dynamic behavior of neutralization process of waste water in a continuous stirred tank
reactor (CSTR).
A dynamic model for pH neutralization process in a continuous stirred tank reactor
(CSTR) is described by a first order plus dead time (FOPDT).
The pH value is calculated by solving the charge balance of the mixture. Good agreement
is obtained between the simulated and experimental responses. However, a small
differences between the responses due to the error in the measurements.
The conventional feedback control was studies in this work and the controller
parameters was tuned by Ziegler-Nichols reaction curve method to find the best values of
proportional gain (Kc), integral time (t I) and derivative time (t D). Artificial Neural
Network Model Predictive Control (ANN MPC) was used as another strategy to compare
with above strategy.
The ANN controller was compared with conventional controller and it was found that
ANN controller provides better control for the set point changes with low settling time
and lower overshoot. Whereas the conventional controller provides sluggish behavior in
set point change. Also it was found that the ANN controller provides better response to
regulated change than the conventional controllers where the PI and PID controllers
provide sluggish disturbance responses because the approximate FOPTD model has
relatively small time delay. As non-linear process the conventional feedback controller
was unable to control this system adequately.

Phosphate Rock Treatment with Hydrochloric Acid for Increasing P2O5 Content

Adel Sharif Hamadi; Shurooq Talib Remedhan; Haider Abd Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 67-76

The present paper deals with the treatment of phosphate obtained from a commercial
sample of Akashat phosphate ore in hydrochloric acid. The factors studied are effects
of the temperature of dissolution, acid concentration, and the time required for mixing
phases. The experiments were performed with 100 kg/m3 of solid/liquid ratio, the size
of the particles ranged 125-140 μm, the initial acid concentrations were 20, 30 and 40
wt% HCl, and the temperature of dissolution was kept constant at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70
oC. The results indicated that the percentage of P2O5 increases as the HCl concentration
increased using different time and temperatures. Also, the results showed that the best
conditions for P2O5 recovery process according were acid concentration 40%, reaction
time of 90 min, and temperature 30 oC.

Predictions on Surface Finish In EDM Based Upon Genetic Network Model

Shukry H. Aghdeab

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 77-86

In this study, the comparisons on predictions of surface finish for borosilicate
glass work material based upon genetic network model by used Simulnet program.
Genetic network (GN) has been used to investigate the process control for EDM that
could the Ra experimental and prediction with accuracy of 94.236%. The differences
on the Ra at genetic network model for (80×60×3mm) of BSG never exceed (8%)
from testing data sets.

Effect of Adding Fine Gravel and Cement on Settlement of Sabkha Soil

Hassan Obaid Abbas

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 87-97

Sabkha soil is one of the many types of collapsible soils and in turn is on of the
many types of problematic soils. This soil is totally having good engineering
properties when dry ,i.e ,moderately bearing capacity with low settlement .But once
are wetted they loose their entire structure (collapse) and undergo very large
instantaneous settlement .A laboratory model test consists of a cylindrical steel
container of 270mm diameter and 300mm height, the soil is brought from Al-Khalis
discrete .The density of soil is controlled by placing the required weight inside the
container of known volume, to the required height .A square footing 60x60mm makes
from steel is used .The stress is applied from a fixed loading system designed
especially for model tests .In this study two types of treatment carried out ,the first
treatment is added fine gravel only with percentages (2%,4.5%,6%) to soil which is
not give good improvement .The second type of improvement is added 3% of cement
with fine gravel (4.5%,6%) percentages which give good improvement, reduced the
collapsibility to 84% .Also, when adding 3% of cement with 4.5% fine gravel to soil
,give good improvement, reduced the collapsibility to 90% .

The Influence of Laser Surface Hardening on Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Steel Ck45

Dunia Hermez Esckanda

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 98-108

This paper describes the effect of laser surface treatment on wearesistance of steel
Ck45 .A Pulse Nd:YAG laser with wave length 1064 nm and pulse duration 100 ns
was used by applying one pulse ,two pulses with different laser energies (500, 750,
1000 mJ). Pin-on-disc technique was done to define wear rate with different forces
(5, 10, 15, 20, 25 N) and different sliding speeds (1.319 ,2.199, 3.078, 3.958 m/s) for
constant time (20 min) and constant rotating disc 720 r.p.m with 45HRC .Also
defined microhardness which decreases far from the hardened surface , depth of
hardening was evaluated through optical microscopy . The results of this work
demonstrated that improvement in wear resistance for 1000 mJ laser energy more
than the other energies for one pulse and two pulses ,while wear resistance for two
pulses more than one pulse for all the energies . X-ray analysis results show that
precipitation of another carbides like iron carbides ,chromium carbides ,manganese
carbides after the treatment by laser.

Modified Method For Generating B-Spline Curves of Degree Three And Their Controlling

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; A.Y. Abdullah; A.M. J. Abdul-Hussen

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 109-127

The reaction between designer, and design needs modified methods to control the
design. This paper presents modified mathematical technique for controlling the
generation of the 2D designs of third degree, by using modified Gallier of Bezier
curves. The paper discuses a polynomial in terms, of polar forms, with respect to the
parameter. The modified method has resulted in good starting point, to generate
which 2D design, algorithm which allows the designer to produce a design in
combinational way allows him to get the shape that he has in his mind keeping the
four control points for 2D design. The method shows a great flexibility in 2D design
controlling area with changing. There is no need to change the control points of the
design; moreover efficiency in designs is obtained in comparison with that needed for
conventional methods.
Keywords: Gallier of Bezier curves, B-Spline Curves.

Water Recycling / Reuse in Factories Case Study Soft Drink Factory

Riyadh S. Almukhtar; Nagham A. Ageena

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 128-141

The aim of the present work is to study water recycling and reuse in a soft drink
Water is an essential raw material in the soft drink productions with a consumption of
2.5 to 3.5 liter of water per liter of soft drink. The wastewater generated in this
industry is mainly from bottle washing, filler backwashing, washing of bottle
machines, equipments, floors and pipe work during flavor changing. The major
contaminants in this effluent are caustic soda and sucrose
In order to reduce water consumption and volume of wastewater generated in the
soft drink plant, Sulave private sector factory was chosen as a case study of the
generated wastewater in the plant .The study was carried out between May till
October 2010 for measuring and monitoring various pollutants of the generated
wastewater in the plant.
Two strategies had been proposed, in the first wastewater out of bottle washing
machine and washing columns could be recycled to the units if treated by: Filtration-
Adsorption-Reverse Osmosis system, this proposal reduced water consumption in the
factory by about 35% and decreased wastewater effluents by 65% of total wastewater
effluents. The second strategy was to reuse water out of the bottle washing machine
after treating it by: Filtration-Adsorption system to be used in the washing column
.The water consumption in this strategy was reduced by about 15% with a reduction
of 35% in wastewater effluents

Face Recognition using DWT with HMM

Eyad I. Abbas; Hameed R. Farhan

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 142-154

This paper presents an efficient face recognition system based on Hidden Markov
Model (HMM) and the simplest type “Haar” of the Discrete Wavelet Transform
(DWT). The one dimensional ergodic HMM with Gaussian outputs, which represent
the simplest and robust type of HMM, is used in the proposed work. A novel method
is introduced for selecting the training images implemented by choosing the images
that have the odd identifying numbers from the database. Some of these images are
replaced according to the trial-and-error results. The proposed work achieves the
maximum recognition rate (100%), where the experiments are carried out on the ORL
face database.

Correlation Study Between Point Load Test And Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Tensile Strength of Some Sedimentary Rocks In Mosul City

Thamer M. Nuri; Abdul Nasser Y. Ali; Shaima Ahmed

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 155-166

The point load test is used as a quick and inexpensive means of obtaining rock
strength indexes when logging core samples in either a field or laboratory setting. In
order to estimate the Uniaxial compressive strength, indirect tensile strength
(Brazilian and 4-point bending)of the rocks, index to strength conversion factors are
used to involve three types of the most popular sedimentary rocks in Mosul city,
which are limestone, sandstone and gypsum in both dry and wet conditions. The
results showed that a conversion factors,(14.55,15.9) can be used to estimate
compressive strength for both limestone and gypsum rocks in dry and wet conditions
respectively. The study also found that conversion factors,(1.4,2.6) are applied in dry
condition for the three rocks in Brazilian and Bending tests.

Registration of Satellite Images by Using the Linear Transformations

Intehaa Abd-Allah M. Al-Juboury

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 175-188

The processes of rectification and registration that conducted at the satellite
images of the most important steps in images interpretation and extract information
for use in various applications of remote sensing. There are things that must be
observed before entering into the details of the operation. There are a number of
important factors that must be considered. Such as the illumination angle, Sun-
Earth distance varies throughout the year. In addition to the effects of
environmental, climatic and weather such as cloud, haze, dusty weather, cover for
one of the dates, that affect the nature of the scene this requires effort and extra
work for the interpretation of these satellite images after removing the mistakes in
them when captured by the satellite. The first process applied to the satellite image
is the Pre-Processing process, and which includes radiometric and geometric
In this paper, image to map registration method, of 1st order transform, has
been performed to correct the SPOT image from geometric errors using geoimage
of “UTM” projection. The total RMS error, which has been reached, was less than
one meter,. The results were obtained using the ready program (ENVI).