Print ISSN: 1681-6900

Online ISSN: 2412-0758

Issue 2,

Issue 2

Effect of (CuPb)x Substitution on Tc of Bi2-x(CuPb)x Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ Superconductors

Bushra Salman Mahdi

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.1

High temperature superconductors with a nominal composition
Bi2-x (CuPb) xSr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ for (0≤x≤0.5) were prepared by solid state reaction method.
The effect of (CuPb) x substitution on Tc of Bi2-x(CuPb)xSr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ compound
has been investigated by X-ray diffraction , resistance measurements and oxygen
content to obtain the optimum conditions for the formation and stabilization of the
high TC phase (2223- phase).The results showed that the optimum sintering
temperature for the composition Bi2-x(CuPb)xSr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ is Ts=1133K for
The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that all the samples have almost two
phases: high-Tc phase (2223- phase) and low-TC phase (2212- phase). It was found
that all the samples having an orthorhombic structure with lattice parameter value (c)
increased with increasing of the critical temperature Tc.
Substitution of (CuPb)x to 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 increases the transition temperature to
TC=107K, 125K, 95K, respectively.

Studying the Effect of Water on Electrical Conductivity of Cu Powder Reinforced Epoxy Composite Material

Nirvana A. Abd Alameer

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 197-202
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.2

We study electrical conductivity behavior of Cu-powder reinforced epoxy
composite material in different solutions (distilled water, tap water &3.5%NaCl)
with a weight fraction (5, 15, 30 &45) was investigated for (7) weeks immersion
time. The results exhibit that electrical conductivity increases as increasing
immersion time due to the specimen was absorbed the solutions. The maximum
values were reached with 3.5% NaCl solution because of Cl ions whereas electrical
conductivity not apparent in distilled water was attributed to pure water containing
no ions is an excellent insulator.

A Proposed Method for Detecting Fake Art by Using B-Spline Curves

Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Luma Faik Jalil Khalil

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 203-221
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.3

This paper presents proposed method for detecting fake art by using B-Spline
curves. In this paper B-Spline curve is used with special technique helps to determine
the difference between the excellent copy and the real McCoy image. In the proposed
method B-Spline curves are created for the McCoy and the image in question as
digital print for these images. The number of defined control points, generated curves,
and the order of the polynomial segments of the generated B-spline curvesare an
important factors which determine the accuracy of detecting fake art.In order to
determine if the image in question is McCoy or not the detection process is executed
by comparing the function values of generated B-Spline curves of the excellent copy
(its digital print) with the function values of generated B-Spline curves of the McCoy
(its digital print).

Using of Pulsed Nd-Yag Laser in the Treatment of Thermal Spray by Aluminum and Diffusion Coating Phases of Low Alloy Steel

Abd Al- khalaq Fawzy Hamood

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 222-237
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.4

High power pulsed Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet-
(Nd– YAG)- laser with 1J power was used to fuse coatings containing a mixture of
FeAlO and Al. This mixture produced by aluminizing pack cementation treatment
and thermal spray of low alloy steel, That is for Studying the mechanical ,
surface and metallurgical properties for each coating system , and to make a
comparison before and after irradiation , and also the specified properties including
the coating thickness . Aluminum Coated samples were made by two advanced
techniques pack cementation and thermal spray methods in order to compare the
resulted coating layer properties before and after irradiation, and also to determine
the technique role from one hand ,also fusing effect and thermal residual stresses
role which resulted from irradiation in the variation of studied properties on the
other. Results showed that pack cementation coating layer has roughness, Micro
hardness and wear resistance higher than thermal spray coating layer. Irradiation
results was showed an improvement in studied properties, this was attributed to the
fusing, thermal residual stresses and laser rays role in refining the grains which are
in conjunction with finer microstructure . After irradiation a formation of a hard
phase (martensite) was recorded, this was attributed to the sufficient percentage of
carbon (0.4%) in the selected alloy, this was enshured by microstructure images
taken by optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed, for laser surface irradiated
coating layers, presence of the phase due to interaction between the base metal
constituents. A modification of coating phases composition could be concluded for
both coating techniques. Also the two techniques illustrate a formation of coating
layer with a different thickness.

A Recursive Algorithm to Hide Three Secret Images In One Image Using Wavelet Transform

Yasmin Muwafaq kassim

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 238-260
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.5

This paper presents an algorithm based on wavelet transform to hide three
secret colored or gray-scale images with different sizes in one colored cover
image. The algorithm takes level1 wavelet transformation for the cover image and
level2 wavelet transformation for the coefficients resultant from level1. The
algorithm begins to divide and transpose the secret images into multiple sub bands,
then imbedding them into the coefficient parts resulting from level2. The
embedding depends upon a variable threshold which begins with a very small
value. Here the algorithm ensures the embedding of all the pixels values of the sub
band, if it is not, the operation will be repeated with a larger threshold value until
all the pixels are embedded. Also the pixel's value will not be embedded directly,
the difference between the cover and the secret pixel value will be embedded
instead of it after some manipulation (mathematical operations). All of these
factors (divide and transpose the secret images, the variable threshold for each sub
band and changes on the embedded pixels) increase the robustness and quality of
the algorithm. The resultant stego image and the extracted secret images are very
close to the original one with high PSNR, high Correlation, low Normal Absolute
Error and low Maximum Difference.

Paths Planning for AL-Ramdi intercity road using gis tool

Maha O. Al-Mumaiz

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 265-281
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.7

Transportation planning process (find the best route) can be considered as a
strategic, important and complex issue in the same time, due to the need of collecting
information and analyzing data to obtain the optimum network (journey of shortest
route), ie.,minimizing time,coast, fuel, noise, and air pollution.
(GIS), the network should be analysis to find the best route based on shortest
distance with minimum time between the origin and destination of journey by using
software’s algorithm. Moreover, the ability of GIS to generate detailed directions along
the route, providing as-you-need-it solutions for common problems.
The algorithm divides the network into nodes (ie, start, and lines intersection) and
the paths between such nodes are represented by lines. In addition, each line has an
associated cost representing the cost (length or time) of each line in order to reach a
node. There are many possible paths between the origin and destination, but the path
calculated depends on which nodes are visited and in which order.
A case study of Al-Ramadi city is choosed for this study, it lies in the west part of
Al-Iraq; it’s the capital of Al Anbar Governorate and is situated at the intersection of
the Euphrates River and Al Warrar River’s Channel, northwest of Al-Habbaniyah
Lake. The city is 110 km west of Baghdad, 46 km west of Al-Fallujah, and 283 km
east of Al-Rutbah. It lies on the major paths to Syrian and Jordanian boarders, so it
occupies a strategic planning concern.
The objectives of this study is to find the shortest time (least cost path) between
zones of Al-Ramadi city, for that the city of Al-Ramadi is divided into (5) Traffic
Analysis Zones (TAZ), the centered of each zone is obtained in order to compute the
shortest time from the center of first zone (origin) to the center of second zone
The result of this study is a matrix,It shows the least time to travel between the 5
(TAZ), these results can be considered very important to implement Intelligent
Transportation System (ITS).

On the Use of Supervised Learning Method for Authorship Attribution

Walaa M. Khalaf

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 282-292
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.8

In this paper we investigate the use of a supervised learning method for the
authorship attribution that is for the identification of the author of a text. We
suggest a new, simple and efficient method, which is merely based on counting the
number of repetitions of each alphabetic letter in the text, instead of using the
traditional classification properties; such as the contents of the text and style of the
author; which falls into four feature categories: lexical, syntactic, structural, and
content-specific. Furthermore, we apply a spherical classification method.
We apply the proposed technique to the work of two Italian writers, Dante
Alighieri and Brunetto Latini. With almost high reliability, the spherical classifier
proved its ability to discriminate between the selected authors.
Finally the results are compared with those obtained by means of a standard
Support Vector Machine classifier.

Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Response of Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beam

AzizI brahimAbdulla; a A. Ali; Alya; Ahmed Adnan Ghanee

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 293-311
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.9

The study is conducted to perform two goals: The first geal is to produce a
lightweight concrete using major components which are locally available with
some standard admixtures.Many mixtures are prepared using many ratios of
superplasticizer (SP) and silica fume (SF) admixtures to yield a lightweight
aggregate concrete, the effects of using different ratios of these admixtures on unit
weight, compressive strength and flexural strength are studied individually and
accumulatively. The secondis to study the dynamic specifications of normal and
lightweight reinforced concrete beams.
The results showed that the increasing in dosage of superplasticizer (SP) for
(LWAC) increases the density of (LWAC), and the increasing in dosage of silica
fume (SF) decreases the density of (LWAC). The experimental impact tests for
R.C. beams shows that the lightweight R.C. beams have a better response under
impact loading with respect to the maximum dynamic deflection (2.955mm for
normal weight beam and 1.58mm for lightweight beam). Also,Impact force
transferred to supports reactions of lightweight beams is smaller within 45% than
the impact force transferred to reaction of normal weight concrete under the same
impact load, and the time to reach 90% damping equal to 1.223 sec and 1.6 sec for
lightweight and normalweight R.C. beams respectively. Also, the reinforced
concrete beams are tested under repeated impact load up to failure. The tests
showed that the no. of blows to cause first crack for lightweight concrete beams
more than twice of this for normalweight concrete beams.

Voltage Stability Study of the Iraqi Power Grid

Rashid H. Al-Rubayi; Humam A. Al-Baidhani

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 312-324
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.10

It has become an important task for many voltage stability studies to find a
voltage stability index. The voltage stability indices provide reliable information
about proximity of voltage instability in a power system. In this paper, the L
indicator has been proposed, which aims to detect the weakest load buses in the
electrical power networks. The L indicator has been checked by its application to
the (WSCC 9-bus and IEEE 14-bus) test systems. Finally, the proposed indicator
has been applied to the Iraqi power grid (400 kV) considering different
contingencies, such as lines outage, generated power reduction and loading
increase. The short computation time of this indicator and its efficient detection of
the weakest load buses in the Iraqi power grid, allow the operators to apply it in online
voltage stability monitoring based on measurements.

Applied Study to Demonstrate the Potential of the Work of the Refrigerator to Work as a Heat Recovery Device

Ali Abdul whaab Ismiael

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.11

The research includes an applied study and description of the possibility of
heat recovery from the superheated vapour in the discharge of compressor of a
demostic refrigerator for a purpose of using it in heating food, i.e. operating as a
heat pump. The modified design of refrigeration cycle in a order to as reverse the
flow of the refrigerant fluid in two way, the first includes a heat recovery coil &
solenoid valves, and the second the addition of a heat Recovery coil and a three
way reverse valve, and designing the electric cycles for both models.
The effect of this modification on the coefficient of performance in a partial
and total load operation were obtained. There has been an improvement in the
operation of cycle performance, while working as a heat pumps of (10%) more
than its refrigeration cycle only. This addition comes from the increase of sub -
cooling Liquid of refrigerant by (3 to up 6) Co. This has improved the extracted
heat in evaporator coil. The temperature of the heat cabinet may reach 60 Co and
it is a sufficient for heat the food. The effect of this modification on the rates of
pressure drop in tubes was found to be of little amount, and its effect on the
performance of the compressor may be negligible.

The Effect of Apigenin on Gram Positives and Negative Bacteria

Entessar H.Ali

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 18-23
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.12

The antibacterial effect of Apigenin was evaluated by an in vitro study testing
the growth of various Gram-Posative and Gram-Negative bacteria . The
bactericidal activity of this extract was analyzed by serial dilution in tubes. This
study,found that Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive bacteria susceptible to lower
Apigenin concentrations. On the other hand, Gram-Negative bacteria were more
susceptible than Gram-Positives bacteria, the minimal bactericidal concentration
of Gram-Negative bacteria was 2 mg ml-1 but minimal bactericidal concentration
of Gram-Positive bacteria was 4 mg ml-1 that mean doable inhibation
concentration of Gram-negative bacteria . This study suggest that Apigenin have
inhibation effect against Gram-Posative and Gram-Negative bacteria and
Apigenin was natural material found in Iraq and world with little side effect

The Traditional Vocabulary Changes and Realization of Identity Levels in Contemporary Architectural Products

Suha Hassan AL.Dahwi; Zainab Hussein Raouf; Ban Jelil Tahir

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 24-45
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.13

Every age has privacy in dealing with the architecture as a product
investigator of identity within a certain level, Identity is a system of thought
involved in its mechanisms utilization of the [Heritage] as an active force about the
architects creations, that reflect on the architects deal with heritage to create a
creation product have local embodied through engagement with the traditional
vocabulary according to subject these traditional items to the mechanics of change
[diversification mechanism, cultural borrowing mechanism, invention mechanism,
the experimentation mechanism].
It was found that all of these mechanisms coincide with a certain level of identity
within the four stages of identity transformation levels, namely, [the level of sensory
individual identity, sensory collective level identity, the level of moral individual
identity and finally "the level of moral collective identity] from here ... the problem
research had arisen of [the absence of an objective perception of the identity level
that investigate the creation product and what the relationship with the change
mechanism adopted on the traditional vocabulary].
The objective of this research is [reach to the objective perception of the
identity level that investigate the creation product and determine its relationship
with the change mechanism that subject vocabulary heritage]. The hypothesis of
research represented by [the various relationship between the changeable traditional
vocabulary and the verification of identity levels involved with levels of identity that
achieve creative products]. The research gets to various conclusions witch has been
summarized in to two items: first deals with traditional vocabulary and its
mechanical changes. And the second one involved with identity and its verification.

Use the Best Solution to Plan and Solve the Problem of Transportation for the Community Study "Eastern Company for Ready-Made Frozen Food"

Sufyan Monther salih

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 46-63
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.14

Focused on communities and nations out of date and the exchange of transport
problems to solve these problems through attention to planning for these deviations
that have occurred in transportation where he began to study transport planning and
attempting to simulate this problem through the use of the best way to solve the
transport problems which is a transfer of assets with similar materials (which center
is the production or marketing or other movement of goods it) to the endings
(which is the center or center of consumption demand or other goods sent to him)
the lowest costs or increase profits and less time as possible by standing on this
problem of the transport problem facing the company under study and represent the
sport through the planning work around this problem and the best ways relationship

Study the Effect of Vibration Speed on Corrosion Rate of Tow Steel Alloys X20 and X60

Mohammed Abdulateef Ahmed; Oday shaker

Engineering and Technology Journal, 2012, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 64-83
DOI: 10.30684/etj.30.2.15

A study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of mechanical vibrations on
the corrosion of steel pipelines for oil (x60, x20) in the corrosive medium is sea water
by using the traditional method of weight loss, where the test samples are cut cubic
forms and dimensions (10x10x10 mm3). And offered samples to the corrosive
solution (sodium chloride 3.5% NaCl) and called the term (sea water) in chemical
engineering and corrosion engineering fields. This medium would be static with
frequency (0 Hz), and vibrated with a five frequencies (5, 10, 15, 20& 25 Hz) and the
amplitude within the range of (0.0013-0.00088m) to be the speed of vibration within
the (0.00475-0.022), and for a test time (2hr.). These laboratory vibrations were
obtained from the design and manufacture of corrosion presence vibration instrument
according to U.S. global standard (ASTM G32). It was found that the speed of
vibration increase the corrosion rate of these alloys of (0.00073 gmd) at the speed (0)
to (0.00287 gmd) at the speed (0.022) for alloy X20, and (0.00195 gmd) at the speed
(0) to (0.00402 gmd) at the speed (0.022) for alloy X60. That is, the highest value
for the rate of corrosion is to alloy X60 at the speed of vibration (0.022), followed by
corrosion rate of alloy X20 at the same speed. When the speed of vibration was (0),
the corrosion rate of alloy X60 is also more of the corrosion rate of alloy X20.